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Insulins Types

Insulin

Insulin

Indication BASAGLAR is a long-acting insulin used to control high blood sugar in adults and children with type 1 diabetes and adults with type 2 diabetes. Limitation of Use BASAGLAR is not for treating diabetic ketoacidosis. Important Safety Information Do not take BASAGLAR during episodes of low blood sugar or if you are allergic to insulin glargine or any of the ingredients in BASAGLAR. Do NOT reuse needles or share insulin pens, even if the needle has been changed. Before starting BASAGLAR, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions, including if you have liver or kidney problems, if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or if you are breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed. BASAGLAR should be taken once a day at the same time every day. Test your blood sugar levels while using insulin. Do not make any changes to your dose or type of insulin without talking to your healthcare provider. Any change of insulin should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. The most common side effect of insulin, including BASAGLAR, is low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which may be serious and life threatening. Signs and symptoms may include dizziness or light-headedness, sweating, confusion, headache, blurred vision, slurred speech, shakiness, fast heartbeat, anxiety, irritability, mood change, or hunger. Do NOT dilute or mix BASAGLAR with any other insulin or solution. It will not work as intended and you may lose blood sugar control, which could be serious. BASAGLAR must only be used if the solution is clear and colorless with no particles visible. Always make sure you have the correct insulin before each injection. BASAGLAR may cause serious side effects that can lead to death, such as severe allergic reactions. Get emergency help if you have: Heart fa Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition that can be controlled with lifestyle adjustments and medical treatments. Keeping blood sugar levels under control can prevent or minimize complications. Insulin treatment is one component of a diabetes treatment plan for people with type 1 diabetes. Insulin treatment replaces or supplements the body's own insulin with the goal of preventing ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis and achieving normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Many different types of insulin treatment can successfully control blood sugar levels; the best option depends upon a variety of individual factors. With a little extra planning, people with diabetes who take insulin can lead a full life and keep their blood sugar under control. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Type 1 diabetes mellitus and diet (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) STARTING INSULIN The pancreas produces very little or no insulin at all in people with type 1 diabetes. All patients with type 1 diabetes will eventually require insulin. Insulin is given under the skin, either as a shot or continuously with an insulin pump. Dosing — When you are first starting insulin, it will take some time to find the right dose. A doctor or nurse will help to adjust your dose over time. You will be instructed to check your blood sugar level several times per day. Insulin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes Type 2

Although many people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes will be prescribed tablets (e.g. metformin) eventually many people will be transferred to insulin. Insulin cannot cure diabetes - there is still no cure for diabetes - but it can slow the progress of the disease and make it easier for some people to control their blood glucose. Those who had changed to insulin from tablets said that they felt much better because insulin kept their blood glucose more stable. Most people we interviewed who were on insulin had had diabetes for five or more years and most of them had started with oral medication such as metformin (see 'Controlling diabetes with metformin and other medications'). Only a few people had been prescribed insulin directly after being diagnosed. The kind of insulin and also the dosage varied from person to person, according to their blood glucose level and their state of health; few people could recall the name of the insulin they were taking. There are seven main types of insulin: Rapid-acting analogues - injected just before, with or after food and only last long enough for the meal at which they are taken. Long-acting analogues - injected once a day to provide background insulin. Very long-acting analogues – provides background insulin for 42 hours (3 days) and are normally used for people unable to inject themselves and are given by a healthcare professional. Short –acting insulins- injected 15-30 minutes before a meal to cover the rise in blood glucose after eating. They work for 2-6 hours but can last up to eight hours. Medium - and long- acting insulins – are taken twice a day to provide background insulin or in combination with short-acting insulins or rapid- acting analogues. Mixed insulin – a combination of medium- and short-acting insulin. Mixe Continue reading >>

One In Every Three People With Type 1 Diabetes Produces Insulin Years Post-diagnosis

One In Every Three People With Type 1 Diabetes Produces Insulin Years Post-diagnosis

One in Every Three People with Type 1 Diabetes Produces Insulin Years Post-Diagnosis Largest Study to Date of Residual Insulin Production Proves Such Patients Are Not ‘Exceptional’ Major Clinical and Health Policy Implications About one-third of people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) produce insulin, as measured by C-peptide, a byproduct of insulin production, even upward of forty years from initial diagnosis, according to a first-of-its-kind, large-scale study conducted by researchers from T1D Exchange. This sheds new light on the long-accepted belief that these patients lose all ability to produce any insulin; this could have significant policy implications, said researchers from T1D Exchange, whose Clinic Network involves a national consortium of diabetes centers. The findings were published online this week in Diabetes Care. Using samples from the T1D Exchange Biobank, a repository of type 1 diabetes biological samples, the study confirmed that C-peptide is present in patients across a wide age spectrum, with greater frequency and higher values in those diagnosed as adults as compared with those diagnosed as children. The findings provide clinicians proof that residual insulin production can be anticipated in this population, thereby potentially decreasing the risk of misdiagnosis as the more common type 2 diabetes and increasing opportunities for improved treatments to control glucose levels. The data suggests important differences in the biological process of type 1 diabetes between those diagnosed as children or as adults, according to investigator Asa K. Davis, Ph.D., T1D Exchange program manager at Benaroya Research Institute, which houses the TID Exchange Biobank. “These findings lend further credence to research underway on targeted therapies that could prol Continue reading >>

Insulin Chart

Insulin Chart

List of insulin types available in the U.S. and how they work. By the dLife Editors Each type of insulin has its own unique behavior. One difference among types of insulin is how long they take to start working at lowering blood-glucose levels. The “insulin peak” is the point at which the dose is working at its maximum, and the “duration” is how long the blood-glucose-lowering effect of the injection will last. The following is a list of insulin types available in the United States, along with how soon they start working, their peak, and how long they last. Talk to your healthcare provider about your insulin regimen. Insulin Type Onset of Action Peak Duration of Action Lispro U-100 (Humalog) Approximately 15 minutes 1-2 hours 3-6 hours Lispro U-200 (Humalog 200) Approximately 15 minutes 1-2 hours 3-6 hours Aspart (Novolog) Approximately 15 minutes 1-2 hours 3-6 hours Glulisine (Apidra) Approximately 20 minutes 1-2 hours 3-6 hours Regular U-100 (Novolin R, Humulin R) 30-60 minutes 2-4 hours 6-10 hours Humulin R Regular U-500 30-60 minutes 2-4 hours Up to 24 hours NPH (Novolin N, Humulin N, ReliOn) 2-4 hours 4-8 hours 10-18 hours Glargine U-100 (Lantus) 1-2 hours Minimal Up to 24 hours Glargine U-100 (Basaglar) 1-2 hours Minimal Up to 24 hours Glargine U-300 (Toujeo) 6 hours No significant peak 24-36 hours Detemir (Levemir) 1-2 hours Minimal** Up to 24 hours** Degludec U-100 & U-200 (Tresiba) 1-4 hours No significant peak About 42 hours Afrezza < 15 minutes Approx. 50 minutes 2-3 hours *Information derived from a combination of manufacturer’s prescribing information, online professional literature sources and clinical studies. Individual response to insulin preparations may vary. **Peak and length of action may depend on size of dose and length of time since ini Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin And Their Roles

Types Of Insulin And Their Roles

Do not take Lantus® during episodes of low blood sugar or if you are allergic to insulin or any of the inactive ingredients in Lantus®. Do not share needles, insulin pens, or syringes with others. Do NOT reuse needles. Before starting Lantus®, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions, including if you have liver or kidney problems, if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant or if you are breast-feeding or planning to breast-feed. Heart failure can occur if you are taking insulin together with certain medicines called TZDs (thiazolidinediones), even if you have never had heart failure or other heart problems. If you already have heart failure, it may get worse while you take TZDs with Lantus®. Your treatment with TZDs and Lantus® may need to be changed or stopped by your doctor if you have new or worsening heart failure. Tell your doctor if you have any new or worsening symptoms of heart failure, including: Sudden weight gain Tell your doctor about all the medications you take, including OTC medicines, vitamins, and supplements, including herbal supplements. Lantus® should be taken once a day at the same time every day. Test your blood sugar levels while using insulin, such as Lantus®. Do not make any changes to your dose or type of insulin without talking to your healthcare provider. Any change of insulin should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Do NOT dilute or mix Lantus® with any other insulin or solution. It will not work as intended and you may lose blood sugar control, which could be serious. Lantus® must only be used if the solution is clear and colorless with no particles visible. Always make sure you have the correct insulin before each injection. While using Lantus®, do not drive or operate heavy machinery until Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Types Of Insulin

Type 1 Diabetes: Types Of Insulin

Insulin therapy is essential for everyone who has type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes. Various types of insulin are available. They differ in terms of how quickly and how long they are effective, as well as in their chemical structure. Some types of insulin work quickly (short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin), while others only start to work after a certain amount of time, and then work over a longer time period (long-acting or basal insulin). Insulin can be extracted from the pancreas cells of pigs (porcine insulin) or cattle (bovine insulin) and prepared for use in humans. But nowadays most people use genetically engineered insulin for the treatment of diabetes. There are two types of genetically engineered insulin, known as human insulin and insulin analogues. Human insulin is similar to the insulin made in the human body. Insulin analogues have a different chemical structure, but they have a similar effect. What are the different types of insulin? The following types of insulin products differ in terms of how quickly and how long they are effective, as well as in terms of their chemical structure: This kind of insulin takes longer to start working. Peak activity and duration of effect depend on the way in which the action is delayed. Usually works for up to 24 hours. Short-acting insulin – including regular insulin, insulin analogues and premixed insulin – is normally injected before meals. Some people wait a certain amount of time following the injection before they eat. Others vary the time interval between injecting and eating depending on their blood sugar levels. Many people find fixed injection-meal intervals bothersome and difficult to stick to in everyday life. So far there is no evidence to show that blood sugar levels are be Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin Used To Support Background Therapy

Types Of Insulin Used To Support Background Therapy

When it comes to taking insulin, there are several forms of the hormone which are differentiated by the speed in which they act. This, in turn, determines when and how each form is used. Anyone with type 1 diabetes, and some with type 2 diabetes, need to take insulin to more effectively process the glucose from food. With type 1 diabetes, this is because the pancreas can no longer make the hormone. With type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is able to make insulin, but the body no longer responds to it as it should and will need additional insulin to compensate. Role of Long- and Short-Acting Insulins Insulin is given in long-acting forms to ensure more a steady regulation of insulin levels, while short-acting forms aim to lower sudden spikes in blood sugar. We refer to the longer-acting form as basal insulin (basal meaning "background") since it works in the background to the keep the blood sugar stable. Shorter-acting forms are called bolus insulin (bolus meaning "single dose") since it is meant to be taken specifically at meal times to keep blood sugar levels under control. How Bolus Insulin Works Bolus insulin refers to the extra amount of insulin the pancreas would normally produce in response to sugar (glucose) taken in through food. The level of production depends largely on the size and type of meal involved. In persons with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin as the beta cells which produce the hormone have largely shut down. Because of this, bolus insulin will be used, when needed, to compensate for this loss. To ensure the ongoing normalization of blood sugar levels, many people will often follow a basal-bolus regimen in which several shots of each are taken throughout the day for both background and mealtime maintenance purposes. Bolus in Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

What are Insulin Insulin is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body and can also be given by injection as a treatment for diabetes. Naturally-occurring insulin is made by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas. It helps the cells of the body to uptake glucose (sugar) found in the carbohydrates we eat so that it can be used as energy or stored for later use. Insulin also controls glucose release from the liver. One of the main roles of insulin is to keep blood glucose levels from going too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). People with type 1 diabetes do not make enough insulin to satisfy their body's needs or make none at all. Insulin given by injection acts similarly to naturally occurring insulin. There are more than 20 different types of insulin available for diabetes treatment in the United States. The various types of insulin differ in several ways: such as source (animal, human or genetically engineered), the time for insulin to take effect and the length of time the insulin remains working (ie, rapid acting, short acting, intermediate acting, long acting or very long acting). Insulin is used to treat Type 1 diabetes and it may be used together with oral medications in the later stages of Type 2 diabetes. List of Insulin: Filter by: -- all conditions -- Drug Name View by: Brand | Generic Reviews Avg. Ratings Humulin R (Pro, More...) generic name: insulin regular 0 reviews 10 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 FlexPen (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 0 reviews 10 Humalog Mix 75 / 25 (More...) generic name: insulin lispro/insulin lispro protamine 2 reviews 9.5 NovoLog Mix 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine 3 reviews 9.5 ReliOn / Novolin 70 / 30 (More...) generic name: i Continue reading >>

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists in California think they may have found a way to transplant insulin-producing cells into diabetic patients who lack those cells — and protect the little insulin-producers from immune rejection. Their system, one of several promising approaches under development, hasn't yet been tested in people. But if it works, it could make living with diabetes much less of a burden. For now, patients with Type-1 diabetes have to regularly test their blood sugar levels, and inject themselves with insulin when it's needed. Some researchers are developing machines to automate that process. But Crystal Nyitray, founder and CEO of the biotechnology startup Encellin, in San Francisco, didn't want to use a machine to treat diabetes. As a graduate student in bioengineering at the University of California, San Francisco a few years ago, Nyitray wanted to try something different: living cells. "Cells are the ultimate smart machine," she says. Clinical trials that transplant insulin-making pancreatic cells into people with diabetes have been underway for several years, with some success. But the recipient's immune system is hard on these transplanted cells, and most patients still need insulin injections eventually. Nyitray and colleagues designed a system that would encase live islet cells from the pancreas in a flexible membrane that could be implanted under the skin. Insulin and blood sugar could pass through the membrane, but cells from the recipient's immune system would be kept out, preventing immune rejection. "I think of it like if you're sitting in a house and you have the window open with a screen," Nyitray says. "So you can feel the breeze of the air outside, and smell everything, but the bugs and the flies aren't able to get through because you have the screen in place. Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

There are many types of insulin. All insulins help sugar to get inside the cell, but they are not all the same. Each type may be different in how fast it takes to start working. Each type may be different in howfast it takes to start working, how long it takes to control blood sugar, and how long it lasts in the body. These differences are important to know when learning about insulin so you will use your insulin in the right way. • Onset: the length of time after injection that insulin begins to work • Peak: the length of time after injection that the insulin takes to reach its maximum effect • Duration: the length of time that the insulin continues to work inside the body Three major drug companies manufacture insulin in the United States. These are Sanofi-aventis, Eli Lilly, and Novo Nordisk. Types of insulin available in the United States Rapid-Acting: Administer within 15 minutes before a meal or eat within 5-15 minutes after injection. Generic Name Brand Name Concentration Manufacturer insulin aspart NovoLOG 100 units/mL Novo Nordisk insulin glulisine APIDRA 100 units/mL Sanofi-aventis insulin lispro HumaLOG 100 units/mL Eli Lilly insulin lispro (U-200) HumaLOG KwikPen U-2001 200 units/mL Eli Lilly insulin (oral inhalation) AFREZZA Available in single-use cartridges of 4 units, 8 Units and 12 Units Sanofi-aventis Short-Acting: Takes effect within 30 minutes. The max effect is between 2.5 hours-5 hours. The duration is approximately 8 hours. Generic Name Brand Name Concentration Manufacturer insulin regular HumuLIN R2 100 units/mL Eli Lilly insulin regular NovoLIN R2 100 units/mL Novo Nordisk insulin regular (U-500) HumuLIN R U-500 Concentrated2,3 500 units/mL Eli Lilly Intermediate-Acting: Takes effect with 90 minutes of injection. The greatest blood sugar l Continue reading >>

Different Types Of Insulin: What To Use And When?

Different Types Of Insulin: What To Use And When?

What’s the difference between the different types of insulin? Long-acting, short-acting, premixed, learn more about all three. You may have a lot of questions as you begin insulin therapy. What are the different types of insulin available? Which should I be using and when? Insulins differ based on 3 key factors: 1 how quickly they work when they peak how long they last (duration) This table compares these factors in the types of insulin available:2 Type Onset (How quickly it starts working) Onset (What it is most effective) Duration (How long it works) Timing of injection (When should it be given) Bolus insulins Rapid acting analogues Apidra/Humalog/NovoRapid 10-15 min 1-2 hours 3-5 hours Given with 1 or more meals per day. To be given 0-15 minutes before or after meals. Short-acting Humulin-R/Toronto 30 min 2-3 hours 6.5 hours Given with one or more meals per day. Should be injected 30-45 minutes before the start of the meal. Basal insulins Intermediate-acting Humulin-N/NPH 1-3 hours 5-8 hours Up to 18 hours Often started once daily at bedtime. May be given once or twice daily. Not given at any time specific to meals. Long-acting analogues Lantus Levemir 90 min Not applicable Lantus: Up to 24 hours Levemir: 16-24 hours Often started once daily at bedtime. Insulin detemir (Levemir) may be given once or twice daily. Not given at any time specific to meals. Premixed insulins Premixed regular insulin Humulin 30/70 and Novolin ge 30/70, 40/60, 50/50 Varies according to types of insulin Contains a fixed ratio of insulin (% of rapid-acting or short-acting insulin to % of intermediate-acting insulin): See above for information about peak actions based on insulin contained Given with one or more meals per day. Should be injected 30-45 minutes before the start of the meal. Pre Continue reading >>

Insulin Secretagogues

Insulin Secretagogues

What are insulin secretagogues? Insulin secretagogues are one type of medicine for type 2 diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes don’t make enough insulin. Insulin secretagogues help your pancreas make and release (or secrete) insulin. Insulin helps keep your blood glucose from being too high. Once your body gets the insulin it needs, you feel better. Your doctor might prescribe these insulin-releasing pills for you when you can’t reach your target blood glucose levels with a healthy diet, exercise, and other diabetes medicines. Several other types of diabetes pills are available. Each type works in a different way. Some people take pills that combine two types of diabetes medicines. For example, some pills combine an insulin-releasing medicine with a medicine that helps your insulin work better (like pioglitazone). Another type combines an insulin releaser with a pill that keeps your liver from making too much glucose (like metformin). Two other types of medicines, called incretin-based medicines, share some features of the insulin-releasing medicines. DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide, liraglutide) raise insulin levels for a short time after you eat a meal. Types of Insulin Secretagogues Insulin-releasing medicines Sulfonylureas (Generic names): Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glyburide Meglitinides (Generic names): Repaglinide, Nateglinide What are the benefits of insulin secretagogues? Both types of these insulin-releasing medicines lower blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas are low in cost and usually are well tolerated. They are taken once or twice a day. Meglitinides are designed to work with your meals and are taken right before meals (two to four times a day). Meglitinides act for a shorter period of Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

A A A Insulin Reaction An insulin reaction occurs when a person with diabetes becomes confused or even unconscious because of hypoglycemia (hypo=low + glycol = sugar + emia = in the blood) caused by insulin or oral diabetic medications. (Please note that for this article blood sugar and blood glucose mean the same thing and the terms may be used interchangeably.) The terms insulin reaction, insulin shock, and hypoglycemia (when associated with a person with diabetes) are often used interchangeably. In normal physiology, the body is able to balance the glucose (sugar levels) in the bloodstream. When a person eats, and glucose levels start to rise, the body signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin "unlocks the door" to cells in the body so that the glucose can be used for energy. When blood sugar levels drop, insulin production decreases and the liver begins producing glucose. In people with diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the body's demand. Treatment may include medications taken by mouth (oral hypoglycemics), insulin, or both. The balance of food intake and medication is not automatic, and a person with diabetes needs to be aware that too much medication or too little food may cause blood sugar levels to drop. Interestingly, brain cells do not need insulin to access the glucose in the blood stream. Brain cells also cannot store excess glucose, so when blood sugar levels drop, brain function is one of the first parts of the body to become affected. In an insulin reaction, the blood sugar levels are usually below 50 mg/dL (or 2.78 mmol/L in SI units). Continue Reading A A A Insulin Reaction (cont.) Insulin reactions occur when there is an imbalance of food intake and the amount of insulin in the body. The oral hypoglycemic mediat Continue reading >>

Insulin Types

Insulin Types

What Are the Different Insulin Types? Insulin Types are hormones normally made in the pancreas that stimulates the flow of sugar – glucose – from the blood into the cells of the body. Glucose provides the cells with the energy they need to function. There are two main groups of insulins used in the treatment of diabetes: human insulins and analog insulins, made by recombinant DNA technology. The concentration of most insulins available in the United States is 100 units per milliliter. A milliliter is equal to a cubic centimeter. All insulin syringes are graduated to match this insulin concentration. There are four categories of insulins depending on how quickly they start to work in the body after injection: Very rapid acting insulin, Regular, or Rapid acting insulins, Intermediate acting insulins, Long acting insulin. In addition, some insulins are marketed mixed together in different proportions to provide both rapid and long acting effects. Certain insulins can also be mixed together in the same syringe immediately prior to injection. Rapid Acting Insulins A very rapid acting form of insulin called Lispro insulin is marketed under the trade name of Humalog. A second form of very rapid acting insulin is called Aspart and is marketed under the trade name Novolog. Humalog and Novolog are clear liquids that begin to work 10 minutes after injection and peak at 1 hour after injection, lasting for 3-4 hours in the body. However, most patients also need a longer-acting insulin to maintain good control of their blood sugar. Humalog and Novolog can be mixed with NPH insulin and are used as “bolus” insulins to be given 15 minutes before a meal. Note: Check blood sugar level before giving Humalog or Novalog. Your doctor or diabetes educator will instruct you in determini Continue reading >>

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