diabetestalk.net

Is Insulin All The Same?

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Many forms of insulin treat diabetes. They're grouped by how fast they start to work and how long their effects last. The types of insulin include: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Pre-mixed What Type of Insulin Is Best for My Diabetes? Your doctor will work with you to prescribe the type of insulin that's best for you and your diabetes. Making that choice will depend on many things, including: How you respond to insulin. (How long it takes the body to absorb it and how long it remains active varies from person to person.) Lifestyle choices. The type of food you eat, how much alcohol you drink, or how much exercise you get will all affect how your body uses insulin. Your willingness to give yourself multiple injections per day Your age Your goals for managing your blood sugar Afrezza, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin, is FDA-approved for use before meals for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The drug peaks in your blood in about 15-20 minutes and it clears your body in 2-3 hours. It must be used along with long-acting insulin in people with type 1 diabetes. The chart below lists the types of injectable insulin with details about onset (the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins to lower blood sugar), peak (the time period when it best lowers blood sugar) and duration (how long insulin continues to work). These three things may vary. The final column offers some insight into the "coverage" provided by the different insulin types in relation to mealtime. Type of Insulin & Brand Names Onset Peak Duration Role in Blood Sugar Management Rapid-Acting Lispro (Humalog) 15-30 min. 30-90 min 3-5 hours Rapid-acting insulin covers insulin needs for meals eaten at the same time as the injection. This type of insulin is often used with Continue reading >>

Insulin A To Z: A Guide On Different Types Of Insulin

Insulin A To Z: A Guide On Different Types Of Insulin

Elizabeth Blair, A.N.P., at Joslin Diabetes Center, helps break down the different types of insulin and how they work for people with diabetes. Types of Insulin for People with Diabetes Rapid-acting: Usually taken before a meal to cover the blood glucose elevation from eating. This type of insulin is used with longer-acting insulin. Short-acting: Usually taken about 30 minutes before a meal to cover the blood glucose elevation from eating. This type of insulin is used with longer-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting: Covers the blood glucose elevations when rapid-acting insulins stop working. This type of insulin is often combined with rapid- or short-acting insulin and is usually taken twice a day. Long-acting: This type of insulin is often combined, when needed, with rapid- or short-acting insulin. It lowers blood glucose levels when rapid-acting insulins stop working. It is taken once or twice a day. A Guide on Insulin Types for People with Diabetes Type Brand Name Onset (length of time before insulin reaches bloodstream) Peak (time period when insulin is most effective) Duration (how long insulin works for) Rapid-acting Humalog Novolog Apidra 10 - 30 minutes 30 minutes - 3 hours 3 - 5 hours Short-acting Regular (R) 30 minutes - 1 hour 2 - 5 hours Up to 12 hours Intermediate- acting NPH (N) 1.5 - 4 hours 4 - 12 hours Up to 24 hours Long-acting Lantus Levemir 0.8 - 4 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours To make an appointment with a Joslin diabetes nurse educator, please call (617) 732-2400. Continue reading >>

Timing Is Everything | Pet Diabetes Care

Timing Is Everything | Pet Diabetes Care

A friend recently told me that she always comes up with the perfect comeback. Her problem is that she thinks of it 20 minutes too late. Yep, sometimes timing is everything. When it comes to diabetes care of our pets, timing can make the difference between a well regulated diabetic pet and a “mostly” regulated diabetic pet. Routines may not be exciting, but routines make for a well-regulated diabetic pet! After two plus decades practicing veterinary medicine, I sometimes think I have heard it all. Then a client comes along and proves me wrong. Recently one of my own veterinary clients told me he routinely gave his cat the insulin then waited an hour before feeding his pet. I don’t know where this client got this notion as I had told him what I tell all my clients, to feed and give insulin at the same time every 12 hours. Now, whether one waits to see if Fluffy is eating before giving the injection is another story. For folks who have a pet with a hearty appetite that couldn’t imagine missing a meal, they may give the injection as the pet dives into dinner. A feeding frenzy is definitely a distraction to the quick poke of an insulin needle. For folks who have a finicky eater, they might watch to make sure the pet truly eats before giving the injection. Nonetheless, I would feed the pet essentially at the same time as the injection rather than waiting any length of time. The insulin needs something to work with. If food is not given with the insulin the pet could become hypoglycemic. How about the timing of meals? Does it matter if a pet eats in between insulin injections? Yes. Just as giving insulin without food can cause a low blood glucose reading, giving food without insulin will cause an elevated blood glucose test result. If you give a snack in the middle of Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About Insulin

Everything You Need To Know About Insulin

Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach. It allows your body to use glucose for energy. Glucose is a type of sugar found in many carbohydrates. After a meal or snack, the digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates and changes them into glucose. Glucose is then absorbed into your bloodstream through the lining in your small intestine. Once glucose is in your bloodstream, insulin causes cells throughout your body to absorb the sugar and use it for energy. Insulin also helps balance your blood glucose levels. When there’s too much glucose in your bloodstream, insulin signals your body to store the excess in your liver. The stored glucose isn’t released until your blood glucose levels decrease, such as between meals or when your body is stressed or needs an extra boost of energy. Diabetes occurs when your body doesn't use insulin properly or doesn't make enough insulin. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is a type of autoimmune disease. These are diseases in which the body attacks itself. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body can’t make insulin. This is because your immune system has destroyed all of the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. This disease is more commonly diagnosed in young people, although it can develop in adulthood. In type 2 diabetes, your body has become resistant to the effects of insulin. This means your body needs more insulin to get the same effects. Therefore, your body overproduces insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal. However, after many years of overproduction, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas burn out. Type 2 diabetes also affects people of any age, but typically develops later in life. Injections of insulin as a replacement or supplement Continue reading >>

Wtf Is Insulin And How Does It Affect Our Health And Fat Loss?

Wtf Is Insulin And How Does It Affect Our Health And Fat Loss?

With so much written about diet versus exercise and exercise versus diet, it’s easy to overlook the role hormones play in our health and wellbeing, but they can make all the difference. That's why we’ve decided to take a closer look at the hormone insulin: What is it, and how does it relate to diabetes? Can we manipulate insulin to help us lose fat and live longer? As it turns out, we can—and pretty easily, too. What Is Insulin and How Does It Relate to Diabetes? Insulin is a super important hormone that helps us absorb nutrients from our food. Whenever we eat carbs (and a little bit when we eat protein), the amount of sugar in our blood increases, and the pancreas releases insulin to help take the sugar out of the bloodstream and into our organs (mostly the liver and muscle cells) where it can be used for energy . Diabetes is a disease that occurs when that insulin response doesn’t work properly and sugar piles up in the blood with nowhere to go. This can result in a whole lot of problems, including vision loss, hearing loss, high blood pressure, and gum disease. There are two main kinds of diabetes: Type 1 occurs when the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Type 2 occurs when insulin is produced, but the body doesn’t respond to it the right way. What causes Type 1 is often hard to pinpoint. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly common—some have estimated that a third of Americans born in 2000 will develop the disease—and a lot of the time, it can be prevented. How? Let’s talk insulin sensitivity. What Is Insulin Sensitivity? Doing a lot of something can make you less sensitive to its effects, right? Drinking coffee all the time can dull the caffeine, regular drinkers find they need more beers to get drunk than they used to, and so on. In kind of the same Continue reading >>

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

5 Ways Type 1 Diabetes Is Different From Type 2

When people hear that you have diabetes, they start to make assumptions that aren't always accurate. A lot of the confusion stems from the fact that there are two main types, yet many people don't understand how they're different. (Want to pick up some healthier habits? Sign up to get daily healthy living tips delivered straight to your inbox!) As someone with type 1 diabetes—I was diagnosed with it nearly 40 years ago—I'm all too familiar with the disease. I lived with it as a child, teen, and adult, and when I decided to have kids I had to figure out how to manage the condition while being pregnant. (I even wrote a book about it, Balancing Pregnancy With Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby.) Having type 1 diabetes means I'm in the minority: Of the approximately 29 million Americans who have diabetes, only 1.25 million have type 1. Most have type 2, which is a totally different form. "Comparing type 1 to type 2 is like comparing apples to tractors," says Gary Scheiner, a Pennsylvania-based certified diabetes educator and author of Think Like a Pancreas. "The only thing they really have in common is that both involve an inability to control blood sugar levels." Here are 5 important distinctions. 1. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease; type 2 isn't. Diabetes happens when your body has trouble with insulin, a hormone that helps convert sugar from the food you eat into energy. When there isn’t enough insulin in your body, sugar builds up in the bloodstream and can make you sick. People with type 1 and type 2 both face this problem, but how they arrived there is quite different. If you have type 1, you don't make any insulin at all. That's because type 1 is an autoimmune disease in which your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-making cells in your Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Insulin is a hormone the body makes to control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It lowers blood sugar by allowing glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter body cells. Without enough insulin, the level of glucose in the bloodstream can become too high. Everyone needs insulin to use food properly. People without diabetes make enough of their own insulin to keep their blood sugar at healthy levels all the time. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin of their own. Instead, they need to take shots of one or more types of insulin to keep their blood sugars close to normal. Between 75 and 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin shots to help them get the best control of their blood sugar levels. Deciding How Much Insulin to Take The amount of insulin a person needs depends on: Body weight Percentage of body fat Activity level Diet Other medicines Emotions and stress General health Type of insulin When you first start taking insulin shots, your doctor might ask you to change the amount you take or the time you take it several times. You and your doctor will base these changes on the results of your blood sugar tests. You'll need to make adjustments until you find the dose and schedule that work best for you. Each person's need for insulin is different: Some people can control their blood sugar with one shot of insulin a day. Most people need more than three shots every day. Many people need more than one type of insulin. If you take several insulin shots a day or use more than one type of insulin, it doesn't mean your diabetes isn't in good control. Your blood sugar, not the amount or type of insulin you take, is the best way to judge how well you are doing. If you take three shots a day and your blood sugar is near normal, that's Continue reading >>

Insulin Types And Information

Insulin Types And Information

Tweet There are a number of types of insulin available. From rapid acting to long acting, from animal insulin through to analogue insulins. Insulin can be categorised by how the insulin is derived and how quickly it acts. Forms of insulin Animal insulin, as the name suggests, comes from animals. Human insulin is misleading as it doesn't, in fact, come from humans. Instead, human insulin is a laboratory made insulin. Analogue insulin is a type of lab grown human insulin which is modified to affect how quickly or slowly it acts. Speed of insulins Each of these types of insulin can also be categorised by the speed at which they works. This is termed the action of the insulin. Action of insulin varies from rapid acting insulins which can start to work almost immediately after being injected, through to long acting insulins which can keep working for up to a day, and some can last even longer. In between, there are short acting and intermediate insulins. Mixed or combination insulins Mixed or combination insulins are where a shorter acting insulin is combined with a longer acting insulin. On the plus side, this can mean less injections and can help to make dosages simpler. The disadvantage though, is that premixed insulins allow for less flexibility with tailoring your doses. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone wi Continue reading >>

Venezuela Without Insulin

Venezuela Without Insulin

This is for those of you who do not live in Venezuela, but need to know what’s happening in our country. I usually write in Spanish since I live in Venezuela, but this time I’m writing in English in an effort to draw the attention of international organizations and media to the life and death situation faced by Venezuelans living with Type 1 diabetes. My daughter was diagnosed when she was eight years old, her life depends on getting her daily doses of insulin. For many years I never had to worry about getting her insulin and diabetes supplies since all I had to do was to go to the pharmacy and purchase whatever I needed. Roughly about three years ago, insulin and diabetes supplies needed to control type 1 diabetes began to become scarce. At that moment we started a campaign on social media with the hashtag #LaDiabetesNoEspera (Diabetes does not wait) #SinInsumosNosMorimos (Without supplies we will die). Fast forward three years and the situation, instead of getting better, has worsened. Last week I visited five pharmacies and in each one, the answer was the same: no insulin, of any type, nor glucose testing strips. This situation is repeated all over the country, in big or small towns, and public or private health facilities. Anyone who lives with type 1 diabetes or has a relative or friend living with this chronic condition, knows how serious this can be, and they also know what may happen if someone needing insulin does not get their daily doses of it. Many, many people, young or old, are presenting complications due to using less insulin than needed to make it last or simply using no insulin at all. The same happens with glucose testing strips. There are none in the local market. I keep close communication with other parents of type 1 children, and the common de Continue reading >>

Insulin Medication For Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin Medication For Type 1 Diabetes

Key points All people with Type 1 diabetes must take insulin medication. Insulin is a naturally occurring body hormone. Taking insulin by injection is designed to try to mimic the way your body would produce its own insulin (if you didn’t have diabetes). There are a number of different types of insulin that vary in the length of time they are absorbed into and continue to act in your body. When you are starting on insulin you will get lots of help and support from your local specialist diabetes service. It is essential to have a variety of skills to manage being on insulin. There are specialist diabetes nurses available to help you gain these skills. Your insulin therapy can be tailored to fit with your own particular lifestyle. If you are newly diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes or you are thinking about making a change to your current insulin, always work closely with your specialist diabetes team. When you have Type 1 diabetes, your body can’t produce its own insulin. Insulin is a body hormone that needs to circulate in your blood stream to do its job properly. If you don’t have enough insulin your body is unable to use or store glucose properly. When you have Type 1 diabetes, you need to take your insulin by injection (under the skin). Many people wonder why it is not possible to take insulin as a tablet. Insulin cannot be taken as a tablet, because when it is, it gets broken down in your gut and ceases to be insulin. In some countries research has been done into giving insulin in an inhaled form (similar to an inhaler used for asthma drugs). This has been somewhat successful, but there are still problems with this system and it is not widely available commercially. Most people feel very anxious when they first find out that they need to start taking insulin. But Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Different From Insulin Resistance?

Is Diabetes Different From Insulin Resistance?

My blood sugar remains high (135 or higher) for 12 to 15 hours after I eat. My general practitioner says I have diabetes, but my ob-gyn has diagnosed me with insulin resistance. What is the difference and should these conditions be treated differently? How is it possible that two doctors think I have two different conditions? — Patricia, Florida Insulin resistance is usually found in people who are overweight. The metabolic changes that are brought on by excess weight prevent cells in the liver and muscles from utilizing glucose, despite normal insulin levels in the body. Insulin is the hormone that helps our body metabolize, or burn, glucose. The body in effect becomes "resistant" to insulin. The body's response to this is to produce more insulin. Unlike some diabetics, whose bodies produce insufficient amount of insulin, individuals who have insulin resistance have high levels of insulin early on in the disease. This process is rather complex and genetic susceptibility to diabetes plays a big role, but suffice it to say that long-term insulin resistance eventually leads to diabetes. The goal of treatment is to normalize day-to-day sugar levels. If you are carrying excess weight and your pancreas still produces an adequate amount of insulin, most likely you have some degree of insulin resistance. You will benefit, therefore, from medicines that are considered insulin "sensitizers." These include medications that fall under the classes of drugs known as metformin (Glucophage) and thiazolinediones (two drugs in this class are pioglitazone — Actos — and rosiglitazone — Avandia). They help your liver and muscle cells better utilize glucose. It is possible, however, that additional medicines will be required to manage your diabetes. In this case, medicines that incr Continue reading >>

Common Insulin Pen Errors: Diabetes Questions & Answers

Common Insulin Pen Errors: Diabetes Questions & Answers

Q. I recently switched from using syringes to inject insulin to using an insulin pen, and it seems like I need to inject more insulin with the pen to counter the same blood glucose level. The length of the needle seems to be the same, the pen is primed, and yet the pen injection has less of a blood-glucose-lowering effect. What could be going on here? A. The insulin contained in vials and pens is identical. So if you’re using your pen correctly, there should be no change in the effectiveness of the insulin on your blood glucose levels. It’s not unusual for people to be educated on how to use an insulin pen and to believe they are injecting with proper technique but to make one or more minor mistakes that affect the amount of insulin being injected. I recommend that you make an appointment with your diabetes educator or health-care provider and have that person observe you injecting a dose of insulin to see what, if anything, might be going wrong. Here are a few examples of common errors that can occur when administering insulin with a pen: A person may dial in the correct dose, put the needle into the skin correctly, but instead of pushing the button at the end of the pen to inject the insulin, dial the dose back to zero. This would result in no insulin being injected. Once the dose is dialed, the button has to be pushed in all the way — you should hear a series of clicks as you push — and then the pen must be held against the skin, needle inserted, for 6–10 seconds. Some people know that they need to push the button to deliver the insulin, but they don’t push it hard enough to inject the entire dose. Another common mistake is to fail to leave the needle in place for at least 6 seconds after pushing the button on the pen. If the needle is removed too soon, t Continue reading >>

Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance

Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood. Insulin plays a major role in metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Insulin's Role in Blood Glucose Control When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin and glucose then travel in the blood to cells throughout the body. Insulin helps muscle, fat, and liver cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream, lowering blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver and muscle tissue to store excess glucose. The stored form of glucose is called glycogen. Insulin also lowers blood glucose levels by reducing glucose production in the liver. In a healthy person, these functions allow blood glucose and insulin levels to remain in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells. The beta cells in the pancreas try to keep up with this increased demand for insulin by producing more. As long as the beta cells are able to produce enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance, blood glucose levels stay in the healthy range. Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the bet Continue reading >>

Insulin Types: A Review

Insulin Types: A Review

Earlier articles have discussed insulin's role in our bodies, what happens when we don't have it, and why some of us have to take it by injection. But all insulins are not the same. How are they different? WHY are they different? And, how can we use their differences to better self-manage? Insulins are described and subdivided by concentration strength, source, and time of onset/peak. This last category is most critical, but an understanding of all three criteria is needed. Concentration Strength All insulins sold in the United States today are of U-100 strength, 100 units of insulin per cc of fluid. But there are other dilutions in other countries, and if you were to encounter one of these (all perfectly usable), and inject your usual volume of insulin, you'd get a different amount of insulin. You'd get the wrong dosage. Source At one time, all insulin was produced by laboratory animals, most often cows and pigs. In the last decade, however, American insulin manufacturers have almost completely shifted to use of "recombinant DNA" technology, enabling laboratory production of a close analog to real human insulin. This "human" insulin is said to more closely match our endogenous (pancreatic) insulin. Although labelled much like "animal source" insulins, recombinant DNA insulins are not quite the same, either in time-of-onset or in amount of insulin required. Experience shows that any switch between the one and the other must be done with care, and under your doctor's supervision--the types might be different enough to cause you trouble otherwise. Time of Onset/Peak The different insulin types: Humalog, Regular, NPH, Lente, Ultralente, and the pre-mixes: 70/30 and 50/50, divided and distinguished by their time of onset and duration. As shown in the chart below, critical q Continue reading >>

Why Walmart Insulins Aren’t The Answer To High Insulin Prices

Why Walmart Insulins Aren’t The Answer To High Insulin Prices

A diabetes advocate contrasts the performance of generic insulins versus the more popular brands. Commentary Some people don’t understand why people with diabetes get upset at the price of insulin. They see insulin for sale at a relatively reasonable price in Walmart and don’t see the problem. What they don’t know is that these Walmart insulins just don’t perform nearly as well as the more expensive insulins, and that gap in performance can have a very negative effect on the health of people with diabetes. There are three insulins available at Walmart for the price of $25 – NPH, Regular, and 70/30 (a mix of the two). NPH was first approved by the FDA in 1950, Regular was approved in 1982, 70/30 in 1989. That means NPH has been around for 66 years, Regular for 33 years, 70/30 for 27 years. Take a moment and think about what healthcare was like in 1950. Now, I’m sure someone is saying, “Well, they must still work if they are still being sold.” And they do, but they don’t work in the same way. These insulins are not interchangeable. If a person with Type 1 diabetes were to switch from a Humalog/Lantus insulin regimen to Regular and NPH, it would drastically alter their lifestyle, making blood sugar control more irregular and raising A1C scores. The biggest issue is that whereas Lantus is steady, NPH peaks. A person using NPH must keep a very set dietary schedule, making sure to eat meals and snacks at certain times to correspond with peak times of an insulin dose. The strict schedule is difficult for everyone, but especially for children. They are unable to alter their daily schedules and must always be sure to eat at specific times. Even if they’re not hungry, they must eat to avoid low blood sugar. And if they are hungry, they often cannot have more t Continue reading >>

More in insulin