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Insulin Where In The Body

Insulin Replacement Therapy

Insulin Replacement Therapy

Insulin replacement therapy and type 1 and 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the cells that make insulin. This results in no or very little insulin. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It usually happens at a younger age. It often starts before age 30. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes getting daily multiple injections of insulin or using an insulin pump. Type 2 diabetes typically means the body cannot make enough insulin for the amount of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means the body cannot use insulin the way it should. Treatment often begins with an exercise program and a healthy diet to help lower the blood sugar levels. But if this treatment plan doesn't work, you may need medicine. Medicines for diabetes may be pills or injections. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. It helps lower the blood sugar by moving sugar from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. Once inside the cells, blood sugar becomes the main source of energy for the body. What are the different types of insulin? There are 4 types of insulin. Each works in specific ways. Onset How quickly the insulin starts to work after it is injected Peak time The period of time when the insulin helps most to lower blood sugar levels Duration How long the insulin keeps working in the body Insulin may act differently when given to different people, so the times of onset, peak time, and duration may vary. The 4 types of insulin are: Insulin type Onset (approximate) Peak time (approximate) Duration (approximate) Rapid acting, Lispro, Aspart, Glulisine insulin 15 minutes 1 hour 2 to 4 hours Short acting, Regular (R) insulin 30 minutes 2 to 3 hours 3 to 6 hours Intermediate acting, NPH (N) or Len Continue reading >>

8 Ways To Take Insulin

8 Ways To Take Insulin

How to take insulin Need insulin? While the drug itself may be old—nearly 90 years to be exact—there’s lots of new things happening when it comes to ways to take it. From the old-fashioned needle and syringe to injector pens to pumps, you’ve got choices to make. There’s even a plethora of devices that can help you inject if you have poor vision or mobility issues. Check out these eight options and talk with your certified diabetes educator to determine which insulin delivery system or injection aids are right for you. Needle and syringe With this type of delivery system, you insert a needle into a vial, draw up the appropriate amount of insulin, and then inject into the subcutaneous space—the tissue just under your skin. Here are 5 types of insulin and 9 factors that affect how insulin works. Even though there are other options, needles and syringes remain the most common way to take insulin. Some of the new insulin injection methods, such as the insulin pen, carry only a preset amount of insulin. Thinner needles and other advancements, such as syringe magnifiers, have made syringes easier to use. Syringe magnifier Have poor vision? You’re not alone. According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20–74 years. Needle guides can help you keep the syringe or pen steady at the desired location and at the correct angle both for drawing up insulin out of the vial and injecting. Some needle guides also come with magnifiers, which help by enlarging the numbers and allowing you to read the fine print and dosages on the syringe. Syringe-filling device These devices are another example of innovations designed to help make insulin needles more palatable. Syringe-filling devices allow a person Continue reading >>

This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar

This Is Exactly What Happens To Your Body When You Eat A Ton Of Sugar

As mouth-watering as a sugar-laden sundae or icing-topped cupcake is, we should all know by now that sugar isn't exactly healthy. In fact, it may be one of the worst things you can eat (that is, if you're trying to live a long, healthy life). One study from UC San Francisco actually found that drinking sugary drinks like soda can age your body on a cellular level as quickly as cigarettes. The way the sweet stuff impacts your body is way more complex than just causing weight gain. In fact, when you eat a ton of sugar, almost every part of your body feels the strain—and that's bad news for your health in both the short term and especially the long term. From an initial insulin spike to upping your chances of kidney failure down the road, this is what really happens in your body when you load up on sugar. Your brain responds to sugar the same way it would to cocaine. Eating sugar creates a surge of feel-good brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin. So does using certain drugs, like cocaine. And just like a drug, your body craves more after the initial high. "You then become addicted to that feeling, so every time you eat it you want to eat more," explains Gina Sam, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Gastrointestinal Motility Center at The Mount Sinai Hospital. Your insulin spikes to regulate your blood sugar. "Once you eat glucose, your body releases insulin, a hormone from your pancreas," Dr. Sam explains. The insulin's job is to absorb the excess glucose in the blood and stabilize sugar levels. And a little while later you get that familiar sugar crash. Once the insulin does its job, your blood sugar drops again. Which means you've just experienced a sugar rush, and then a drastic drop, leaving you feeling drained. "That's the feeling you get when you've gone to the buffet a Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

The Role Of Insulin In The Body

Tweet Insulin is a hormone which plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose levels. A lack of insulin, or an inability to adequately respond to insulin, can each lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes. In addition to its role in controlling blood sugar levels, insulin is also involved in the storage of fat. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the body’s metabolism. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy. Insulin and blood glucose levels Insulin helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. Insulin therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, insulin signals the liver to take up glucose and store it as glycogen. The liver can store up to around 5% of its mass as glycogen. Some cells in the body can take glucose from the blood without insulin, but most cells do require insulin to be present. Insulin and type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body produces insufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Without the presence of insulin, many of the body’s cells cannot take glucose from the blood and therefore the body uses other sources of energy. Ketones are produced by the liver as an alternative source of energy, however, high levels of the ketones can lead to a dangerous condition called ketoacidosis. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin to compensate for their body’s lack of insulin. Insulin and type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body not responding effectively to insulin. This is termed insulin resistance. As a result the body is less able to t Continue reading >>

Insulin's Role In The Human Body

Insulin's Role In The Human Body

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that has a number of important functions in the human body, particularly in the control of blood glucose levels and preventing hyperglycemia. It also has an effect on several other areas of the body, including the synthesis of lipids and regulation of enzymatic activity. Insulin and Metabolic Processes The most important role of insulin in the human body is its interaction with glucose to allow the cells of the body to use glucose as energy. The pancreas usually produces more insulin in response to a spike in blood sugar level, for example after eating a meal high in energy. This is because the insulin acts as a “key” to open up the cells in the body and allows the glucose to be used as an energy source. Additionally, when there is excess glucose in the bloodstream, known as hyperglycemia, insulin encourages the storage of glucose as glycogen in the liver, muscle and fat cells. These stores can then be used at a later date when energy requirements are higher. As a result of this, there is less insulin in the bloodstream, and normal blood glucose levels are restored. Insulin stimulates the synthesis of glycogen in the liver, but when the liver is saturated with glycogen, an alternative pathway takes over. This involves the uptake of additional glucose into adipose tissue, leading to the synthesis of lipoproteins. Results Without Insulin In the absence of insulin, the body is not able to utilize the glucose as energy in the cells. As a result, the glucose remains in the bloodstream and can lead to high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia is characteristic of diabetes mellitus and, if untreated, is associated with severe complications, such as damage to the nervous system, eyes, kidneys and extremitie Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

What medical conditions are associated with insulin resistance? While the metabolic syndrome links insulin resistance with abdominal obesity, elevated cholesterol, and high blood pressure; several other medical other conditions are specifically associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance may contribute to the following conditions: Type 2 Diabetes: Overt diabetes may be the first sign insulin resistance is present. Insulin resistance can be noted long before type 2 diabetes develops. Individuals reluctant or unable to see a health-care professional often seek medical attention when they have already developed type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Fatty liver: Fatty liver is strongly associated with insulin resistance. Accumulation of fat in the liver is a manifestation of the disordered control of lipids that occurs with insulin resistance. Fatty liver associated with insulin resistance may be mild or severe. Newer evidence suggests fatty liver may even lead to cirrhosis of the liver and, possibly, liver cancer. Arteriosclerosis: Arteriosclerosis (also known as atherosclerosis) is a process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-sized and large arteries. Arteriosclerosis is responsible for: Other risk factors for arteriosclerosis include: High levels of "bad" (LDL) cholesterol Diabetes mellitus from any cause Family history of arteriosclerosis Skin Lesions: Skin lesions include increased skin tags and a condition called acanthosis nigerians (AN). Acanthosis nigricans is a darkening and thickening of the skin, especially in folds such as the neck, under the arms, and in the groin. This condition is directly related to the insulin resistance, though the exact mechanism is not clear. Acanthosis nigricans is a cosmetic condition strongly Continue reading >>

How To Help Your Body Reverse Diabetes

How To Help Your Body Reverse Diabetes

Diabetes rates are rising, in fact it is now considered an “epidemic” in the medical community. The American Diabetes Association reports that: 23.6 million Americans have diabetes 57 million Americans are pre-diabetic 1.6 new cases of diabetes are reported each year For those over age 60, almost 1 in 4 have diabetes Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death Diabetes increases heart attack risk and 68% of diabetes related death certificates report heart related problems 75% of adults with diabetes will develop high blood pressure Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and nervous system disorders Diabetes costs $174 billion annually Diabetes is a well-established problem and a multi-billion dollar industry. It is medically characterized by Fasting Blood Glucose higher than 126 mg/dL , which ranges between 100-125 mg/dL are considered pre-diabetic and ranges below 99 mg/dL are considered normal. Studies are finding that a fasting blood glucose below 83 mg/dL is actually a better benchmark, as risk of heart disease begins to increase at anything above that. IMPORTANT: There is a difference between Type 1 diabetes (an autoimmune condition) and Type 2 diabetes (lifestyle related). This article refers specifically to Type 2 diabetes. Some medical professionals use an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) to test for diabetes. If you’ve ever been pregnant and had to drink the sickeningly sweet sugar cocktail and then have blood drawn, you are familiar with this one. Basically, a patient is given 50-75 grams of glucose in concentrated solution and his blood sugar response is measured. I’m not a fan of this test because no one should be ingesting that much concentrated glucose, and the test is not a completely accurate measure. (Just a side note: if yo Continue reading >>

Everything You Need To Know About Insulin

Everything You Need To Know About Insulin

Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach. It allows your body to use glucose for energy. Glucose is a type of sugar found in many carbohydrates. After a meal or snack, the digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates and changes them into glucose. Glucose is then absorbed into your bloodstream through the lining in your small intestine. Once glucose is in your bloodstream, insulin causes cells throughout your body to absorb the sugar and use it for energy. Insulin also helps balance your blood glucose levels. When there’s too much glucose in your bloodstream, insulin signals your body to store the excess in your liver. The stored glucose isn’t released until your blood glucose levels decrease, such as between meals or when your body is stressed or needs an extra boost of energy. Diabetes occurs when your body doesn't use insulin properly or doesn't make enough insulin. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is a type of autoimmune disease. These are diseases in which the body attacks itself. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body can’t make insulin. This is because your immune system has destroyed all of the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. This disease is more commonly diagnosed in young people, although it can develop in adulthood. In type 2 diabetes, your body has become resistant to the effects of insulin. This means your body needs more insulin to get the same effects. Therefore, your body overproduces insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal. However, after many years of overproduction, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas burn out. Type 2 diabetes also affects people of any age, but typically develops later in life. Injections of insulin as a replacement or supplement Continue reading >>

How Insulin Really Works: It Causes Fat Storage…but Doesn’t Make You Fat

How Insulin Really Works: It Causes Fat Storage…but Doesn’t Make You Fat

Many people believe that insulin is to blame for the obesity epidemic. When you understand how it actually works, you’ll know why this is a lie. Insulin has been taking quite a beating these days. If we’re to listen to some “experts,” it’s an evil hormone whose sole goal is making us fat, type 2 diabetics. Furthermore, we’re told that carbohydrates also are in on the conspiracy. By eating carbs, we open the insulin floodgates and wreak havoc in our bodies. How true are these claims, though? Does it really make sense that our bodies would come with an insidious mechanism to punish carbohydrate intake? Let’s find out. What is Insulin, Anyway? Insulin is a hormone, which means it’s a substance the body produces to affect the functions of organs or tissues, and it’s made and released into the blood by the pancreas. Insulin’s job is a very important one: when you eat food, it’s broken down into basic nutrients (protein breaks down into amino acids; dietary fats into fatty acids; and carbohydrates into glucose), which make their way into the bloodstream. These nutrients must then be moved from the blood into muscle and fat cells for use or storage, and that’s where insulin comes into play: it helps shuttle the nutrients into cells by “telling” the cells to open up and absorb them. So, whenever you eat food, your pancreas releases insulin into the blood. As the nutrients are slowly absorbed into cells, insulin levels drop, until finally all the nutrients are absorbed, and insulin levels then remain steady at a low, “baseline” level. This cycle occurs every time you eat food: amino acids, fatty acids, and/or glucose find their way into your blood, and they’re joined by additional insulin, which ushers them into cells. Once the job is done, insu Continue reading >>

Functions Of Insulin

Functions Of Insulin

Insulin is a protein-based hormone that is made by the beta cells of the pancreas. Most people know that insulin is the hormone that helps the body’s cells put glucose into the cells for use as cellular fuel. In the absence of insulin, the cells do not have enough biochemical energy so they must use other nutrients in order to function. Without insulin, life-threatening complications can occur due to high blood sugar levels. Insulin and Metabolism When a person eats a meal containing glucose (or any other carbohydrate), the pancreas secretes insulin so that the glucose absorbed by the cells can be used for cellular metabolism. Insulin essential for cell metabolism and, without it, the individual would die. In type 1 diabetics, the pancreas cannot secrete insulin so the blood sugars go higher. The cells do not get enough glucose for cellular metabolism. In type 2 diabetes, there is usually enough insulin secreted; however, the cells are resistant to insulin and glucose cannot get into the cells for cellular metabolism. If diabetes is left unchecked, glucose builds up in the bloodstream and doesn’t get passed along to the cells nor is it stored as glycogen in the liver. This can damage many bodily organs and tissues, including the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, and kidneys. Insulin replacement is necessary for type 1 diabetes because these types of diabetics don’t get enough insulin from the pancreas to do its job. In some cases, type 2 diabetics need insulin because their pancreas has been overworked and is tired, damaging the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is injected into the fatty tissue, usually in the abdomen; however, other good sites for injection of insulin is the buttocks, thighs, or upper arms. Insulin’s action on the Digestive System When a person e Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

What Are The Side Effects Of Insulin Shots?

What Are The Side Effects Of Insulin Shots?

Insulin is at the center of the diabetes problem. In people with type 2 diabetes, the body does not use insulin effectively. The pancreas compensates by overproducing insulin, and in time, it simply cannot keep up with the demands of the body to keep glucose levels down. To provide enough insulin to the body to manage blood glucose levels, many diabetics are advised to take insulin shots. The insulin in these injections is a chemical that is produced artificially to resemble the insulin made in our pancreas. This insulin works just like natural insulin by escorting sugar from our blood into our cells. Type 2 diabetics deal with a condition known as insulin resistance. It is a phenomenon where cells aren’t sensitive to the action of insulin (escorting blood glucose into cells) and hence, do not respond to it. This leads to the accumulation of glucose in the blood and is called hyperglycemia. Supplemental insulin given to Type 2 diabetics helps the body ‘muscle’ sugar out of the bloodstream and into cells. Insulin injections are used to regulate blood sugar differently for the different diabetes-types: For people who have type 1 diabetes – Their bodies cannot make insulin and therefore they aren’t able to regulate the amount of glucose in their bloodstream. For people who have type 2 diabetes – Their bodies aren’t able to produce enough insulin, or use it effectively. The insulin shots are used because the blood sugar cannot be regulated with oral medications alone. They also stop the liver from producing more sugar. Every type of insulin available in a drug store works in this way. They, mainly, differ in two ways – How quickly they begin to work For how long they can regulate blood sugar levels Mechanism of Action Regulating the process in which glucose Continue reading >>

How Insulin Works

How Insulin Works

Insulin is a hormone made by one of the body's organs called the pancreas. Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy. It also helps your body store it in your muscles, fat cells, and liver to use later, when your body needs it. After you eat, your blood sugar (glucose) rises. This rise in glucose triggers your pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin travels through the blood to your body's cells. It tells the cells to open up and let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy or store it to use later. Without insulin, your body can't use or store glucose for energy. Instead, the glucose stays in your blood. Continue reading >>

What Does Insulin Do In My Body?

What Does Insulin Do In My Body?

Diabetes mellitus (MEL-ih-tus), often referred to as diabetes, is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels that result from the body’s inability to produce enough insulin and/or effectively utilize the insulin. Diabetes is a serious, life-long condition and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism (the body's way of digesting food and converting it into energy). There are three forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that accounts for five- to 10-percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for 90- to 95-percent of all diagnosed cases. The third type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy and is referred to as gestational diabetes. Left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause health issues for pregnant women and their babies. People with diabetes can take preventive steps to control this disease and decrease the risk of further complications. Continue reading >>

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