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Insulin Uiu/ml To Pmol/l

Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Small For Gestational Age Infants At 48 Hours Of Age.

Glucose And Lipid Metabolism In Small For Gestational Age Infants At 48 Hours Of Age.

Glucose and lipid metabolism in small for gestational age infants at 48 hours of age. Institute for Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. OBJECTIVE: To study the consequences of low birth weight on glucose and lipid metabolism 48 hours after delivery. METHODS: We studied 136 small for gestational age (SGA) and 34 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) term neonates who were born in Santiago, Chile. Prefeeding venous blood was obtained 48 hours after birth for determination of glucose, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxy butyrate, insulin, C-peptide, leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and cortisol. RESULTS: SGA newborns had lower glucose (SGA versus AGA, median [interquartile range]: 3.6 mmol/L [2.9-4.1 mmol/L] vs 3.9 mmol/L [3.6-4.6 mmol/L]) and insulin levels (31.3 pmol/L [20.8-47.9 pmol/L] vs 62.5 pmol/L [53.5-154.9]) than AGA infants, and they had higher glucose/insulin ratios (13.9 mg/dL/uIU/mL [8.6-19.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL] vs 8.2 mg/dL/uIU/mL [4.6-14.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL]). SGA infants also had higher levels of IGFBP-1 (5.1 nmol/L [4.4-6.7 nmol/L] vs 2.9 nmol/l [1.4-4.2 nmol/L]), free fatty acids (0.72 mEq/L [0.43-1.00 mEq/L] vs 0.33 mEq/L [0.26-0.54 mEq/L]) and beta-hydroxy butyrate (0.41 mEq/L [0.15-0.91 mEq/L] vs 0.09 mEq/L [0.05-0.13 mEq/L]). Sex-hormone binding globulin levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In early postnatal life, SGA infants display an increased insulin sensitivity with respect to glucose disposal but not with respect to suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, and hepatic production of IGFBP-1. It will be important to determine how these differential sensitivities to insulin vary with increasing age. Continue reading >>

Testing Blood Insulin: How This Hormone Shows A Way To Health & Longevity

Testing Blood Insulin: How This Hormone Shows A Way To Health & Longevity

What is the single most helpful blood test, beyond what is usually done, that I can ask my doctor to order for me? I received this question following my recent presentation on blood test results to guide athletes toward better training, diet, and performance. I had lots of material to draw upon Testosterone for anabolic baseline, Free T3 for peripheral tissue thyroid conversion, and morning cortisol for adrenal response. But he asked for a single test, not a costly panel. Insulin, I replied. Heres why I realize insulin resistance seems like yesterdays news for us natural health providers. In fact, multiple international health organizations have been arguing about the definition of metabolic syndrome since 1998.1 But 20 years have passed and the hormone test is still underutilized and only partially understood, even within the functional medicine community. Sensitivity and resistance to this anabolic hormone tells an important story about disease risk, dietary response, metabolic tone, and longevity. Thats a lot of information to attribute to 1 hormone. Furthermore, your fasting glucose and fasting insulin together create a calculation called HOMA-IR [Fasting Insulin x Fasting Glucose, divided by 405]. The acronym HOMA inconsequentially means Homeostatic Model Assessment; IR meaningfully represents Insulin Resistance. I believe that a conversation about cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection, and metabolic health cannot occur without an assessment of insulin resistance and a goal toward insulin sensitivity. Insulin is the primary hormone that responds to what we eat. Insulin is released from the pancreatic beta cells when carbohydrates are ingested, and, to a lesser degree, protein. Insulin is also secreted when the stomach stretches, regardless of food type. Ins Continue reading >>

Ir_intro

Ir_intro

You probably recognize insulin as the hormone that regulates blood sugar. For more on the amazing responsibilities of this ancient hormone, refer to my essay on Insulin: Master Regulator. Insulins major role is to control the rate of aging. 2 It does this by regulating sugar and fat metabolism. Studies of centenarians (people who live over 100 years) reveal there is little they have in common; for example, some never smoke while others are life-long smokers. Yet there are three things -- three metabolic indicators -- that are relatively consistent among centenarians: The common denominator for all three of these indicators is insulin. Cells of centenarians are consistently sensitive to insulin; insulin sensitivity is one of the most important markers of lifespan. 6 signals the processes that move glucose into cells for energy production; causes any excess sugar to be stored in adipose (fat) cells as fat; suppresses glucagons and growth hormones, which regulate the burning of fat (and stored fat, and rate of muscle development, respectively. Thus insulin acts as a double-edged sword in response to excess dietary carbs: insulin promotes storage of the excess carbohydrates as body fat, and then wards off the body's ability to lose that fat. 7 6/24/11: Heres an interesting study from Great Britain published in 2011. See BBC: Diabests, Diet and Obesity ; the study was published in Diabetologia: Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol Insulin resistance (IR) is much in the news lately. It is characterized by two metabolic problems: Inability of cells to respond to insulin, thus depriving them of needed glucose for energy production, despite the presence of adequate glucose in the blood Continue reading >>

Help Understanding Test Results?

Help Understanding Test Results?

Insulin resistance is caused by high glucose levels - it is a protective mechanism that the body uses to keep the glucose from further damaging our tissues. I can't go along with that. It's my understanding that it's the opposite. Insulin resistance precedes the development of type 2 diabetes, sometimes by years. In individuals who will ultimately develop type 2 diabetes, it has been shown that blood glucose and insulin levels are normal for many years, until at some point in time, insulin resistance develops. At this point, high insulin levels are often associated with central obesity, cholesterol abnormalities, and/or high blood pressure (hypertension). When these disease processes occur together, it is called the metabolic syndrome. One action of insulin is to cause the body's cells (particularly the muscle and fat) to remove and use glucose from the blood. This is one way by which insulin controls the level of glucose in blood. Insulin has this effect on the cells by binding to insulin receptors on the surface of the cells. You can think of it as insulin "knocking on the doors" of muscle and fat cells. The cells hear the knock, open up, and let glucose in to be used. With insulin resistance, the muscles don't hear the knock (they are resistant). So, the pancreas is notified that it needs to make more insulin, which increases the level of insulin in the blood and causes a louder knock. The resistance of the cells continues to increase over time. As long as the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, blood glucose levels remain normal. When the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin, the blood glucose levels begin to rise. I am being diagnosed with Type 2 because of my A1c with symptoms like increased thirst and fatigue. I wante Continue reading >>

Pubtator - Pmid:12671116

Pubtator - Pmid:12671116

TITLE:Glucose and lipid metabolism in small for gestational age infants at 48 hours of age.ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE: To study the consequences of low birth weight on glucose and lipid metabolism 48 hours after delivery. METHODS: We studied 136 small for gestational age (SGA) and 34 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) term neonates who were born in Santiago, Chile. Prefeeding venous blood was obtained 48 hours after birth for determination of glucose, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxy butyrate, insulin, C-peptide, leptin, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and cortisol. RESULTS: SGA newborns had lower glucose (SGA versus AGA, median [interquartile range]: 3.6 mmol/L [2.9-4.1 mmol/L] vs 3.9 mmol/L [3.6-4.6 mmol/L]) and insulin levels (31.3 pmol/L [20.8-47.9 pmol/L] vs 62.5 pmol/L [53.5-154.9]) than AGA infants, and they had higher glucose/insulin ratios (13.9 mg/dL/uIU/mL [8.6-19.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL] vs 8.2 mg/dL/uIU/mL [4.6-14.1 mg/dL/uIU/mL]). SGA infants also had higher levels of IGFBP-1 (5.1 nmol/L [4.4-6.7 nmol/L] vs 2.9 nmol/l [1.4-4.2 nmol/L]), free fatty acids (0.72 mEq/L [0.43-1.00 mEq/L] vs 0.33 mEq/L [0.26-0.54 mEq/L]) and beta-hydroxy butyrate (0.41 mEq/L [0.15-0.91 mEq/L] vs 0.09 mEq/L [0.05-0.13 mEq/L]). Sex-hormone binding globulin levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In early postnatal life, SGA infants display an increased insulin sensitivity with respect to glucose disposal but not with respect to suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, and hepatic production of IGFBP-1. It will be important to determine how these differential sensitivities to insulin vary with increasing age. Continue reading >>

Insulin Conversion To Pmol/l, Iu/ml, Miu/l. Online Converter From Conventional Units To Si Units | Unitslab.com

Insulin Conversion To Pmol/l, Iu/ml, Miu/l. Online Converter From Conventional Units To Si Units | Unitslab.com

* The SI unit is the recommended method of reporting clinical laboratory results Insulin is a peptide hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 6000 daltons. It is secreted by the Bcells of the pancreas and passes into circulation via the portal vein and the liver. Insulin is generally released in pulses, with the parallel glucose cycle normally about 2 minutes ahead of the insulin cycle. The insulin molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, the chain with 21 and the chain with 30 amino acids. Biosynthesis of the hormone takes place in the cells of the islets of Langerhans in the form of singlechain preproinsulin, which is immediately cleaved to give proinsulin. Specific proteases cleave proinsulin to insulin and Cpeptide which pass into the bloodstream simultaneously. About half of the insulin, but virtually none of the Cpeptide, is retained in the liver. Circulating insulin has a halflife of 35 minutes and is preferentially degraded in the liver, whereas inactivation or excretion of proinsulin and Cpeptide mainly takes place in the kidneys. The amino acid sequence of insulin has remained surprisingly constant during evolution, with the result that prior to the development of genetically engineered human insulin it was possible to successfully use porcine or bovine insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The action of insulin is mediated by specific receptors and primarily consists of facilitation of the uptake of sugar by the cells of the liver, fatty tissue and musculature; this is the basis of its hypoglycemic action. Serum insulin determinations are mainly performed on patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia. They are used to ascertain the glucose/insulin quotients and for clarification of questions concerning insulin secretion, e.g. in the tolbutami Continue reading >>

Faq | Vanderbilt Hormone & Analytical Services Core

Faq | Vanderbilt Hormone & Analytical Services Core

Vanderbilt Hormone & Analytical Services Core 1. How long will it take to get my results? The typical turnaround time for most assays is ~3 weeks. We process all requests in the order in which they are received so large preceding requests or unexpected problems with an assay can cause delays. Low-frequency assays are only run when we have a sufficient number of samples to cover the cost of the assay. Although it's helpful for us to know when results are needed urgently, we process all requests in the order in which they are received. 3. Can I get a discount for submitting a large number of samples? No, the labis a federally supported non-profit core, therefore assays are already performed at cost. 4. How much sample is required for the assay? 6. Can I submit one tube for multiple assays? No, to avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles samples must bealiquotedinto separate tubes for each assay. Yes, but plasma is preferred because it is cleaner, easier to work with, and therefore gives better results. See here . Please ship overnight, Mon-Weds, with sufficient dry ice to avoid loss of your sample. 9. Do I need to add a preservative during sample collection? 10. What factor converts insulin from U/ml to pmol/L or ng/ml? 11. What factor converts glucagon from pg/ml to pmol/l? Divide pg/ml by 3.45 to convert topmol/l. 12. I'm having trouble with iLab, what should I do? 13. iLab is asking for a PO number. I don't have one yet, what should I do? When you place the order in iLab, you will create a PO number in the payment section. This can be a true PO number or a reference name/number that youd like to use. If you use a reference name/number and receive a true PO number later, you can go back into your order and update the payment information. When you acquire a true PO is up to yo Continue reading >>

Converting Ng/ml To Pmol/l

Converting Ng/ml To Pmol/l

I am about to do a lab practical in which I have to give my answers in both ng/ml and pmol/L, and just want to confirm that this is correct: quantity in ng/mL x 1000ml/1L x 1 mol/MW (in this case insulin, so 5800) = quantity in pmol/L Originally posted by Unregistered View Post I am about to do a lab practical in which I have to give my answers in both ng/ml and pmol/L, and just want to confirm that this is correct: quantity in ng/mL x 1000ml/1L x 1 mol/MW (in this case insulin, so 5800) = quantity in pmol/L The units of molar mass are g/mol, so when you divide nanograms in the numerator by 5800 g/mol, you will get nanomoles. You will have to multiply by 1000 pmol/nmol to get picomoles. For example. 100 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL x 1000 mL/L x 1 mol/5800 g x 1000 pmol/nmol = 17241 pmol/L or 17.241 nmol/L If you are not comfortable manipulating the prefixes, you may wish to replace them by appropriate powers of ten. However, if you view them as shorthand for powers of ten, with practice, you can manipulate them in your head. Continue reading >>

Homa Ir – Insulin Resistance Calculator

Homa Ir – Insulin Resistance Calculator

HOMA-IR stands for Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. The meaningful part of the acronym is “insulin resistance”. It marks for both the presence and extent of any insulin resistance that you might currently express. It is a terrific way to reveal the dynamic between your baseline (fasting) blood sugar and the responsive hormone insulin. See The Blood Code book for further insight about your result. Healthy Range: 1.0 (0.5–1.4) Less than 1.0 means you are insulin-sensitive which is optimal. Above 1.9 indicates early insulin resistance. Above 2.9 indicates significant insulin resistance. The HOMA-IR calculation requires U.S. standard units. To convert from international S.I. units use the fields below (your conversions will automatically be entered above): Insulin: pmol/L to uIU/mL, divide by (÷) 6 Glucose: mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by (x) 18 *[Insulin Units: mU/L is an alternate and equivalent way to state uU/mL or uIU/mL for Insulin]* TG:HDL – Heart Disease Risk Calculator The HDL, on it’s own, represents how well your liver is producing the useful and healthful HDL-cholesterol. But if you have high TG, your HDL usually drops. Conversely, as you move toward a healthier metabolism, your TG will reduce and your HDL will go up. The ratio between the two is important. The Blood Code Reference Ranges Optimal range: 0.5–1.9 Some insulin resistance: 2.0–3.0 Significant insulin resistance and heart disease risk is found at ratios >3.0 The TG:HDL calculation requires U.S. standard units. To convert from international S.I. units use the fields below (your conversions will automatically be entered above): This ratio, like HOMA-IR, requires U.S. standard measurements; therefore you must convert into U.S. standard units. HDL: mmol/L to mg/dL: multiply Continue reading >>

Ir Calculator

Ir Calculator

Enter your horses glucose and insulin values and choose the units they were reported in. Any conversions necessary will be done automatically for you. Then click "Calculate". If the G:I ratio is less than 4.5, horse is severely IR. If the G:I ratio is between 4.5 and 10, the horse is compensated IR. A G:I ratio greater than 10 is normal. A RISQI greater than .32 is normal. A RISQI less than .32 indicates IR. A RISQI less than .22 indicates severe IR. Some horses will have a normal G:I ratio and RISQI but still be in danger if the glucose is over 100. An MIRG greater than 5.6 will indicate IR in these cases. Leptin is more sensitive than insulin and can still be abnormal even if insulin is not. Risk of IR increases at the higher leptin values although sudden changes in nutrient requirements, such as foaling or starting a regular training program, can result in leptin in the 5 to 6 range. IR can be diagnosed from insulin (RISQI) and leptin alone, but it's helpful to know glucose to make sure the hrose is not in the diabetic range. For more information see www.ecirhorse.com 1.Treiber. et al. (AJVR. Vol66. No. 12. December 2005 : 2114-2121) 2.Treiber. et al. (JAVMA, Vol 228, No. 10, May 15, 2006 : 1538-1545) 3.Eleanor Kellon, VMD, Equine Cushings Group 4.Cartmill, Leptin in Horses, LSU, May 2004 Continue reading >>

What's The Ideal Fasting Insulin Level?

What's The Ideal Fasting Insulin Level?

[2013 update. I'm leaving this post up for informational purposes, but I think it's difficult to determine the "ideal" insulin level because it depends on a variety of factors including diet composition. Also, insulin assays are not always comparable to one another, particularly the older assays, so it's difficult to compare between studies] Insulin is an important hormone. Its canonical function is to signal cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream, but it has many other effects. Chronically elevated insulin is a marker of metabolic dysfunction, and typically accompanies high fat mass, poor glucose tolerance (prediabetes) and blood lipid abnormalities. Measuring insulin first thing in the morning, before eating a meal, reflects fasting insulin. High fasting insulin is a marker of metabolic problems and may contribute to some of them as well. Elevated fasting insulin is a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome, the quintessential modern metabolic disorder that affects 24% of Americans (NHANES III). The average insulin level in the U.S., according to the NHANES III survey, is 8.8 uIU/mL for men and 8.4 for women (2). Given the degree of metabolic dysfunction in this country, I think it's safe to say that the ideal level of fasting insulin is probably below 8.4 uIU/mL. Let's dig deeper. What we really need is a healthy, non-industrial "negative control" group. Fortunately, Dr. Staffan Lindeberg and his team made detailed measurements of fasting insulin while they were visiting the isolated Melanesian island of Kitava (3). He compared his measurements to age-matched Swedish volunteers. In male and female Swedes, the average fasting insulin ranges from 4-11 uIU/mL, and increases with age. From age 60-74, the average insulin level is 7.3 uIU/mL. In contrast, the range on Kit Continue reading >>

Do You Know Your Insulin Level?

Do You Know Your Insulin Level?

People often keep close watch on their glucose numbers. But how many of us know our insulin level? Dr. Joseph Mercola says fasting insulin is “the number that may best predict your sudden death.” Sounds important. But what does it mean? Our bodies need some circulating insulin at all times, even when we don’t eat. Otherwise, our livers keep making glucose and dumping it into the blood. Livers do this to prevent blood glucose from going too low. So a fasting insulin level should never be 0, which it might be in a person with untreated Type 1. It shouldn’t go below 3. But a high insulin level is just as problematic. A high insulin level is a sign of insulin resistance or prediabetes. It can also signify early-stage Type 2. According to Dr. Mercola, too much insulin promotes weight gain by storing fat. It promotes insulin resistance, lowers magnesium levels, and increases inflammation. It also tends to lower HDL (“good”) cholesterol and raise levels of LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. All of these increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease. It may be that high insulin levels come before insulin resistance and help cause it. If you already have diabetes, why should you know your insulin level? Mainly, it helps diagnose what is happening with you. Your blood glucose may be high, but how much of the problem is too little insulin? How much is insulin resistance? A fasting insulin level test is valuable in several situations: • Diagnosing prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. “Prediabetes” is one result of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance causes high cholesterol, high glucose, and high blood pressure. A high level of fasting insulin indicates insulin resistance and can encourage a person to make changes to lower it. • Separating Type 2 from LADA (latent Continue reading >>

Fasting Insulin

Fasting Insulin

A blood test for fasting insulin can be one of the most important that you get. It’s important because it shows the degree of insulin resistance: the higher the number, the more insulin resistant. A very high number generally means type 2 diabetes. A number merely higher than normal can signify metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes. Hyperinsulinemia, or too much insulin in the blood, is one of the main causes of chronic disease in the modern world, including heart disease, cancer, kidney disease, and of course diabetes. Being sedentary leads to insulin resistance, and exercise can prevent it. Insulin resistance is strongly associated with obesity, but normal weight people, especially those who are skinny-fat, can have it too. A diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates, especially when combined with seed oils, leads to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. My fasting insulin test Doctors don’t routinely test for fasting insulin; they normally do so only if they suspect diabetes. I’ve had a few tests of fasting blood glucose that were high, in the range of 100 to 110. That’s an odd result, because I eat a low-carbohydrate diet and lift weights, and have a body fat percentage that I don’t know exactly but is likely <15%. It’s probably due to the so-called dawn phenomenon, or physiological insulin resistance, which is normal. When on a low-carbohydrate diet, the liver can become insulin resistant in order to make glucose for the rest of the body. To be honest, the causes of the dawn phenomenon are not fully elucidated, and experts give varying explanations. But the fact is that many people who eat low-carb report it. Another reason for a high fasting glucose can be stress and cortisol; if you go for a blood draw on a morning when you’re rushing off to work Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin is a peptide hormone with a molecular weight of approximately 6000 daltons. It is secreted by the B‑cells of the pancreas and passes into circulation via the portal vein and the liver. Insulin is generally released in pulses, with the parallel glucose cycle normally about 2 minutes ahead of the insulin cycle. The insulin molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, the α‑chain with 21 and the β‑chain with 30 amino acids. Biosynthesis of the hormone takes place in the β‑cells of the islets of Langerhans in the form of single‑chain preproinsulin, which is immediately cleaved to give proinsulin. Specific proteases cleave proinsulin to insulin and C‑peptide which pass into the bloodstream simultaneously. About half of the insulin, but virtually none of the C‑peptide, is retained in the liver. Circulating insulin has a half‑life of 3‑5 minutes and is preferentially degraded in the liver, whereas inactivation or excretion of proinsulin and C‑peptide mainly takes place in the kidneys. The amino acid sequence of insulin has remained surprisingly constant during evolution, with the result that prior to the development of genetically engineered human insulin it was possible to successfully use porcine or bovine insulin in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The action of insulin is mediated by specific receptors and primarily consists of facilitation of the uptake of sugar by the cells of the liver, fatty tissue and musculature; this is the basis of its hypoglycemic action. Serum insulin determinations are mainly performed on patients with symptoms of hypoglycemia. They are used to ascertain the glucose/insulin quotients and for clarification of questions concerning insulin secretion, e.g. in the tolbutamide test and glucagon test or in the evaluation Continue reading >>

Testing Blood Insulin: How This Hormone Shows A Way To Health & Longevity

Testing Blood Insulin: How This Hormone Shows A Way To Health & Longevity

What is the single most helpful blood test, beyond what is usually done, that I can ask my doctor to order for me? I received this question following my recent presentation on blood test results to guide athletes toward better training, diet, and performance. I had lots of material to draw upon Testosterone for anabolic baseline, Free T3 for peripheral tissue thyroid conversion, and morning cortisol for adrenal response. But he asked for a single test, not a costly panel. Insulin, I replied. Heres why I realize insulin resistance seems like yesterdays news for us natural health providers. In fact, multiple international health organizations have been arguing about the definition of metabolic syndrome since 1998.1 But 20 years have passed and the hormone test is still underutilized and only partially understood, even within the functional medicine community. Sensitivity and resistance to this anabolic hormone tells an important story about disease risk, dietary response, metabolic tone, and longevity. Thats a lot of information to attribute to 1 hormone. Furthermore, your fasting glucose and fasting insulin together create a calculation called HOMA-IR [Fasting Insulin x Fasting Glucose, divided by 405]. The acronym HOMA inconsequentially means Homeostatic Model Assessment; IR meaningfully represents Insulin Resistance. I believe that a conversation about cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection, and metabolic health cannot occur without an assessment of insulin resistance and a goal toward insulin sensitivity. Insulin is the primary hormone that responds to what we eat. Insulin is released from the pancreatic beta cells when carbohydrates are ingested, and, to a lesser degree, protein. Insulin is also secreted when the stomach stretches, regardless of food type. Ins Continue reading >>

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