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Is Insulin Dependent Diabetes Type 1 Or 2?

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use sugar. It affects the body's ability to use glucose, a type of sugar found in the blood, as fuel. This happens because the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not correctly respond to insulin to use glucose as energy. Insulin is a type of hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate how blood sugar becomes energy. An imbalance of insulin or resistance to insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs. There is type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They have different causes and risk factors, and different lines of treatment. This article will compare the similarities and differences of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, having gestational diabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so patients are often screened for type 2 diabetes at a later date. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1. For every person with type 1 diabetes, 20 will have type 2. Type 2 can be hereditary, but excess weight, a lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet increase At least a third of people in the U.S. will develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Both types can lead to heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and possible amputation of limbs. Causes In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These cells are destro Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Type 1

Diabetes - Type 1

Description An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes. Alternative Names Type 1 diabetes; Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile diabetes Highlights Type 1 Diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is involved in regulating how the body converts sugar (glucose) into energy. People with type 1 diabetes need to take daily insulin shots and carefully monitor their blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes. It accounts for 5 - 10% of all diabetes cases. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it usually first develops in childhood or adolescence. Symptoms of Diabetes Symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger Sudden weight loss Extreme fatigue Irritability Blurred vision In general, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes come on more abruptly and are more severe than those of type 2 diabetes. Warning Signs of Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) occurs when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall below normal. All patients with diabetes should be aware of these symptoms of hypoglycemia: Sweating Trembling Hunger Rapid heartbeat Confusion It is important to quickly treat hypoglycemia and raise blood sugar levels by eating sugar, sucking on hard candy, or drinking fruit juice. Patients who are at risk for hypoglycemia should carry some sugar product, or an emergency glucagon injection kit, in case an attack occurs. In rare and worst cases, hypoglycemia can lead to coma and death. Regular blood sugar monitoring throughout the day can help you avoid hypoglycemia. Patients are also encouraged to wear a medical alert ID bracelet or necklace that states they have diabetes and that they take insulin. Pati Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Sort Complications: Patients with DM have Ophthalmologic disease unrelated to diabetic retinopathy (e.g., cataracts, glaucoma, corneal abrasions, optic neuropathy); hepatobiliary diseases(e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [steatosis and steatohepatitis], cirrhosis, gallstones); and dermatologic disease (e.g., tinea infections, lower extremity ulcers, diabetic dermopathy, diabeticscleroderma, vitiligo, granuloma annulare, Insulin secretion Insulin secretion in beta cells is triggered by rising blood glucose levels. Starting with the uptake of glucose by the GLUT2 transporter, the glycolytic phosphorylation of glucose causes a rise in the ATP:ADP ratio. This rise inactivates the potassium channel that depolarizes the membrane, causing the calcium channel to open up allowing calcium ions to flow inward. The ensuing rise in levels of calcium leads to the exocytotic release of insulin from their storage granule. Insulin: Polypeptide hormone; cannot be swallowed • Injected S.C. (Or IV if needed: regular only) • Secretion triggered by blood glucose • Source: E. coli or Baker's Yeast • Insulin preparations vary by onset of action and duration of activity. • Inactivated by liver and kidney • ADRs: hypoglycemia, weight gain, allergy • Types: Rapid, short, intermediate, long-acting • Standard treatment: BID • Intensive treatment: 3 or more times a day • Insulin combinations Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

The majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. This is a disease where there are two different deficits. The body is not making enough insulin, and the body is resistant to the effects of the insulin that it does make. Type 2 diabetes typically affects older individuals. Most people with type 2 have a genetic risk that's aggravated by lifestyle issues such as lack of activity or dietary habits. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The body basically turns against its own pancreas and the cells that make insulin are no longer functional. So, these individuals always rely on insulin for treatment as opposed to type 2 patients, who can respond very successfully to pills or a combination of insulin and pills. Trinity Health is a Catholic health care organization that acts in accordance with the Catholic tradition and does not condone or support all practices covered in this site. In case of emergency call 911. This site is educational and not a substitute for professional medical advice, always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider. Type 1 diabetes is, like type 2, a disease of high blood sugar, but there are some differences. In this video, endocrinologist Athena Philis-Tsimikas, MD, of Scripps Health, explains how type 2 diabetes differs in its symptoms and treatment. Diabetes is marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Most of the 24 million Americans with this condition have type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin (the hormone made by the pancreas that enables cells to draw sugar from the blood for energy) and does not produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance. Although the exact cause of type 2 diabetes isn't clear, one thing is certain: excess body fat is the No. 1 risk factor. T Continue reading >>

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

Onset of diabetes in childhood with ketoacidosis and insulin dependency has traditionally been sufficient to diagnose type 1 diabetes, while onset in older, obese patients with primary insulin resistance suggested type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may be present in the same patient, making differentiation difficult. No diagnostic studies in the literature were identified that definitively demonstrate how to separate type 1 from type 2 diabetes. A patient’s age may suggest, but does not reliably distinguish, diabetes types. A study of 569 new-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetic children and adolescents showed that older age was only weakly associated with type 2 diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]= 1.4 for each 1-year increment in age; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–1.6).2 In fact, newly diagnosed 12-year-old children have an equal incidence of type 1 as type 2 diabetes. Likewise, adults with type 2 phenotype (no initial insulin requirement) can present with positive autoantibodies typically found in younger type 1 patients. Older patients who fit this profile have been classified as type 1.5 diabetes or latent autoimmune disease in adults (LADA).3 A history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) also does not reliably distinguish between types 1 and 2. A retrospective chart review gathered data on adults over 18 years of age who were admitted for DKA in a urban US hospital. Many patients with DKA were subsequently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Rates of type 2 diabetes in patients with DKA varied by race: 47% of Hispanics, 44% of African Americans, and 17% of Caucasians had type 2 diabetes.4 The overlapping presence of autoantibodies in both types of diabetes limits their use (TABLE). Autoantibodies do predict an earlier need for insulin. One pr Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Which One Is Worse?

What are the differences between the causes of type 1 and type 2? The underlying causes of type 1 and type 2 are different. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is believed to be due to an autoimmune process, in which the body's immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues (islet cells in the pancreas). In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas that are responsible for insulin production are attacked by the misdirected immune system. This tendency for the immune system to destroy the beta cells of the pancreas is likely to be, at least in part, genetically inherited, although the exact reasons that this process happens are not fully understood. Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins have been suggested as possible reasons why the abnormal antibody responses develop that cause damage to the pancreas cells. The primary problem in type 2 diabetes is the inability of the body's cells to use insulin properly and efficiently, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and diabetes. This problem affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that worsens the process of elevated blood sugars. At the beginning, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can at least partially increase production of insulin enough to overcome the level of resistance. Over time, if production decreases and enough insulin cannot be released, blood sugar levels rise. In many cases this actually means the pancreas produces larger than normal quantities of insulin, but the body is not able to use it effectively. A major feature of type 2 diabetes is a lack of sensitivity to insulin by the ce Continue reading >>

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

University of Gondar, Ethopia *Corresponding Author: Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes Lecturer Clinical Chemistry University of Gondar, Gondar Amhara 196, Ethiopia Tel: +251910818289 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Baynes HW (2015) Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:541. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000541 Copyright: © 2015 Baynes HW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia either immune-mediated (Type 1 diabetes), insulin resistance (Type 2), gestational or others (environment, genetic defects, infections, and certain drugs). According to International Diabetes Federation Report of 2011 an estimated 366 million people had DM, by 2030 this number is estimated to almost around 552 million. There are different approaches to diagnose diabetes among individuals, The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of DM focus on fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), while WHO focuses on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). This is importance for regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Diagnosis; Glycemic management Abbreviations DM: Diabetes Mellitus; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase; GDM: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; HDL-cholesterol: High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; HLA: Human Leucoid Antigen; IDD Continue reading >>

Concordance For Type 1 (insulin-dependent) And Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus In A Population-based Cohort Of Twins In Finland

Concordance For Type 1 (insulin-dependent) And Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus In A Population-based Cohort Of Twins In Finland

Summary We studied the cumulative incidence, concordance rate and heritability for diabetes mellitus in a nationwide cohort of 13,888 Finnish twin pairs of the same sex. The twins were born before 1958 and both co-twins were alive in 1967. Data on diabetes were derived through computerized record linkage from death certificates, the National Hospital Discharge Register and the National Drug Register. Records were reviewed in order to assign a diagnostic category to the 738 diabetic patients identified. Of these patients 109 had Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, 505 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, 46 gestational diabetes, 24 secondary diabetes, 38 impaired glucose tolerance and 16 remained unclassified. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 1.4 % in men and 1.3 % in women aged 28–59 years and 9.3 % and 7.0 % in men and women aged 60 years and over, respectively. The cumulative incidence did not differ between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The concordance rate for Type 1 diabetes was higher among monozygotic (23 % probandwise and 13 % pairwise) than dizygotic twins (5 % probandwise and 3 % pairwise). The probandwise and pairwise concordance rates for Type 2 diabetes were 34% and 20% among monozygotic tiwns and 16% and 9 % in dizygotic twins, respectively. Heritability for Type 1 diabetes was greater than that for Type 2 where both genetic and environmental effects seemed to play a significant role. Continue reading >>

3 Types Of Diabetes

3 Types Of Diabetes

More than 10 percent of U.S. women over the age of 20 have diabetes, and many of these cases are undiagnosed, according to the American Diabetes Association. Having diabetes not only affects the way you live your day-to-day life but can increase your risks for a number of other health conditions, especially if it goes untreated. There are three main types of diabetes—type 1, type 2 and gestational—and each can affect your body in different ways and may require different treatments. Here's some basic information about each one. Type 1 Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes and previously known as juvenile diabetes, is a condition in which the pancreas doesn't produce enough—or any—insulin. Insulin is a hormone that your body needs to let sugar (glucose) into your cells to produce energy. Type 1 diabetes usually develops during childhood or adolescence, but it can occur in adults. If you notice that you feel very thirsty, urinate frequently, feel extremely hungry, are losing weight, feel fatigued or experience blurred vision, talk to your health care provider. These can all be symptoms of diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need insulin therapy. Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In this type, your body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use it properly. Initially, your pancreas may make extra insulin, but over time it can't make enough to keep up. Without insulin to bring glucose to your cells for energy, too much glucose can build up in the blood, which can starve your cells of energy and result in a number of problems over time. Symptoms are similar to type 1 diabetes, though sometimes milder. Weight loss is not a symptom of type 2, but tingling or numbness in the hands or feet may be. If you have t Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Main Document Diabetes is referred to by the medical world as, 'Diabetes Mellitus,' and is a set of diseases where the person's body is unable to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. The particular form of sugar that the person with diabetes is unable to regulate is called, 'glucose,' and is used in the body to give the person energy in order to do things in daily life such as walking, running, riding a bike, exercising, or other tasks. From food that people eat, the liver produces glucose and puts it into their blood. In persons without diabetes, glucose levels are regulated by a number of hormones including one known as, 'Insulin.' An organ called the, 'Pancreas,' produces insulin, and also secretes additional enzymes which aid in the digestion of food. Insulin helps the movement of glucose through a person's blood into different cells, including muscle, fat, and liver cells so it can be used to fuel activity. Several forms of diabetes involve the inability to both produce or use insulin properly. Persons with diabetes are unable to move glucose from their blood into their cells. The result is that the glucos Continue reading >>

Concordance For Type 1 (insulin-dependent) And Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus In A Population-based Cohort Of Twins In Finland.

Concordance For Type 1 (insulin-dependent) And Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) Diabetes Mellitus In A Population-based Cohort Of Twins In Finland.

Abstract We studied the cumulative incidence, concordance rate and heritability for diabetes mellitus in a nationwide cohort of 13,888 Finnish twin pairs of the same sex. The twins were born before 1958 and both co-twins were alive in 1967. Data on diabetes were derived through computerized record linkage from death certificates, the National Hospital Discharge Register and the National Drug Register. Records were reviewed in order to assign a diagnostic category to the 738 diabetic patients identified. Of these patients 109 had Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, 505 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, 46 gestational diabetes, 24 secondary diabetes, 38 impaired glucose tolerance and 16 remained unclassified. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 1.4% in men and 1.3% in women aged 28-59 years and 9.3% and 7.0% in men and women aged 60 years and over, respectively. The cumulative incidence did not differ between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. The concordance rate for Type 1 diabetes was higher among monozygotic (23% probandwise and 13% pairwise) than dizygotic twins (5% probandwise and 3% pairwise). The probandwise and pairwise concordance rates for Type 2 diabetes were 34% and 20% among monozygotic twins and 16% and 9% in dizygotic twins, respectively. Heritability for Type 1 diabetes was greater than that for Type 2 where both genetic and environmental effects seemed to play a significant role. Continue reading >>

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2

Tweet Whilst both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterised by having higher than normal blood sugar levels, the cause and development of the conditions are different. Confused over which type of diabetes you have? It's not always clear what type of diabetes someone has, despite what many people think. For instance, the typical assumption is that people with type 2 diabetes will be overweight and not inject insulin, while people with type 1 diabetes will be, if anything, underweight. But these perceptions just aren't always true. Around 20% of people with type 2 diabetes are of a healthy weight when diagnosed, and many of them are dependent on insulin. Similarly, people with type 1 diabetes will in some cases be overweight. Because both types of diabetes can be so varied and unpredictable, it's often difficult to know which type of diabetes someone has. It's not safe to assume that an overweight person with high blood glucose levels has type 2 diabetes, because the cause of their condition might in fact be attributable to type 1. In some cases, when the type of diabetes is in doubt, your health team may need to carry out specialised tests to work out which type of diabetes you have. This way, they can recommend the most appropriate treatment for your diabetes. Common differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Despite the uncertainty that often surrounds a diagnosis of diabetes, there are a few common characteristics of each diabetes type. Please note that these differences are based on generalisations - exceptions are common. For instance, the perception of type 1 diabetes isn't strictly true: many cases are diagnosed in adulthood. This table should be seen as a rough guide to the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, rather than hard and fast rules. Co Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic condition that develops when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when insulin fails to work properly, which is referred to as insulin resistance. Insulin is the hormone that stimulates cells to uptake glucose from the blood to use for energy. When this is the case, cells are not instructed by insulin to take up glucose from the blood, meaning the blood sugar level rises (referred to as hyperglycemia). People usually develop type 2 diabetes after the age of 40 years, although people of South Asian origin are at an increased risk of the condition and may develop diabetes from the age of 25 onwards. The condition is also becoming increasingly common among children and adolescents across all populations. Type 2 diabetes often develops as a result of overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity and diabetes prevalence is on the rise worldwide as these problems become more widespread. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetes cases (the other form being type 1 diabetes) and treatment approaches include lifestyle changes and the use of medication. Types of Diabetes Also known of as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes usually occurs in childhood or adolescence. In type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin. Patients have to be given the hormone, which is why the condition is also known of as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since it can be treated with lifestyle changes and/or types of medication other than insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes The increased blood glucose level seen in diabetes can eventually damage a person’s Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

What Do They Have in Common? Abstract Type 1 and type 2 diabetes frequently co-occur in the same families, suggesting common genetic susceptibility. Such mixed family history is associated with an intermediate phenotype of diabetes: insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications in type 1 diabetic patients and lower BMI and less cardiovascular complications as well as lower C-peptide concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients. GAD antibody positivity is more common in type 2 diabetic patients from mixed families than from common type 2 diabetes families. The mixed family history is associated with more type 1–like genetic (HLA and insulin gene) and phenotypic characteristics in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in the GAD antibody–positive subgroup. Leaving out the extreme ends of diabetes phenotypes, young children progressing rapidly to total insulin deficiency and strongly insulin-resistant subjects mostly with non-Europid ethnic origin, a large proportion of diabetic patients may have both type 1 and type 2 processes contributing to their diabetic phenotype. Diabetes in most cases is caused by a loss of the physical or functional β-cell mass, mostly due to an autoimmune process (type 1 etiological process) and/or increased need for insulin due to insulin resistance (type 2 process) (1). Both of these major diabetes types are believed to include different stages of disease, ranging from non–insulin-requiring to insulin-requiring for control or survival. According to this classification adopted by the World Health Organization, it is quite possible that both processes would operate in a single patient and contribute to the phenotype of the patient. Also, factors other than autoimmunity can lead to a defective insulin response to glucose. Both major diab Continue reading >>

Types 1 And 2 Diabetes: A Comparison And Contrast

Types 1 And 2 Diabetes: A Comparison And Contrast

Paragraph 1 Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or when cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Diabetes can be classified according to two types; Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Approximately, 14 million Americans (about five percent of the population) have some form of diabetes. In the United States, diabetes almost causes 200,000 deaths every year ("Diabetes", 2001). Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), usually affects people who are under 30. In contrast, type 2 diabetes, also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), affects people who are usually over 40 (Thomas, 1997). Type 1 diabetes may account for five to ten percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, including 11,000 to 12,000 children who suffer each year. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes may account for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Karam & Masharani, 2002). A comparison of types 1 and 2 diabetes reveals major similarities and differences in causes, symptoms, complications, and treatment. Paragraph 2 Types 1 and 2 diabetes are two diseases that can be compared and contrasted according to their causes. Type 1 diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes in that they are genetic diseases. Recently, researchers have been attempting to locate the genes for diabetes. As a part of the genome project in which researchers around the world are attempting to map the entire gene structure of all the human chromosomes, they have isolated 18 genes that appear to be involved in the production of type 1 diabetes. Not all of these genes have equal potency. Two of them appear to be most potent, some others are least Continue reading >>

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