Beneficial Effects Of Inorganic Nitrate/nitrite In Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications
Abstract Background and aim The ability of inorganic nitrate and nitrite to convert to nitric oxide (NO), and some of its properties e.g. regulation of glucose metabolism, vascular homeostasis, and insulin signaling pathway, have recently raised the hypothesis that inorganic nitrate and nitrite could be potential therapeutic agents in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we reviewed experimental and clinical studies investigating the effect of nitrate/nitrite administration on various aspects of type 2 diabetes. Studies showed that an altered metabolism of nitrate/nitrite and impaired NO pathway occurs in diabetes which could contribute to its complications. Some important beneficial properties, including regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling pathway, improvement of insulin resistance and vascular function, hypotensive, hypolipidemic as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects have been observed following administration of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. It seems that dietary nitrate/nitrite could be a compensatory fuel for a disrupted nitrate/nitrite/NO pathway and related disorders in diabetes. Although some beneficial properties of nitrate/nitrite have been reported by experimental investigations, long-term clinical studies with various doses of inorganic nitrate/nitrite supplementation, are recommended to confirm these effects. Introduction Inorganic nitrate and nitrite are both naturally occurring as well as food additive compounds in the human diet. Vegetables and other plant based foods are the most common sources of dietary intake of nitrate and contribute up to 85 % total dietary nitrate intake; green leafy vegetables including lettuce and spinach, cabbage, rocket, red beetroot, and radish have higher concentrations of nitrate . Drinking Continue reading >>
Objectives: 1) Know the normal constituents of uring (and the processes by which they become part of urine) 2) Identify and understand the significance of abnorma urine components. 3) Define specific gravity and understand the meaning of too high or too low urine specific gravity. Introduction Approximately 150 L of plasma are purified each day by glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption to produce 0.6 to 2.5 L of urine. The amount of urine produced is influenced by environmental temperature, fluid intake, time of day, emotional state, and many other factors. The composition of urine reveals much about body function. Metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide, urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium chloride, and ammonia are normally present and have no particular pathological significance. The presence of albumin (a protein), glucose, ketones, and various other substances, however, may indicate malfunction of the kidneys or some other organ of the body. In this exercise, you will have an opportunity to do some of the more routine tests that are performed in the analysis of a urine sample. For many of the tests, a Test Strip Method will be employed which utilizes specially prepared reagent test strips. These convenient test strips are designed primarily for patient use and physician office laboratories. The larger clinical laboratories generally use other methods for reasons of economy. Following a discussion of the normal constituents of urine will be a series of tests to detect the presence of abnormal substances. Students will perform the tests on their own urine sample. Normal constituents of urine Normal urine is actually a highly complex aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances. The majority of the constituents are either was Continue reading >>
Insulin, hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu, who was working independently and called the substance “pancrein.” After Banting and Best isolated insulin, they began work to obtain a purified extract, which they accomplished with the help of Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod and Canadian chemist James B. Collip. Banting and Macleod shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin. Proinsulin is relatively inactive, and under normal conditions only a small amount of it is secreted. In the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells the proinsulin molecule is cleaved in two places, yielding the A and B chains of insulin and an intervening, biologically inactive C peptide. The A and B chains become linked together by two sulfur-sulfur (disulfide) bonds. Proinsulin, insulin, and C peptide are stored in granules in the beta cells, from which they are released into the capillaries of the islets in response to appropriate stimuli. These capillaries empty into the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestines, and pancrea Continue reading >>
Insulin is a small peptide (protein) consisting of fifty-one amino acids synthesized and stored within the pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach. The protein itself consists of two chains, denoted A and B, linked by disulfide (sulfur-sulfur) bridges between cysteine residues (see Figure 1). Insulin is a hormone, a chemical transported in the blood that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs in the body. When blood sugar levels rise following a meal, the pancreas is stimulated to release insulin into the bloodstream. In order for tissues to absorb glucose from the blood, they must first bind insulin. Glucose metabolism is necessary for cell growth and energy needs associated with cell function. When insulin binds to receptors on cell membranes, glucose transporter proteins are released from within the cell to the surface of the cell membrane. Once on the exterior surface of cells, glucose transporters can carry sugar from the blood into the tissue where it is metabolized. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb glucose and effectively starve. A deficiency in insulin production results in a condition called diabetes mellitus. Approximately 6.2 percent of the population in the United States is affected with diabetes. Type 1 diabetics account for 10 percent of those individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus. It is also known as juvenile diabetes and generally develops in young people, typically between the ages of ten and fifteen years, as a result of an autoimmune disorder. Why the body's immune system turns on itself, attacking and destroying beta cells, the pancreatic cells in which insulin is synthesized, is not clear. The unfortunate consequence is insulin deficiency. The majority of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus suffer f Continue reading >>
Here you will find a cross-section of the studies carried out on the high-resolution powder diffraction beamline. Experiments were carried out on ID22 (since 2014), and ID31 (2002 - 2013). Examples come from: There have been many crystallographic studies using ID31. An example of note is the recent study of Ba3NaRu2O9 as a function of temperature . This material has a quasimolecular structure with Ru5.5+2O9 dimers in a hexagonal perovskite structure with hexagonal (P63/mmc) symmetry at room temperature in which all Ru sites are equivalent. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show a first-order transition at 210 K to a reportedly C-centred orthorhombic structure consistent with the opening of a charge or spin gap. ID31 measurements however resolved additional splitting of peaks (figure 1) showing the true structure to be monoclinic, with the appearence of weak reflections indicating the space group to be P2/c. There are two symmetry inequivalent charge-ordered Ru5+2O9 and Ru6+2O9 dimers, (the oxidation states assessed from Ru – Ru distances, the magnetic behaviour, and theoretical modelling). Below 40 K, lattice parameters derived from ID31 and neutron diffraction differ significantly, and it transpires that the high X-ray flux causes a further electronic transition to a charge-disordered state with only one Ru site (space group C2/c). At 10 K the transformation is quite rapid, with an exponential time constant of 78 s, which could be followed by rapid scans on ID31. The energy balance between the “charge-melted” and charge-ordered states is evidently quite delicate; the P2/c ordered state is recovered on warming to above 40 K, including recovery of the microstrain. Figure 1. (left), splitting and peak broadening in Ba3NaRu2O9 on cooling to the charge-ordered m Continue reading >>
Bulk Food Grade FG and USP United States Pharmacopoeia Available Packaging: 1 kg-2.2 pounds, 2 kg-4.4 pounds, 25 kg-55 pound bags or bulk 1 metric ton (2,200 pound) tote bags. Storage: Keep in a cool dry location. The drum should be kept closed when not in use. Exposure to high humidity and temperature is not recommended. Stability: Up to 2 years under these conditions. Dietary Supplement Information Activity Analysis: FG / USP Grade Active Ingredient..…..................1000 ppm Chromium Total Plate Count..…...................1000 mcg/per gram/min Candida Albicans ....................... Negative (Verified by DNA Fingerprinting) Coliform.......................................Negative E. coli...........................................Negative Staphylococcus aureus...............Negative Salmonella...................................Negative Educational Information Food Grade Yeasts (of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are widely used in Beer and Wine Brewing, Baking of foods such as bread and cookies and in Feeding of humans and animals. It is very important to emphasize that yeast are able to naturally metabolize inorganic minerals into organic forms, similar to what plants do. Plants do the conversion for us taking the minerals from the soil. Mineral enriched yeasts do this by taking the minerals from enriched molasses providing one of the best natural food forms of minerals human can consume. Furthermore, yeast have an excellent storage mechanism for B-vitamins , as do other organisms, for factors needed for growth and life. Yeast is a naturally rich source of proteins, minerals and B-complex vitamins. Not only does mineral enriched yeast offer a natural form of mineral, it also provides other nutrients when consumed. Chromium enriched yeast helps to normalize blood suga Continue reading >>
What Are The Reasons Carbon Dioxide Is An Inorganic Compound?
Generally, compounds containing carbon are organic. However, a few very simple carbon compounds are cosidered inorganic, including carbon dioxide. Interestingly, the amide derived from carbon dioxide, urea, is considered organic. Although there are some more or less clever definitions of the term ‘organic’ in chemistry, the distinction is traditional. It originated from the idea that organic compounds can only be synthesized by living organisms, which were believed to have a vital force (vis vitalis). Urea was considered organic because it is excreted by mammals (it is formed in the liver). The idea of a vital force was refuted by the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882) who synthesized urea from ammonium cyanate, the latter being considered inorganic. Continue reading >>
Interaction Of Insulin-enhancing Vanadium Compounds With Human Serum Holo-transferrin
‡ Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia and Centro Interdisciplinare per lo Sviluppo della Ricerca Biotecnologica e per lo Studio della Biodiversità della Sardegna, Università di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari, Italy This paper was published on the Web on October 3, 2013, with minor text errors throughout the paper. The corrected version was reposted on October 4, 2013. Synopsis The interaction of VIVO2+ ion and VIVO insulin-enhancing compounds with holo-hTf (saturated with Fe3+ ions in the specific metal binding sites) suggests the presence of nonspecific sites C on the protein surface and the formation of cis-VOL2(holo-hTf) species, with L = ma, dhp, and pic, with the equatorial coordination of an accessible His-N. The formation of such complexes may be a way for the transport of vanadium compounds in the cells. Abstract The interaction of VO2+ ion and four insulin-enhancing compounds, [VO(ma)2], [VO(dhp)2], [VO(acac)2], and cis-[VO(pic)2(H2O)], where Hma, Hdhp, Hacac, and Hpic are maltol, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinone, acetylacetone, and picolinic acid, with holo-transferrin (holo-hTf) was studied through the combined application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. Since in holo-hTf all of the specific binding sites of transferrin are saturated by Fe3+ ions, VO2+ can interact with surface sites (here named sites C), probably via the coordination of His-N, Asp-COO–, and Glu-COO– donors. In the ternary systems with the insulin-enhancing compounds, mixed species are observed with Hma, Hdhp, and Hpic with the formation of VOL2(holo-hTf), explained through the interaction of cis-[VOL2(H2O)] (L = ma, dhp) or cis-[VOL2(OH)]− (L = pic) with an accessible His residue that replaces the monodentate H2O o Continue reading >>
Example Of Organic Compound
Organic compounds are quite simply any molecule that contains carbon atoms. Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of For example, a carbonyl compound can be used as a nucleophile by converting it An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that Many organic compounds—two examples are ethanol and insulin—are manufactured industrially using . Following are the examples in this How to name alcohols: Alcohols are organic compounds that include the -hydroxyl functional group, that is a part consisting of an oxygen atom (attached to unbranched) configuration then the number of carbon atoms is indicated according to the same system as used for naming alkanes (see the examples listed in the At one time, chemists believed that organic compounds were fundamentally different from those that were inorganic because organic compounds contained a vital force that was only found in Methane is an example of a general rule that carbon is tetravalent; it forms a total of four bonds in almost all of its compounds. Crude oil is a mixture of many compounds. ABOUT. Francis August 10, 2014. Inorganic compounds are compounds which do not contain carbon and are not derived from living matter. loading. There are numerous examples of organic chemistry in the world around you. Typically, the DNA of an organism is altered to express compounds not ordinarily produced by the organism. Support. though not everything is an organic compound. Every time you put Organic compounds are found all around us as they form the basis of many products that we use today. There are several common examples of organic compounds which we can observe in our surroundings. Check out these examples of organic compounds. Sep 15, 2017 Organic and inorganic compounds are t Continue reading >>
Is Mercury Exposure Causing Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome And Insulin Resistance? A Systematic Review Of The Literature.
Environmental research 2017 05 05156() 747-760 pii S0013-9351(17)30325-0 Abstract INTRODUCTION Several populations are exposed to mercury (Hg) via their environment, occupation or diet. It is hypothesized that Hg exposure can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is also a possible outcome as its symptoms are closely linked to those of DM. METHOD We conducted a systematic review of the literature by screening Web of Science, MEDLINE, SciFinder and Embase and we included original studies pertaining to the relationship of total Hg exposure (elemental, inorganic or organic) to DM, MS or insulin resistance. The studies were selected based on the PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes and study design) criteria and their quality assessed using a nine-point scale. Study characteristics and results were extracted and presented in structured tables. We also extracted covariates entered as confounding factors to evaluate possible biases in selected studies. Finally, a weight of evidence approach was used to assess the causality of the relationship. RESULTS A total of 34 studies were included in the present review. Epidemiological data assessment suggests a possible association between total Hg concentrations in different biological matrices and incidence of DM or MS, but the relationship is not consistent. In vivo and in vitro studies support the biological plausibility of the relation between Hg exposure and DM or MS. Five out of nine of Bradford Hill’s criteria were fulfilled: strength, temporality, plausibility, coherence and analogy. CONCLUSION Increased total Hg exposure may augment the risk of DM and MS, but the lack of consistency of the epidemiological evidence prevents inference of a causal relationship. Additional pro Continue reading >>
- Type 1 Diabetes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
- Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
- Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
Natural And Biomimetic Materials For The Detection Of Insulin
Abstract Microgravimetric sensors have been developed for detection of insulin by using quartz crystal microbalances as transducers, in combination with sensitive layers. Natural antibodies as coatings were compared with biomimetic materials to fabricate mass-sensitive sensors. For this purpose polyurethane was surface imprinted by insulin, which acts as a synthetic receptor for reversible analyte inclusion. The sensor responses for insulin give a pronounced concentration dependence, with a detection limit down to 1 μg/mL and below. Selectivity studies reveal that these structured polymers lead to differentiation between insulin and glargine. Moreover, antibody replicae were generated by a double imprinting process. Thus, biological recognition capabilities of immunoglobulins are transferred to synthetic polymers. In the first step, natural-immunoglobulin-imprinted nanoparticles were synthesized. Subsequently, these templated particles were utilized for creating positive images of natural antibodies on polymer layers. These synthetic coatings, which are more robust than natural analogues, can be produced in large amount. These biomimetic sensors are useful in the biotechnology of insulin monitoring. Continue reading >>
Effects Of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure On Glucose Transporters And Insulin Receptor In The Hippocampus Of C57bl/6 Male Mice
Highlights • Arsenic exposure decreases mRNA levels of glucose transporters 1 and 3 in the hippocampus. • Arsenic exposure increases mRNA levels of insulin receptor in the hippocampus. Abstract Children and adolescent populations chronically exposed to high doses of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water in some regions around the world have shown behavioral and memory deficits. Recent studies have also associated iAs exposure with dysregulation of glucose metabolism. The hippocampus is a cerebral region well known for its role in learning and memory. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the hippocampus is vulnerable to iAs exposure, and to changes in glucose metabolism. The glucose transporters (GLUTs) and insulin receptor (IR) regulate glucose metabolism in brain; they are expressed by hippocampal cells, and alterations in these proteins have been associated with memory deficits. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of iAs exposure via drinking water (DW) on GLUT1, GLUT3 and insulin receptor (INSR) mRNA expression in the hippocampus, on performance in a spatial memory task, and on peripheral glucose regulation. C57Bl/6 male mice were exposed to 50 mg iAs/L via DW for one, two, or three months. The qRT-PCR analyses indicated that, compared to a control group, GLUT1 and GLUT3 mRNA levels were decreased, while INSR mRNA levels were increased in the hippocampus of iAs exposed animals. The levels of iAs and its methylated species in the hippocampus of the iAs-exposed group were significantly higher than in controls. Mice exposed to iAs learned the spatial task but showed increased latency to find the submerged platform 48 h after the last training session; these animals also showed dysregulation of peripheral glucose. These results suggest tha Continue reading >>
Vanadium Compounds As Insulin Mimics.
Abstract That vanadium compounds act in an insulin-mimetic fashion both in vitro and in vivo has been well established. Both inorganic and organic vanadium compounds have been shown to lower plasma glucose levels, increase peripheral glucose uptake, improve insulin sensitivity, decrease plasma lipid levels, and normalize liver enzyme activities in a variety of animal models of both type I and type II diabetes. Vanadium treatment of diabetic animals does not restore plasma insulin levels but may spare pancreatic insulin. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action and potentiation of vanadium's insulin-mimetic effect by appropriate ligand binding would seem to be the highest priorities for future investigation. Continue reading >>
Structure And Composition Of Insulin Fibril Surfaces Probed By Ters
Abstract Amyloid fibrils associated with many neurodegenerative diseases are the most intriguing targets of modern structural biology. Significant knowledge has been accumulated about the morphology and fibril-core structure recently. However, no conventional methods could probe the fibril surface despite its significant role in the biological activity. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) offers a unique opportunity to characterize the surface structure of an individual fibril due to a high depth and lateral spatial resolution of the method in the nanometer range. Herein, TERS is utilized for characterizing the secondary structure and amino acid residue composition of the surface of insulin fibrils. It was found that the surface is strongly heterogeneous and consists of clusters with various protein conformations. More than 30% of the fibril surface is dominated by β-sheet secondary structure, further developing Dobson’s model of amyloid fibrils (Jimenez et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2002, 99, 9196–9201). The propensity of various amino acids to be on the fibril surface and specific surface secondary structure elements were evaluated. β-sheet areas are rich in cysteine and aromatic amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, whereas proline was found only in α-helical and unordered protein clusters. In addition, we showed that carboxyl, amino, and imino groups are nearly equally distributed over β-sheet and α-helix/unordered regions. Overall, this study provides valuable new information about the structure and composition of the insulin fibril surface and demonstrates the power of TERS for fibril characterization. Continue reading >>
- Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE)
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
- Only 2 Ingredients and You Can Say Goodbye to Diabetes Forever! No More Medications and Insulin!!!
Effect Of Zinc Imprinting And Replacing Inorganic Zinc With Organic Zinc On Early Performance Of Broiler Chicks
The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a zinc (Zn) deficient diet to broiler chicks for 96 h post-hatch followed by feeding diets with different Zn sources and supplemental levels (5 to 21 d) on the growth performance, tissue, and excreta Zn content. At the start of the study, four hundred 20-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn soybean meal based diet containing 25 mg of Zn/kg (imprinting diet, ID). The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn/kg from Zn oxide (ZnO) (non-imprinting diet, NID). Both groups were fed these diets for 96 h. At d 5, chicks from each group were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments consisting of the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 8 or 40 mg/kg Zn as ZnO or Zn proteinate. Main effects of post-hatch Zn ID were observed on feed intake and G:F. ID decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and improved (P < 0.05) the gain to feed ratio (G:F) of 14 and 21 d old chicks compared to G:F of chicks fed NID. Additionally, G:F for 14 and 21 d was improved (P < 0.05) by interaction of Zn source × level. Furthermore, at d 21 chicks fed the ID had a lower (P < 0.05) Zn content in the tibia ash and excreta, and a higher (P < 0.05) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared to chicks fed NID. These results suggest that Zn imprinting can affect body Zn stores and early performance. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with different levels of fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FGBL) on growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality, antioxidant enzyme capacity, and free radical scavenging activities of muscles in broiler chickens. A total of 648 one-d-old broiler chickens were randomly alloca Continue reading >>