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Insulin Uiu/ml To Pmol/l

Diabetes | Health24

Diabetes | Health24

HII need some advice, my Ob called me with the results, and didn explain, so im pretty confused. All she said its not looking good and i now have Diabetes :( . I am 35 and here is my bloods( had a scan n i have pcos, realy bad both ovaries are full with cytyss-chlolestrol 4.9 mmol/L4s ldl cholesterol 2.3 mmol/Ls hdl cholesterol 2.0s non hdl cholesterol2.9s chol /hdl ratio 2.5s triglyceride 1.37p glucose fasting 6.3 mmol/linsulin fasting s- 15.8homa index 4.42quicki index-0.308glucose n insulin ratio-0.398s tsg(thyrotropin 1.22 uiu/mls ft4 (thyroxine -15.6 pmol/ls-17b oestradiol (e2)-509 pmol/ltestosterone total-0.8 nmol/lsex horm binding gloubiulin- 10.80 nmol/lfree testosterone index- 7.4free testosterone 24 pmol/ls fsh-6.3 u/ls lutropin (LH)-14.0 u/ls prolactin -13.6ng/mlerythrocyte count-5.20 x1012/lhaemoglobin- 14.6 g/dlhaematocrit- 0.45l/lmcv-86.5flmch-28.1pgmchc- 32.4rdw-13.8platelets-370 x 10 9/11nuetrophils-5.16lympoctes-3.8 x 10monocytes- 0.50 x 10eosinophils-0.13 x 10basophils- 0.02 x 10 According to SAguidelines, a fasting glucose at the laboratory (done in the morning afterfasting overnight for 8 hours) is considered normal if it is less than 6.1,pre-diabetes if it is between 6.1 and 7, and diabetes if it is 7 or more.Another test we do is a glucose tolerance test, where after an overnight 8 hourfast a patient is given 75 grams of glucose in water and then their glucoselevel is tested after 2 hours. At 2 hours a normal glucose level shouldbe less than 7.8, and we would consider a level 11.1 or higher to bein the diabetic range. A level in between 7.8 and 11.1 would fall intothe pre-diabetic range. Some patients may be normal on one test and abnormal onthe other. Normally we need at least 2 levels above the cut offs for diabetesto make the diagnosis, or one Continue reading >>

Insulin Conversion To Pmol/l, Iu/ml, Miu/l. Online Converter From Conventional Units To Si Units | Unitslab.com

Insulin Conversion To Pmol/l, Iu/ml, Miu/l. Online Converter From Conventional Units To Si Units | Unitslab.com

* The SI unit is the recommended method of reporting clinical laboratory results Insulin is a peptide hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 6000 daltons. It is secreted by the Bcells of the pancreas and passes into circulation via the portal vein and the liver. Insulin is generally released in pulses, with the parallel glucose cycle normally about 2 minutes ahead of the insulin cycle. The insulin molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, the chain with 21 and the chain with 30 amino acids. Biosynthesis of the hormone takes place in the cells of the islets of Langerhans in the form of singlechain preproinsulin, which is immediately cleaved to give proinsulin. Specific proteases cleave proinsulin to insulin and Cpeptide which pass into the bloodstream simultaneously. About half of the insulin, but virtually none of the Cpeptide, is retained in the liver. Circulating insulin has a halflife of 35 minutes and is preferentially degraded in the liver, whereas inactivation or excretion of proinsulin and Cpeptide mainly takes place in the kidneys. The amino acid sequence of insulin has remained surprisingly constant during evolution, with the result that prior to the development of genetically engineered human insulin it was possible to successfully use porcine or bovine insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The action of insulin is mediated by specific receptors and primarily consists of facilitation of the uptake of sugar by the cells of the liver, fatty tissue and musculature; this is the basis of its hypoglycemic action. Serum insulin determinations are mainly performed on patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia. They are used to ascertain the glucose/insulin quotients and for clarification of questions concerning insulin secretion, e.g. in the tolbutami Continue reading >>

Test For Insulin Resistance With Accuracy.

Test For Insulin Resistance With Accuracy.

Acanthosis Nigricans (dark velvety skin behind the neck or under the arms) Why are so many patients with these clear signs and symptoms of insulin resistance testing negative for the most common assays for diabetes? The answer is simple! The wrong tests are being recommended. Whats the Difference Between Diabetes and Insulin Resistance? Rather than a condition that develops overnight, the onset of type two diabetes is a lengthy process that takes many, many years to manifest. It begins with insulin resistance, often starting decades before thehigh blood sugar levels characteristic of a diabetic emerge. Insulin resistance is characterized by hyperinsulinemia the secretion of higher than normal amounts of insulin either after eating, or continuously even when fasting. Insulin is an important hormone without which we would quickly die. It is released after we eat, and tells our bodies what to do with the energy we consume. Insulin directs glucose into storage within our cells and blocks the breakdown of fat since there is already abundant energy in the bloodstream after a meal. Thisnatural, healthy process can go wrong through genetic susceptibility or if we gain significant weight. As cells accumulate excess energy or through predisposing genetic factors, they become less sensitive to insulins message. The pancreas must then produce increased amounts of insulin in order to manage blood sugar effectively. Unfortunately, we can secrete high amounts of insulin and have quite normal blood glucose for some time this is because increased levels of insulin can work overtime keeping the blood sugar from climbing too high. Unfortunately, having unusually high amounts of insulin after eating, or when fasting does have negative health impacts on our metabolism, hormones and cardiov Continue reading >>

Clinical Laboratory Reference Values

Clinical Laboratory Reference Values

Clinical Laboratory Reference Values. In: Laposata M. Laposata M Ed. Michael Laposata.eds. Laboratory Medicine: The Diagnosis of Disease in the Clinical Laboratory New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014. Accessed April 02, 2018. . "Clinical Laboratory Reference Values." Laboratory Medicine: The Diagnosis of Disease in the Clinical Laboratory Laposata M. Laposata M Ed. Michael Laposata. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2014, The conventional units in this table are the ones most commonly used in the United States. Outside the United States, SI units are the predominant nomenclature for laboratory test results. The base units in the SI system related to laboratory testing that are found in this table include the mole (amount of substance), meter (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), and Celsius (temperature). Reference ranges vary depending on the instrument and the reagents used to perform the test. Therefore, the reference ranges shown in this table are only close approximations to the adult reference ranges found in an individual clinical laboratory. It is also important to understand that reference ranges can be significantly affected by age and sex. Conversion factors are provided in the table to allow the reader to convert conventional units to SI units and vice versa. The conversion of the conventional unit to SI unit requires a multiplication with the conversion factor, and conversion of the SI unit to the conventional unit requires division by the conversion factor. The sample fluid is sometimes highly restrictive. For example, coagulation tests must be performed using plasma samples and serum samples are unacceptable. For other compounds, both plasma samples and serum samples may be acceptable. However, there may be differences, often minor, in the results obtained usin Continue reading >>

Ir Calculator

Ir Calculator

Enter your horses glucose and insulin values and choose the units they were reported in. Any conversions necessary will be done automatically for you. Then click "Calculate". If the G:I ratio is less than 4.5, horse is severely IR. If the G:I ratio is between 4.5 and 10, the horse is compensated IR. A G:I ratio greater than 10 is normal. A RISQI greater than .32 is normal. A RISQI less than .32 indicates IR. A RISQI less than .22 indicates severe IR. Some horses will have a normal G:I ratio and RISQI but still be in danger if the glucose is over 100. An MIRG greater than 5.6 will indicate IR in these cases. Leptin is more sensitive than insulin and can still be abnormal even if insulin is not. Risk of IR increases at the higher leptin values although sudden changes in nutrient requirements, such as foaling or starting a regular training program, can result in leptin in the 5 to 6 range. IR can be diagnosed from insulin (RISQI) and leptin alone, but it's helpful to know glucose to make sure the hrose is not in the diabetic range. For more information see www.ecirhorse.com 1.Treiber. et al. (AJVR. Vol66. No. 12. December 2005 : 2114-2121) 2.Treiber. et al. (JAVMA, Vol 228, No. 10, May 15, 2006 : 1538-1545) 3.Eleanor Kellon, VMD, Equine Cushings Group 4.Cartmill, Leptin in Horses, LSU, May 2004 Continue reading >>

How To Test For Insulin Resistance: Your Comprehensive Guide

How To Test For Insulin Resistance: Your Comprehensive Guide

This guide is dedicated to Dr.Joseph Kraft MD, a pioneer in the development of laboratory assays to accurately test for insulin resistance before the development of diabetes. The amazing Dr. Kraft just recently passed away in 2017 at the age of 95. His contributions to the field of metabolic and cardiovascular health were under-appreciated during his time but have vast implications today! I’ve been told that my Blood Sugar is Normal! So I’m Not Insulin Resistant, Right? In most medical practices, it is typical to test patients for blood markers of diabetes. Unfortunately, this type of thinking is rather dangerous as the vast majority of people who exhibit signs and symptoms of insulin resistance test negative for diabetes! Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance Increased abdominal circumference Easy weight gain Difficult weight loss Acanthosis nigricans (dark velvety skin behind the neck or under the arms) Skin tags Fatty liver Why are so many patients with these clear signs and symptoms of insulin resistance testing negative for the most common assays for diabetes? The answer is simple! The wrong tests are being recommended. What’s the Difference Between Diabetes and Insulin Resistance? Rather than a condition that develops overnight, the onset of type two diabetes is a lengthy process that takes many, many years to manifest. It begins with insulin resistance, often starting decades before the high blood sugar levels characteristic of a diabetic emerge. Insulin resistance is characterized by hyperinsulinemia – the secretion of higher than normal amounts of insulin either after eating, or continuously even when fasting. Insulin is an important hormone – without which we would quickly die. It is released after we eat, and tells our bodies what to do with the Continue reading >>

Faq | Vanderbilt Hormone & Analytical Services Core

Faq | Vanderbilt Hormone & Analytical Services Core

Vanderbilt Hormone & Analytical Services Core 1. How long will it take to get my results? The typical turnaround time for most assays is ~3 weeks. We process all requests in the order in which they are received so large preceding requests or unexpected problems with an assay can cause delays. Low-frequency assays are only run when we have a sufficient number of samples to cover the cost of the assay. Although it's helpful for us to know when results are needed urgently, we process all requests in the order in which they are received. 3. Can I get a discount for submitting a large number of samples? No, the labis a federally supported non-profit core, therefore assays are already performed at cost. 4. How much sample is required for the assay? 6. Can I submit one tube for multiple assays? No, to avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles samples must bealiquotedinto separate tubes for each assay. Yes, but plasma is preferred because it is cleaner, easier to work with, and therefore gives better results. See here . Please ship overnight, Mon-Weds, with sufficient dry ice to avoid loss of your sample. 9. Do I need to add a preservative during sample collection? 10. What factor converts insulin from U/ml to pmol/L or ng/ml? 11. What factor converts glucagon from pg/ml to pmol/l? Divide pg/ml by 3.45 to convert topmol/l. 12. I'm having trouble with iLab, what should I do? 13. iLab is asking for a PO number. I don't have one yet, what should I do? When you place the order in iLab, you will create a PO number in the payment section. This can be a true PO number or a reference name/number that youd like to use. If you use a reference name/number and receive a true PO number later, you can go back into your order and update the payment information. When you acquire a true PO is up to yo Continue reading >>

Homa Ir – Insulin Resistance Calculator

Homa Ir – Insulin Resistance Calculator

HOMA-IR stands for Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. The meaningful part of the acronym is “insulin resistance”. It marks for both the presence and extent of any insulin resistance that you might currently express. It is a terrific way to reveal the dynamic between your baseline (fasting) blood sugar and the responsive hormone insulin. See The Blood Code book for further insight about your result. Healthy Range: 1.0 (0.5–1.4) Less than 1.0 means you are insulin-sensitive which is optimal. Above 1.9 indicates early insulin resistance. Above 2.9 indicates significant insulin resistance. The HOMA-IR calculation requires U.S. standard units. To convert from international S.I. units use the fields below (your conversions will automatically be entered above): Insulin: pmol/L to uIU/mL, divide by (÷) 6 Glucose: mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by (x) 18 *[Insulin Units: mU/L is an alternate and equivalent way to state uU/mL or uIU/mL for Insulin]* TG:HDL – Heart Disease Risk Calculator The HDL, on it’s own, represents how well your liver is producing the useful and healthful HDL-cholesterol. But if you have high TG, your HDL usually drops. Conversely, as you move toward a healthier metabolism, your TG will reduce and your HDL will go up. The ratio between the two is important. The Blood Code Reference Ranges Optimal range: 0.5–1.9 Some insulin resistance: 2.0–3.0 Significant insulin resistance and heart disease risk is found at ratios >3.0 The TG:HDL calculation requires U.S. standard units. To convert from international S.I. units use the fields below (your conversions will automatically be entered above): This ratio, like HOMA-IR, requires U.S. standard measurements; therefore you must convert into U.S. standard units. HDL: mmol/L to mg/dL: multiply Continue reading >>

Pubtator - Pmid:12671116

Pubtator - Pmid:12671116

TITLE:Glucose and lipid metabolism in small for gestational age infants at 48 hours of age.ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE: To study the consequences of low birth weight on glucose and lipid metabolism 48 hours after delivery. METHODS: We studied 136 small for gestational age (SGA) and 34 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) term neonates who were born in Santiago, Chile. Prefeeding venous blood was obtained 48 hours after birth for determination of glucose, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxy butyrate, insulin, C-peptide, leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and cortisol. RESULTS: SGA newborns had lower glucose (SGA versus AGA, median [interquartile range]: 3.6 mmol/L [2.9-4.1 mmol/L] vs 3.9 mmol/L [3.6-4.6 mmol/L]) and insulin levels (31.3 pmol/L [20.8-47.9 pmol/L] vs 62.5 pmol/L [53.5-154.9]) than AGA infants, and they had higher glucose/insulin ratios (13.9 mg/dL/uIU/mL [8.6-19.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL] vs 8.2 mg/dL/uIU/mL [4.6-14.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL]). SGA infants also had higher levels of IGFBP-1 (5.1 nmol/L [4.4-6.7 nmol/L] vs 2.9 nmol/l [1.4-4.2 nmol/L]), free fatty acids (0.72 mEq/L [0.43-1.00 mEq/L] vs 0.33 mEq/L [0.26-0.54 mEq/L]) and beta-hydroxy butyrate (0.41 mEq/L [0.15-0.91 mEq/L] vs 0.09 mEq/L [0.05-0.13 mEq/L]). Sex-hormone binding globulin levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In early postnatal life, SGA infants display an increased insulin sensitivity with respect to glucose disposal but not with respect to suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, and hepatic production of IGFBP-1. It will be important to determine how these differential sensitivities to insulin vary with increasing age. Continue reading >>

Insulin: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Insulin: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Insulin is an anabolic hormone that promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis of skeletal muscle and fat tissue through the tyrosine kinase receptor pathway. In addition, insulin is the most important factor in the regulation of plasma glucose homeostasis, as it counteracts glucagon and other catabolic hormonesepinephrine, glucocorticoid, and growth hormone. Table 1. Reference Range of Insulin Levels [ 1 ] (Open Table in a new window) A standard insulin test is positive for endogenous insulin and exogenous insulin. In addition, there is a minimal cross-reaction with proinsulin and insulinlike growth factors 1 and 2, with the degree of variability depending on the brand of the testing toolkit and technique used. Insulin testing is used to assist in identifying causes of hypoglycemia (plasma glucose levels < 55 mg/dL), especially upon signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (neurohypoglycopenic and autonomic symptoms). In this scenario, a 72-hour fasting test is performed. [ 2 ] Insulinoma: High insulin and C-peptide levels Nonbeta cell tumors: Low insulin and C-peptide levels and high insulinlike growth factor 2 level [ 3 ] Excessive insulin administration: High insulin levels and low C-peptide levels Insulin secretagogue administration (sulfonylurea and glinides): High insulin and C-peptide levels Congenital hyperinsulinism (mutation in insulin-secreting gene): High insulin and C-peptide levels Autoimmunity to insulin or insulin receptor (common in patients receiving insulin or those who have autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] or Hashimoto thyroiditis): Postprandial insulin is bound to antibodies and dissociated 1 hour later, resulting in an extremely elevated insulin level and high insulintoC-peptide ratio [ 4 ] T Continue reading >>

Testing Blood Insulin: How This Hormone Shows A Way To Health & Longevity

Testing Blood Insulin: How This Hormone Shows A Way To Health & Longevity

What is the single most helpful blood test, beyond what is usually done, that I can ask my doctor to order for me? I received this question following my recent presentation on blood test results to guide athletes toward better training, diet, and performance. I had lots of material to draw upon Testosterone for anabolic baseline, Free T3 for peripheral tissue thyroid conversion, and morning cortisol for adrenal response. But he asked for a single test, not a costly panel. Insulin, I replied. Heres why I realize insulin resistance seems like yesterdays news for us natural health providers. In fact, multiple international health organizations have been arguing about the definition of metabolic syndrome since 1998.1 But 20 years have passed and the hormone test is still underutilized and only partially understood, even within the functional medicine community. Sensitivity and resistance to this anabolic hormone tells an important story about disease risk, dietary response, metabolic tone, and longevity. Thats a lot of information to attribute to 1 hormone. Furthermore, your fasting glucose and fasting insulin together create a calculation called HOMA-IR [Fasting Insulin x Fasting Glucose, divided by 405]. The acronym HOMA inconsequentially means Homeostatic Model Assessment; IR meaningfully represents Insulin Resistance. I believe that a conversation about cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection, and metabolic health cannot occur without an assessment of insulin resistance and a goal toward insulin sensitivity. Insulin is the primary hormone that responds to what we eat. Insulin is released from the pancreatic beta cells when carbohydrates are ingested, and, to a lesser degree, protein. Insulin is also secreted when the stomach stretches, regardless of food type. Ins Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 6000 daltons. It is secreted by the B‑cells of the pancreas and passes into circulation via the portal vein and the liver. Insulin is generally released in pulses, with the parallel glucose cycle normally about 2 minutes ahead of the insulin cycle. The insulin molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, the α‑chain with 21 and the β‑chain with 30 amino acids. Biosynthesis of the hormone takes place in the β‑cells of the islets of Langerhans in the form of single‑chain preproinsulin, which is immediately cleaved to give proinsulin. Specific proteases cleave proinsulin to insulin and C‑peptide which pass into the bloodstream simultaneously. About half of the insulin, but virtually none of the C‑peptide, is retained in the liver. Circulating insulin has a half‑life of 3‑5 minutes and is preferentially degraded in the liver, whereas inactivation or excretion of proinsulin and C‑peptide mainly takes place in the kidneys. The amino acid sequence of insulin has remained surprisingly constant during evolution, with the result that prior to the development of genetically engineered human insulin it was possible to successfully use porcine or bovine insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The action of insulin is mediated by specific receptors and primarily consists of facilitation of the uptake of sugar by the cells of the liver, fatty tissue and musculature; this is the basis of its hypoglycemic action. Serum insulin determinations are mainly performed on patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia. They are used to ascertain the glucose/insulin quotients and for clarification of questions concerning insulin secretion, e.g. in the tolbutamide test and glucagon test or in the evaluation Continue reading >>

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Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Small For Gestational Age Infants At 48 Hours Of Age.

Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Small For Gestational Age Infants At 48 Hours Of Age.

Glucose and lipid metabolism in small for gestational age infants at 48 hours of age. Institute for Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. OBJECTIVE: To study the consequences of low birth weight on glucose and lipid metabolism 48 hours after delivery. METHODS: We studied 136 small for gestational age (SGA) and 34 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) term neonates who were born in Santiago, Chile. Prefeeding venous blood was obtained 48 hours after birth for determination of glucose, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxy butyrate, insulin, C-peptide, leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and cortisol. RESULTS: SGA newborns had lower glucose (SGA versus AGA, median [interquartile range]: 3.6 mmol/L [2.9-4.1 mmol/L] vs 3.9 mmol/L [3.6-4.6 mmol/L]) and insulin levels (31.3 pmol/L [20.8-47.9 pmol/L] vs 62.5 pmol/L [53.5-154.9]) than AGA infants, and they had higher glucose/insulin ratios (13.9 mg/dL/uIU/mL [8.6-19.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL] vs 8.2 mg/dL/uIU/mL [4.6-14.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL]). SGA infants also had higher levels of IGFBP-1 (5.1 nmol/L [4.4-6.7 nmol/L] vs 2.9 nmol/l [1.4-4.2 nmol/L]), free fatty acids (0.72 mEq/L [0.43-1.00 mEq/L] vs 0.33 mEq/L [0.26-0.54 mEq/L]) and beta-hydroxy butyrate (0.41 mEq/L [0.15-0.91 mEq/L] vs 0.09 mEq/L [0.05-0.13 mEq/L]). Sex-hormone binding globulin levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In early postnatal life, SGA infants display an increased insulin sensitivity with respect to glucose disposal but not with respect to suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, and hepatic production of IGFBP-1. It will be important to determine how these differential sensitivities to insulin vary with increasing age. Continue reading >>

What Is The Conversion Of Insulin Units From Uiu/ml To Pmol/l?

What Is The Conversion Of Insulin Units From Uiu/ml To Pmol/l?

Controversies in Treating Diabetes: Clinical and Research Aspects [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As an endocrinologist, I have educated countless patients with diabetes mellitus about the importance of maintaining good glycemic control. Indeed, currently there is no dispute that inadequate glycemic control contributes to some of the long-term complications of diabetes. However, not too long ago, it was controversial whether lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes would have any beneficial effects. Medicine is filled with such controversies, which usually result from insufficient or conflicting data, and the field of diabetes is no exception. Currently, the scientific community is divided on whether rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, increases the risk of myocardial ischemic events. This finding is based on a meta-analysis of short-term clinical trials and has not been confirmed in longer-term clinical trials. In 2008, a large clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk reported an unexpected finding of increased mortality among patients randomized to undergo near-normal glycemic control compared with those randomized to undergo conventional glycemic control. In contrast, intensive glycemic control did not increase mortality in 2 other recently completed clinical trials. Content validity of the PedsQL 3.2 Diabetes Module in newly diagnosed patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus ages 845 [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The content validity of the 28-item PedsQL 3.0 Diabetes Module has not been established in research on pediatric and adult patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes across a broad age range. T Continue reading >>

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