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Is Type 2 Diabetes Insulin Dependent?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

The most common form of diabetes is called type 2, or non-insulin dependent diabetes. This is also called “adult onset” diabetes, since it typically develops after age 35. However, a growing number of younger people are now developing type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 are able to produce some of their own insulin. Often, it’s not enough. And sometimes, the insulin will try to serve as the “key” to open the body’s cells, to allow the glucose to enter. But the key won’t work. The cells won’t open. This is called insulin resistance. Often, type 2 is tied to people who are overweight, with a sedentary lifestyle. Treatment focuses on diet and exercise. If blood sugar levels are still high, oral medications are used to help the body use its own insulin more efficiently. In some cases, insulin injections are necessary. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>

Effect Of Cinnamon On Glucose And Lipid Levels In Non-insulin Dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Effect Of Cinnamon On Glucose And Lipid Levels In Non-insulin Dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of cinnamon on serum glucose and lipid levels in people with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty people with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus will be randomized to receive either cinnamon or placebo for three months. The dose of cinnamon will be one gram daily. Fasting serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and insulin levels will be measured at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months. HbA1c levels will be measured at baseline and at 3 months. Patients will be monitored for compliance, adverse effects, and dietary changes. Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 85 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Effect of Cinnamon on Glucose and Lipid Levels in Non-Insulin Dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Study Start Date : March 2005 Primary Completion Date : July 2007 Study Completion Date : July 2007 Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. Inclusion Criteria: Type 2 diabetes mellitus HbA1C > 6.0% Age 18 and above Able to obtain consent Exclusion Criteria: Currently taking insulin Pregnancy End-stage renal disease Hemolytic anemia Cinnamon intolerance Inability or unwillingness to adhere to study protocol Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or yo Continue reading >>

Common Questions About Type 2 Diabetes

Common Questions About Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body fails to properly use and store glucose. Instead of converting sugar into energy, it backs up in the bloodstream and causes a variety of symptoms. Type 2 (formerly called 'adult-onset' or 'non insulin-dependent') diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (this is also referred to as ‘insulin resistance’). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40 years of age, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly found in younger people. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a variety of factors: being overweight, being physically inactive, or your body’s inability to properly use the insulin it produces. In addition, those who have been previously identified as having impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are also at risk. What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes? People with type 2 diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include: being very thirsty frequent urination blurry vision irritability tingling or numbness in the hands or feet frequent skin, bladder or gum infections wounds that don't heal extreme unexplained fatigue In some cases of type 2 diabetes, there are no symptoms. In this case, people can live for months, even years, without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Who gets type 2 diabetes? Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overwei Continue reading >>

Type Ii Diabetes: Non Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Type Ii Diabetes: Non Insulin-dependent Diabetes

The term diabetes refers to higher than normal levels of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. Type II diabetes, also known as NON insulin-dependent diabetes, was commonly referred to as adult onset diabetes until recently when the name no longer accurately describes the population with this disease. Kids with type 2 diabetes Type II diabetes, in the past, was relegated to the adult population. However, in the new era of ever rising cases of childhood obesity and heart disease, the term adult onset diabetes is quickly becoming a misnomer. The number of children that are presenting to doctors with this disease is rising at epidemic rates. Unlike Type I diabetes, where there is little to no insulin being produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, in Type II diabetes there is plenty of insulin. The problem lies in the fact that the cells of the body no longer respond to the insulin. The normal response is to cause gates in the cell membranes to open and letting the sugar in from the blood stream. Since this is not occurring, the sugar levels in the blood remain extremely high and the cells are deprived of the necessary energy that they would normally derive from the sugar. Additionally, as Type II diabetes is sometimes not diagnosed for many years, the pancreas will sometimes stop producing insulin all together since the body sees no need to make something that can’t be used. Many professionals are prescribing changes in diet and increased activity levels as the medicine needed to help reverse some of the non-responsiveness of the cells to insulin. Making lifestyle changes can dramatically improve the overall health of the patient as well. To augment adjustments in nutrition and exercise, doctors can also prescribe diabetes medication which assists to increase the responsive Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Key Facts

Type 2 Diabetes: Key Facts

Type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus) is more common than type 1 diabetes. Around 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National 2014 Diabetes Statistics Report, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the US population have diabetes. This number reflects the 21 million who are currently diagnosed and another 8.1 million who do not even know they have diabetes. There are several key differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The most important difference is in the hormone insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin at all. People with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin, however the cells in the muscles, liver and fat tissue are inefficient at absorbing the insulin and regulating glucose. As a result, the body tries to compensate by having the pancreas pump out more insulin. But eventually the pancreas slowly loses the ability to produce enough insulin, and as a result the cells don’t get the energy they need. Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, meaning that the longer someone has it, the more “help” they will need to manage blood glucose levels. This will require more medications and eventually, injected insulin will be needed. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but their bodies don’t use it correctly; this is referred to as being insulin resistant. People with type 2 diabetes may also be unable to produce enough insulin to handle the gluco Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach and has two main functions: to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help us digest food to produce the hormone called insulin. Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body. Type 2 diabetes is caused by: insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas a resistance to the action of insulin in the body's cells – especially in muscle, fat and liver cells. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with being overweight, but it's less clear what causes it, compared to the Type 1 disease. Term watch Type 2 diabetes used to be called 'non-insulin dependent diabetes'. This is because insulin injections were not part of its treatment. As some people with Type 2 also now require insulin, the term Type 2 is preferred. In the first few years after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes high levels of insulin circulate in the blood because the pancreas can still produce the hormone. Eventually insulin production dwindles. For reasons we don't understand, the effect of insulin is also impaired. This means it doesn't have its normal effect on the cells of the body. This is called insulin resistance. What is insulin resistance? Insulin resistance has a number of knock-on effects: it causes high blood glucose it disturbs the fat levels in the blood, making the arteries of the heart more likely to clog (coronary heart disease) The insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in people with Type 2 diabetes don't seem to come under attack from the immune system as they do in Type 1. But they are still unable to cope with the need to produce a surge of insulin after a meal. Normally, this insulin surge causes the body to store excess glucose coming in and so keeps Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way. Type 2 diabetes can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in older adults. Family history and genes play a role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your chance of getting the disease. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes and is currently a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. This is likely to worsen, given the rapidly increasing prevalence of this condition; therefore, an understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is of considerable importance. By definition, patients with type 2 diabetes have neither autoimmune β cell destruction, as is found in type 1 diabetes, nor one of the other specific causes of diabetes described in Chapter 38. Type 2 diabetes is not a single disease process but instead represents a heterogeneous constellation of disease syndromes, all leading to the final common pathway of hyperglycemia. Many factors, alone or in combination, can cause hyperglycemia; thus, the complexity of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes reflects the heterogeneous genetic, pathologic, environmental, and metabolic abnormalities that can exist in different patients. Epidemiology Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the predominant form of diabetes worldwide, accounting for 90% of cases globally. An epidemic of T2DM is under way in both developed and developing countries, although the brunt of the disorder is felt disproportionately in non-European populations. In the Pacific island of Nauru, diabetes was virtually unknown 50 years ago and is now present in approximately 40% of adults. The IDF estimated in 2014 that 387 million people have diabetes worldwide and that by 2035 this number will rise to 592 million. Of those with diabetes currently, 77% live in low- and middle-income countries and 179 million are undiagnosed. These estimates are substantially greater than predicted even a decade ago, suggesting that the global epidemic is still progressing. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which sugar, or glucose, levels build up in your bloodstream. The hormone insulin helps move the sugar from your blood into your cells, which are where the sugar is used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells aren’t able to respond to insulin as well as they should. In later stages of the disease your body may also not produce enough insulin. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels, causing several symptoms and potentially leading to serious complications. In type 2 diabetes your body isn’t able to effectively use insulin to bring glucose into your cells. This causes your body to rely on alternative energy sources in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This is a chain reaction that can cause a variety of symptoms. Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include: constant hunger a lack of energy fatigue weight loss excessive thirst frequent urination dry mouth itchy skin blurry vision As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and potentially dangerous. If your blood sugar levels have been high for a long time, the symptoms can include: yeast infections slow-healing cuts or sores dark patches on your skin foot pain feelings of numbness in your extremities, or neuropathy If you have two or more of these symptoms, you should see your doctor. Without treatment, diabetes can become life-threatening. Diabetes has a powerful effect on your heart. Women with diabetes are twice as likely to have another heart attack after the first one. They’re at quadruple the risk of heart failure when compared to women without diabetes. Diabetes can also lead to complications during pregnancy. Diet is an imp Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic condition that develops when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when insulin fails to work properly, which is referred to as insulin resistance. Insulin is the hormone that stimulates cells to uptake glucose from the blood to use for energy. When this is the case, cells are not instructed by insulin to take up glucose from the blood, meaning the blood sugar level rises (referred to as hyperglycemia). People usually develop type 2 diabetes after the age of 40 years, although people of South Asian origin are at an increased risk of the condition and may develop diabetes from the age of 25 onwards. The condition is also becoming increasingly common among children and adolescents across all populations. Type 2 diabetes often develops as a result of overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity and diabetes prevalence is on the rise worldwide as these problems become more widespread. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetes cases (the other form being type 1 diabetes) and treatment approaches include lifestyle changes and the use of medication. Types of Diabetes Also known of as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes usually occurs in childhood or adolescence. In type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin. Patients have to be given the hormone, which is why the condition is also known of as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since it can be treated with lifestyle changes and/or types of medication other than insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes The increased blood glucose level seen in diabetes can eventually damage a person’s Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2

Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2

National Diabetes Month is coming to a close. Unfortunately, diabetes isn’t going away any time soon. According to the American Diabetes Association, 1.4 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes each year. And 86 million people in the United States with prediabetes are headed towards developing Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes isn’t unique to the United States: It’s a global issue, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many people describe diabetes as being a pandemic. When people are diagnosed with diabetes, they often have many questions, especially about the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. There are, in fact, multiple different forms of diabetes (too many to get into in this week’s posting!), but the more common forms are Type 1 and Type 2. Let’s take a look at these this week and hopefully clear up any confusion or questions you may have. Type 1 diabetes Name: Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as “juvenile diabetes” and “insulin-dependent diabetes.” These terms are inaccurate and obsolete. We know that it’s not just “juveniles” who get Type 1 diabetes — adults get Type 1, too, and many people who have Type 2 diabetes must take insulin. So, Type 1 diabetes is the correct term. Definition: Type 1 diabetes (also known as Type 1 diabetes mellutis, or T1DM) is an autoimmune condition. This means that the body’s immune system turns on itself; in this case, it attacks the beta cells of the pancreas. These are the cells that produce insulin. As a result, the pancreas produces very little, if any, insulin. Causes: Scientists don’t exactly know what causes Type 1 diabetes. However, it’s likely that genetics and environmental factors, such as certain types of viruses, play a role. Prevalence: Type 1 diabetes accounts Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. But type 2 diabetes in children is rising. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes-90 to 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn't able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency. How are these diseases different? Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease. Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines. It cannot be prevented. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy wei Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

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