A Practical Guide To Carb Tolerance And Insulin Sensitivity
One of the biggest reasons why people go Paleo is the metabolic benefits. Most people find Paleo to be very therapeutic for a whole cluster of carb-related problems: high blood sugar (or the rollercoaster of highs and lows), insulin resistance, and all the related issues. These issues can make weight loss difficult or impossible, but on the flip side, addressing them through diet can make it easier and more pleasant than you ever thought could happen! On the other hand, though, there are a lot of myths and half-truths floating around about diet, exercise, and carb metabolism. So here’s a quick review of what it all means, and the evidence supporting various different complementary strategies for improving your carb tolerance (preview: it’s so much more than dietary carbs). Note: This article is not written for diabetics. Diabetes is a very complicated disease and strategies that are right for other people might not be appropriate. If you have diabetes, see a doctor! What Is “Carb Tolerance”/Insulin Sensitivity? (If you already know how insulin and glucose work, this section has nothing new for you; just skip down to the next one) Very simply put, insulin sensitivity (or “carb tolerance” in everyday language) is a healthy hormonal state that allows your body to digest and store carbohydrates without a problem. In healthy people, here’s how it works: You eat something with carbs (let’s say a potato, but it could be anything). Your digestive system breaks down the starch in that potato into glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar – this is the form of carbohydrate that you’ll either use for energy or store as fat. Your blood sugar temporarily rises as the glucose enters the bloodstream. This is not a big problem, because… Insulin (produced in the pancreas) Continue reading >>
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Insulin Secretion And Insulin Sensitivity Pattern Is Different In Isolated Impaired Glucose Tolerance And Impaired Fasting Glucose
The Risk Factor in Impaired Glucose Tolerance for Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Study Abstract OBJECTIVE—Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are two risk categories for type 2 diabetes. This study compared both categories with respect to the degree of insulin secretion abnormalities and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This is a crossover comparison of a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes. The subjects were recruited from the Risk Factor in Impaired Glucose Tolerance for Atherosclerosis and Diabetes (RIAD) study. They underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, with measurement of specific insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, and free fatty acids at baseline and every 30 min after load for 2 h. Factor analysis was performed to evaluate the importance of insulin resistance and secretion abnormalities in both categories. RESULTS—All categories of prediabetic hyperglycemia had a higher cardiovascular risk factor level when adjusted for sex, age, and BMI compared to control subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with isolated IFG were more insulin resistant than those with IGT. By contrast, subjects with isolated IGT exhibited a more severe deficit in early- and late-phase insulin secretion versus IFG subjects. As shown with factor analysis, in IFG the insulin resistance factor explained 28.4% of the variance, whereas in IGT the insulin secretion factor was dominant, explaining 31.1% of the total variance. CONCLUSIONS—Our cross-sectional data from the RIAD study demonstrate that isolated IFG and isolated IGT are different with respect to the degree of insulin resistance and anomalies in insulin secretion, and that subjects with IGT exhibit a deficit in the early and late phases of insulin secreti Continue reading >>
Low Carb Vs Higher Lower Carb - Insulin Resistance Vs Insulin Sensitivity
I watched this video: and around 42:00 the professor explained that people with insulin resistance did better on LC diet, but people with insulin sensitivity did better on higher carb diets. What is the difference between insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity? Can you check both in one test? Basically, I need it to be explained in very easy basic terms - I have tried looking it up, but I am not sure I understand. Continue reading >>
How Do I Increase Insulin Sensitivity?
What is insulin sensitivity? Definitions Insulin sensitivity is a general phenomena in the body, and can be measured a few ways through studies. The pancreas (an organ that regulates blood sugar) secretes insulin in response to high blood sugar, and cells (like muscle or fat cells) can absorb blood sugar when stimulated by insulin. Insulin sensitivity is the relationship between how much insulin needs to be produced in order to deposit a certain amount of glucose. You are insulin sensitive if a small amount of insulin needs to be secreted to deposit a certain amount of glucose, and insulin resistant if a lot of insulin needs to be secreted to deposit the same amount of glucose. Insulin sensitivity is seen as good as the opposite, insulin resistance, is a major risk factor for the development of Type II diabetes. Types of Insulin Sensitivity There are three main types of insulin sensitivity; peripheral insulin sensitivity, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic insulin sensitivity. Peripheral insulin sensitivity is how readily body cells in your periphery tissue, such as muscle and fat, can absorb glucose; either on their own (muscle can absorb glucose when contracted) or when insulin stimulates them. It is the most well-known form of insulin resistance. Hepatic insulin sensitivity is related to the process of gluconeogenesis, the production of new blood sugar. Usually inflammatory factors prevent insulin from acting in the liver via inducing insulin resistance, and insulin's actions are unable to tell the liver to 'stop' producing glucose. Pancreatic insulin sensitivity is the functioning of the cells that secrete insulin, the beta-cells. If these are damaged or cannot function, insulin resistance can develop. This is more of a concern in disease states like Continue reading >>
Tweet Insulin sensitivity describes how sensitive the body is to the effects of insulin. Someone said to be insulin sensitive will require smaller amounts of insulin to lower blood glucose levels than someone who has low sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity varies from person to person and doctors can perform tests to determine how sensitive an individual is to insulin. How does insulin sensitivity affect people with diabetes? People with low insulin sensitivity, also referred to as insulin resistance, will require larger amounts of insulin either from their own pancreas or from injections in order to keep blood glucose stable. Having insulin resistance is a sign that your body is having difficulty metabolising glucose, and this can indicate wider health problems such as high blood pressure and cholesterol levels may also be present. By contrast, having a particularly high sensitivity to insulin can also cause problems for people with type 1 diabetes, particularly young children. Why is insulin sensitivity important? Low insulin sensitivity can lead to a variety of health problems. The body will try to compensate for having a low sensitivity to insulin by producing more insulin. However, a high level of circulating insulin (hyperinsulinemia) is associated with damage to blood vessels, high blood pressure, heart disease and heart failure, obesity, osteoporosis and even cancer. Periods of stress and illness can both introduce short term periods of reduced insulin sensitivity. In most cases, insulin sensitivity should recover once the stress or illness has passed. Can high insulin sensitivity be problematic? Generally speaking, having a good sensitivity to insulin is a sign of good health, however, there are times when a higher sensitivity can be problematic. For people with t Continue reading >>
Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance
What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood. Insulin plays a major role in metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Insulin's Role in Blood Glucose Control When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin and glucose then travel in the blood to cells throughout the body. Insulin helps muscle, fat, and liver cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream, lowering blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver and muscle tissue to store excess glucose. The stored form of glucose is called glycogen. Insulin also lowers blood glucose levels by reducing glucose production in the liver. In a healthy person, these functions allow blood glucose and insulin levels to remain in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells. The beta cells in the pancreas try to keep up with this increased demand for insulin by producing more. As long as the beta cells are able to produce enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance, blood glucose levels stay in the healthy range. Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the bet Continue reading >>
Insulin Resistance Vs. Insulin Sensitivity Definition
Insulin's Operation Insulin attaches to a receptor on the surface of muscle tissue and drives a complex change within the interior compartment of the tissues which allows glucose to enter. Insulin Sensitivity Tissue responsiveness to insulin, meaning how successfully the receptor operates to permit glucose clearance, is termed insulin sensitivity. In the case of optimal insulin sensitivity, after a high sugar meal, insulin rises sharply, pushing glucose into the tissues rapidly, then dissipates. In the case of poor insulin sensitivity, however, insulin's elevation is sustained due to an inability to force glucose into muscle tissues. Consequences Poor receptor sensitivity indicates a failure in the communication between insulin and the internal cellular machinery. Locked out of the muscles, glucose remains elevated in circulation. Because glucose remains high, the pancreas must generate additional insulin or insulin will need to be injected to complete circulatory glucose disposal. Insulin Resistance Abnormally low insulin sensitivity is called insulin resistance. In this case, tissues resist the activity of insulin on a regular basis, disabling efforts to remove glucose from circulation and eventually requiring medical intervention. Disease Risk Insulin resistance also occurs at the liver and adipose tissues. When these tissues do not properly respond to insulin, glucose and fat are released into circulation. Sustained elevation of circulatory glucose and triglyceride causes cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Barbara Erfurt is a professor of health sciences and dance, who designs curriculum, presents talks, and writes health materials. Employers include Kaiser Permanente and other corporate wellness entities. In 2003, Erfurt wrote and published a book which facilitat Continue reading >>
Insulin And Insulin Resistance - The Ultimate Guide
Insulin is an important hormone that controls many processes in the body. However, problems with this hormone are at the heart of many modern health conditions. Sometimes our cells stop responding to insulin like they are supposed to. This condition is termed insulin resistance, and is incredibly common. In fact, a 2002 study showed that 32.2% of the US population may be insulin resistant (1). This number may rise to 70% in obese adult women and over 80% in some patient groups (2, 3). About a third of obese children and teenagers may also have insulin resistance (4). These numbers are scary, but the good news is that insulin resistance can be dramatically improved with simple lifestyle measures. This article explains what insulin resistance is, why you should care and how you can overcome it. Insulin is a hormone secreted by an organ called the pancreas. Its main role is to regulate the amount of nutrients circulating in the bloodstream. Although insulin is mostly implicated in blood sugar management, it also affects fat and protein metabolism. When we eat a meal that contains carbohydrates, the amount of blood sugar in the bloodstream increases. This is sensed by the cells in the pancreas, which then release insulin into the blood. Then insulin travels around the bloodstream, telling the body's cells that they should pick up sugar from the blood. This leads to reduced amounts of sugar in the blood, and puts it where it is intended to go, into the cells for use or storage. This is important, because high amounts of sugar in the blood can have toxic effects, causing severe harm and potentially leading to death if untreated. However, due to various reasons (discussed below), sometimes the cells stop responding to the insulin like they are supposed to. In other words, they Continue reading >>
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults. Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose. In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>
Insulin Resistance, Insulin Insensitivity, And Insulin Unresponsiveness: A Necessary Distinction.
Abstract Insulin resistance may be said to exist whenever normal concentrations of insulin produce a less than normal biologic response. Hormone resistant states may be divided into those due to decreased sensitivity to a hormone (i.e., a shift in the dose-response curve to the right), those due to a decrease in the maximal response to the hormone, and those that are combinations of decreased sensitivity and decreased responsiveness. This distinction is important, since the molecular mechanisms that produce these various forms of insulin resistance may be different. Disorders associated with alterations prior to the interaction of insulin with its receptor are more likely to produce states of decreased sensitivity, where disorders associated with alterations at the intracellular steps in insulin action are more likely to produce decreased responsiveness. Alterations in the insulin receptor itself may produce either, although most frequently changes in receptor affinity as well as in receptor number will be manifest as changes in sensitivity. This is a result of the large number of "spare" receptors for most insulin effects. In many studies, the differential diagnosis between states of altered sensitivity and altered responsiveness is difficult due to the complicated and interrelated nature of the metabolic pathways of insulin action. This is frequently further complicated by incomplete data (usually the result of studying response to only one hormone concentration rather than a full dose-response) and change in rates of basal metabolism in different diseases. The latter is a particularly difficult problem, but it is clear that use of "fold-" or "percent-" stimulation may further obscure the nature of the change when complete data are not provided. With more precise use Continue reading >>