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Insulin Test Normal Range

What Tests Should I Get For Insulin Resistance And Pcos?

What Tests Should I Get For Insulin Resistance And Pcos?

Is Insulin Resistance Causing Your PCOS? Insulin resistance and PCOS commonly occur together. Have you got PCOS, but never been tested for insulin resistance? Or maybe you have been tested, but your doctor has told you that your blood sugar is normal? If so, you may have been left wondering what’s causing your PCOS. During my second year at university we did an experiment where were measured our blood glucose levels after eating different foods. We’d just been learning about how blood glucose could be lower in athletes due to higher muscle mass and increased insulin sensitivity. At the time, I was training for 20 hours a week. You can imagine my shock when I found that my results were close to the top end of the normal range. However, when I queried my doctor about this she assured me that it was still within the normal range. She told me that I needn’t be worried. I’m going to explain to you why this is incorrect and why even slight changes in blood glucose can be a sign of insulin resistance. Studies have shown that up to 70% of women with PCOS have insulin resistance. I’m always amazed at the number of women I talk to who have been diagnosed with PCOS, but not tested for insulin resistance. You were not born with PCOS. PCOS is a condition that develops due to your environment interacting with your genes. Your ‘environment’ includes what you eat, how much you exercise, stress levels, environmental toxins, etc. It’s therefore easy to see that there is always something in your environment causing your PCOS. If you can find out what this is then you can remove it, then reverse your PCOS symptoms. I’ve written about the main causes of PCOS and how insulin resistance is the main one. Now I want to further explore insulin resistance: – What is it? – Ho Continue reading >>

Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Results – How To Read

Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Results – How To Read

Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Full Article Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Owners Help Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Cortisol – Skip It Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – ACTH Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – New Standard Way Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Pregnant Mares Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Tubes to Use Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Where to Send Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Equine Insulin/Glucose Ratio – No Value Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – MIRG/RISQI – No Value, Leptin – No Value Equine Insulin Resistance Testing – Retest Equine Insulin Resistance Testing Things to know prior to testing – What can I do as an owner to make testing more accurate? The horse Insulin hormone is the key hormone to get tested, but if you are concerned enough to test, also check the Glucose, total T4 and the ACTH (if suspect Cushings). If you suspect Cushings, always test the Insulin at the same time. Research is showing that Cushings may be occurring earlier and earlier in horses due to high Insulin damaging Pituitary cells. Also, ACTH at high levels interferes with the Insulin function leading to high Insulin resulting in Equine Insulin Resistance. Your horse can have Equine Insulin Resistance or Equine Cushings or both at the same time. Special tubes are required and special handling of the blood is needed for accurate numbers. Poor handling in any step will yield false numbers and that leads to your horse not getting the correct therapy. Keep your horse as calm as possible – maintain routine – you know the best ways to do that – a rodeo to catch the horse will falsely elevate hormones. Tell your doctor if the horse is sick. Fevers, current Laminitis is enough stress to elevate Insulin and A Continue reading >>

Insulin Testing: Test Your Insulin Levels

Insulin Testing: Test Your Insulin Levels

Insulin Testing – General Guidelines Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that’s used to transport glucose throughout the body. As we eat, carbohydrates are processed into sugar, or “glucose” which is then absorbed by cells for energy. Insulin testing is used to determine levels within the body, and a “fasting insulin”, or “serum” may be ordered by a health practitioner. Blood drawn from an individual, (usually after fasting for at least 8 hours) is sent to a lab for analysis and can provide many insights into a person’s pancreatic health and insulin function. Other related tests, such as the “C-peptide” which monitors insulin made only in the pancreas, and “glucose tests”, used to detect diabetes are also sometimes ordered in addition to “insulin testing”. There are nearly 400 medications (both prescription and over-the-counter) that can affect blood glucose levels. Aspirin, corticosteroids, estrogen, diuretics, anti-seizure medications, and some antidepressants tend to raise glucose levels, while insulin, oral hypoglycemic medications, anabolic steroids, and acetaminophen have the opposite effect, lowering glucose in the bloodstream. Heavy physical activity or exercise directly prior to insulin testing can affect blood glucose levels as well. Why Test Is Used While insulin is produced and stored in beta cells within the pancreas, there are a number of medical conditions that can interfere with its ability to effectively carry out the glucose transfer process. If too little insulin is produced, or if the body is resistant to its effects, cells will starve. If too much is available, low blood glucose may result. Insulin testing may be used to help indicate: Pancreatic tumors that produce insulin, known as “insulinomas” Whether Continue reading >>

Anti-insulin Antibody Test

Anti-insulin Antibody Test

Definition The anti-insulin antibody test checks to see if your body has produced antibodies against insulin. Antibodies are proteins the body produces to protect itself when it detects anything "foreign," such as a virus or transplanted organ. Alternative Names Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How to Prepare for the Test No special preparation is necessary. How the Test will Feel When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away. Why the Test is Performed This test may be performed if: You have or are at risk for type 1 diabetes You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes Normal Results Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean If you have IgG and IgM antibodies against insulin, your body reacts as if the insulin in your body is a foreign protein that needs to be removed. This may make insulin less effective, or not effective at all. This is because the antibody prevents the insulin from working the right way in your cells. As a result, your blood sugar can be unusually high. The antibodies can also prolong the effect of insulin by releasing some insulin long after your meal has been absorbed. This can put you at risk for low blood sugar. If the test shows a high level of IgE antibo Continue reading >>

Blood Test For Insulin Resistance / Prediabetes

Blood Test For Insulin Resistance / Prediabetes

Insulin resistance, also known as prediabetes, is a precursor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance can be present for 5-10 years leading up to a diagnosis, so it makes sense to have it tested. Yet most doctors will not automatically send you for a blood test for insulin resistance unless you ask. More commonly they are testing fasting glucose or doing an oral glucose test, which is still important because having elevated blood glucose is also a risk factor and indicator. But you can test to guage your level of insulin resistance and in my eyes that’s a good thing. If you know your own individual status, you can work on your lifestyle habits so you don’t develop type 2 diabetes. Blood Test for Insulin Resistance / Prediabetes Ask your doctor for: A fasting glucose test A fasting insulin test Then you can calculate your insulin resistance status using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index. The HOMA-IR test was developed from “the concept that fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels were determined, in part, by a hepatic-beta cell feedback loop”. Source So essentially it calculates the balance between pancreatic beta cell function, glucose, and insulin sensitivity. A fasting insulin test is something you may have to pay for yourself but it’s inexpensive and well worth doing so that you can get an insulin resistance calculation. Fasting Insulin Test If you use the fasting insulin test on it’s own you can still get a rough indication of your level of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance status: Between 10U/L- 14U/L indicates mild insulin resistance Above 14U/L indicates moderate to severe insulin resistance The upper limit for normal fasting insulin is 20U/L But this is not as accurate as the HOMA calculation because it doesn’t com Continue reading >>

Beaumont Laboratory

Beaumont Laboratory

Insulin Response, 5 hr. (to GTT) Insulin Response: GTT, EPIC: LAB5813, SOFT: ITT5H Instructions The patient should fast overnight prior to specimen collection. Specimen Collection Criteria Collect: One Gold-top SST tube at 0 minutes (Baseline), and 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, and 5 hours after the ingestion of the 75 g Glucola load. Physician Office/Drawsite Specimen Preparation Let each specimen clot 30-60 minutes then immediately centrifuge to separate serum from cells. Transfer serum to plastic aliquot tubes and refrigerate (2-8°C or 36-46°F) immediately. (Minimum Serum: 0.5 mL each specimen) Preparation for Courier Transport Transport: Serum aliquot tubes, refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F). (Minimum Serum: 0.5 mL each specimen) Rejection Criteria Lipemic, icteric, or grossly hemolyzed specimens. Samples left on the clot at room temperature. Samples subjected to repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Storage Specimen Stability for Testing: Centrifuged SST Tubes and Microtainers® with Separator Gels Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): Unacceptable Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable Red-top Tubes and Microtainers® without Separator Gels Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): Unacceptable Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable Serum Specimens (Pour-Overs) Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): Unacceptable Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): 3 months Specimen Storage in Department Prior to Disposal: Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days Laboratory Royal Oak Special Testing Laboratory. Performed Monday - Friday. Results available within 2 business days. Reference Range Normal fasting baseline: Less tha Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes

Diagnosing Diabetes

In diagnosing diabetes, physicians primarily depend upon the results of specific glucose tests. However, test results are just part of the information that goes into the diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Doctors also take into account your physical exam, presence or absence of symptoms, and medical history. Some people who are significantly ill will have transient problems with elevated blood sugars, which will then return to normal after the illness has resolved. Also, some medications may alter your blood glucose levels (most commonly steroids and certain diuretics, such as water pills). The 2 main tests used to measure the presence of blood sugar problems are the direct measurement of glucose levels in the blood during an overnight fast and measurement of the body's ability to appropriately handle the excess sugar presented after drinking a high glucose drink. Fasting Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar) Level A value above 126 mg/dL on at least 2 occasions typically means a person has diabetes. The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test An oral glucose tolerance test is one that can be performed in a doctor's office or a lab. The person being tested starts the test in a fasting state (having no food or drink except water for at least 10 hours but not greater than 16 hours). An initial blood sugar is drawn and then the person is given a "glucola" bottle with a high amount of sugar in it (75 grams of glucose or 100 grams for pregnant women). The person then has their blood tested again 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours after drinking the high glucose drink. For the test to give reliable results, you must be in good health (not have any other illnesses, not even a cold). Also, you should be normally active (for example, not lying down or confined to a bed like a patient in a Continue reading >>

Insulin Blood Test

Insulin Blood Test

What are the other Names for this Test? (Equivalent Terms) Insulin Test Serum Insulin Level Total and Free Insulin (Blood) What is Insulin Blood Test? (Background Information) Insulin is a protein molecule that is manufactured by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas Insulin is made from proinsulin, which consists of two chains, mainly A-chain and B-chain that are linked to each other with C-peptide. The A-chain, B-chain, and C-peptide, are together called proinsulin. The insulin molecule is made, after removing the C-peptide Increased levels of proinsulin are normally found in infants and preterm neonates. Increased levels of pro-insulin are present in type II diabetes and also in pre-type I diabetes Markedly elevated levels of pro-insulin are found in familial hyper-proinsulinemia which is a genetic condition that results in mutations from proinsulin gene. This condition can be found in individuals of Japanese heritage Increased levels of insulin can be noted in cirrhosis of liver The testing for insulin level should be performed along with glucose level. Insulin is a hormone that helps transport glucose from blood into the tissue. Glucose is necessary for energy functions of the cells. Decreased glucose within the cells will lead to starvation of the cells. In type I diabetes, generally the insulin levels are decreased, which results in increased glucose level in blood and decreased transport of glucose into the cells. In type II diabetes, there is an insulin resistance, which leads to decreased transport from the blood into the tissues. Individuals with insulin resistance would have high levels of insulin, in their blood. What are the Clinical Indications for performing the Insulin Blood Test? In clinical situations where there is increase in insul Continue reading >>

What's The Ideal Fasting Insulin Level?

What's The Ideal Fasting Insulin Level?

[2013 update. I'm leaving this post up for informational purposes, but I think it's difficult to determine the "ideal" insulin level because it depends on a variety of factors including diet composition. Also, insulin assays are not always comparable to one another, particularly the older assays, so it's difficult to compare between studies] Insulin is an important hormone. Its canonical function is to signal cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream, but it has many other effects. Chronically elevated insulin is a marker of metabolic dysfunction, and typically accompanies high fat mass, poor glucose tolerance (prediabetes) and blood lipid abnormalities. Measuring insulin first thing in the morning, before eating a meal, reflects fasting insulin. High fasting insulin is a marker of metabolic problems and may contribute to some of them as well. Elevated fasting insulin is a hallmark of the metabolic syndrome, the quintessential modern metabolic disorder that affects 24% of Americans (NHANES III). The average insulin level in the U.S., according to the NHANES III survey, is 8.8 uIU/mL for men and 8.4 for women (2). Given the degree of metabolic dysfunction in this country, I think it's safe to say that the ideal level of fasting insulin is probably below 8.4 uIU/mL. Let's dig deeper. What we really need is a healthy, non-industrial "negative control" group. Fortunately, Dr. Staffan Lindeberg and his team made detailed measurements of fasting insulin while they were visiting the isolated Melanesian island of Kitava (3). He compared his measurements to age-matched Swedish volunteers. In male and female Swedes, the average fasting insulin ranges from 4-11 uIU/mL, and increases with age. From age 60-74, the average insulin level is 7.3 uIU/mL. In contrast, the range on Kit Continue reading >>

Insulin C-peptide Test

Insulin C-peptide Test

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How To Test For Insulin Resistance: Your Comprehensive Guide

How To Test For Insulin Resistance: Your Comprehensive Guide

This guide is dedicated to Dr.Joseph Kraft MD, a pioneer in the development of laboratory assays to accurately test for insulin resistance before the development of diabetes. The amazing Dr. Kraft just recently passed away in 2017 at the age of 95. His contributions to the field of metabolic and cardiovascular health were under-appreciated during his time but have vast implications today! I’ve been told that my Blood Sugar is Normal! So I’m Not Insulin Resistant, Right? In most medical practices, it is typical to test patients for blood markers of diabetes. Unfortunately, this type of thinking is rather dangerous as the vast majority of people who exhibit signs and symptoms of insulin resistance test negative for diabetes! Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance Increased abdominal circumference Easy weight gain Difficult weight loss Acanthosis nigricans (dark velvety skin behind the neck or under the arms) Skin tags Fatty liver Why are so many patients with these clear signs and symptoms of insulin resistance testing negative for the most common assays for diabetes? The answer is simple! The wrong tests are being recommended. What’s the Difference Between Diabetes and Insulin Resistance? Rather than a condition that develops overnight, the onset of type two diabetes is a lengthy process that takes many, many years to manifest. It begins with insulin resistance, often starting decades before the high blood sugar levels characteristic of a diabetic emerge. Insulin resistance is characterized by hyperinsulinemia – the secretion of higher than normal amounts of insulin either after eating, or continuously even when fasting. Insulin is an important hormone – without which we would quickly die. It is released after we eat, and tells our bodies what to do with the Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Tests

Blood Sugar Tests

A test that measures blood sugar levels. Elevated levels are associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, in which the body cannot properly handle sugar (e.g. obesity). Goal values: Less than 100 mg/dL = normal Between 110–125 mg/dL = impaired fasting glucose (i.e., prediabetes) Greater than 126 mg/dL on two or more samples = diabetes Preparation This test requires a 12-hour fast. You should wait to eat and/or take a hypoglycemic agent (insulin or oral medication) until after test has been drawn, unless told otherwise. Eating and digesting foods called carbohydrates forms glucose (blood sugar). Glucose is needed by your body to provide energy to carry out your normal activities. Insulin is needed by the body to allow glucose to go into the cells and be used as energy. Without insulin, the levels of glucose in the blood will rise. Diabetes is a disease that occurs when either the pancreas (an organ in your body) is not able to produce insulin or the pancreas makes insulin, but it does not work as it should. Fasting blood sugar is a part of diabetic evaluation and management. An FBS greater than 126 mg/dL on more than one occasion usually indicates diabetes. Glycosylated Hemoglobin or Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) Reflects average blood sugar levels over the preceding 90-day period. Elevated levels are associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of a cardiac event. A diabetic person's risk for heart attack is the same as a non-diabetic person, who has experienced one heart attack, having a second heart attack. Aggressive global preventive risk reduction efforts, such as lower LDL targets, diet, exercise and blood pressure control, are recommended. Goal values (per American Diabetes Association guidelines): A range of 5.7-6.4 p Continue reading >>

Interpreting Your C-peptide Values

Interpreting Your C-peptide Values

Normal C-peptide levels for a fasting test are generally considered to be anything between 0.5 nanograms (ng) per millileter (ml) and 3 ng/ml, although people who do not have diabetes may occasionally stray out of this range. The following is a range of C-peptide values in people without diabetes, as compiled by Endocrine Sciences, Inc., a California-based laboratory that conducts the test. It should be noted that, in some cases, subjects fell below the normal range of C-peptide values, but were still not found to have diabetes. The range of values may also vary according to what lab your health care practitioner uses. Children (< 15 years old) 8:00 a.m. fasting: 0.4 to 2.2 ng/ml Adults 8:00 a.m. fasting: 0.4 to 2.1 ng/ml Two hours postprandial (after a meal): 1.2 to 3.4 ng/ml Two hours post glucose load: 2.0 to 4.5 ng/ml Although anything less than these numbers is generally an indicator of type 1 diabetes, values within the normal range can mean different things. “Type 2s with insulin resistance could actually be making more insulin than a non-diabetic slim person,” says Richard Bernstein, MD, FACE, FACN, CWS, of the Diabetes Center in Mamaroneck, New York. Values on the lower end may also indicate a honeymoon phase of type 1, when insulin production is slowing down but has not yet ground to a halt. Bernstein also points out that even in type 1s, a positive C-peptide test should be a source of optimism. “Of all my patients, I only have two who don’t make any C-peptide, and I’m one of them,” Bernstein says. He says this proves that most type 1s still produce at least some insulin and raises the possibility that therapies like beta-cell regeneration may eventually restore normal BG levels. This time of year, I always like to look back at the previous year an Continue reading >>

Fasting And 2-hour Plasma Glucose And Insulin

Fasting And 2-hour Plasma Glucose And Insulin

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine whether elevated fasting or 2-h plasma glucose and/or insulin better reflects the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers in an overweight pediatric population with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 151 overweight youths (8–17 years old) were evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and measurement of CVD risk factors. The study population was categorized according to quartiles of fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin levels. ANCOVA, adjusted for age, sex, race, Tanner stage, and percent body fat (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), was used to compare metabolic variables between the quartiles of glucose and insulin groups. RESULTS Increasing quartiles of fasting and 2-h insulin were associated with increasing CVD risk factors. Glucose quartiles on the other hand, either fasting or at 2 h, were not. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that hyperinsulinemia may be the earliest and/or primary metabolic alteration in childhood associated with risk markers for CVD. Prospective studies are needed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex) but otherwise healthy youth, 71 African American and 80 Caucasian (aged 8–17 years), underwent assessment of glucose tolerance at the Pediatric Clinical and Translational Research Center at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. Exclusion criteria and source of recruitment have been previously described (9). The investigation was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Pittsburgh. Parental informed consent and child assent were obtained. All participants underwent an examination with height and weight measurements and BMI calculation. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiomet Continue reading >>

The One Number That May Best Predict Your Risk Of Sudden Death

The One Number That May Best Predict Your Risk Of Sudden Death

There are seven numbers you should track if you want to monitor your health—five are determined by simple blood tests, and the other two you can determine at home The five blood tests you should regularly obtain are fasting insulin, cholesterol/HDL ratio, serum ferritin, uric acid, and vitamin D; two good indicators for assessing your overall “metabolic fitness” and heart attack risk are your percentage body fat and your waist-to-hip ratio Optimizing your vitamin D level is crucial for health because vitamin D influences about 3,000 of your 30,000 genes, helping to prevent a multitude of diseases from cardiovascular disease to the common cold Minimizing dietary sugar, especially fructose, will go a long way toward optimizing nearly ALL seven of these numbers—if you could do only one thing, this would be the one! By Dr. Mercola The Globe and Maili recently published an article outlining "the 5 numbers that most impact your health." I think they have the right idea, but but I disagree with their test selections. If you really want to monitor your health, I believe the numbers you should be tracking are the seven listed in the table below. These are far more important than tracking your total cholesterol, blood pressure, or BMI, as recommended by the Globe and Mail. Let's take a closer look at these values and what they may reveal about your health. 1. Fasting Insulin (I) 2. Cholesterol/HDL Ratio (C) 3. Percentage Body Fat (F) 4. Serum Ferritin (F) 5. Waist/Hip Ratio (WH) 6. Uric Acid Level (U) 7. Vitamin D Level (D) 1. Fasting Insulin Level Your fasting insulin level reflects how healthy your blood glucose levels are over time. Insulin helps sugar move from your blood into your cells, where it can be used or stored. Chronically elevated blood glucose leads to insu Continue reading >>

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