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Insulin Resistance Causes

Researchers Identify New Cause Of Insulin Resistance

Researchers Identify New Cause Of Insulin Resistance

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have tracked the cause of insulin resistance in the offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes to abnormalities in their mitochondria, the cell's “power plants.” Mitochondria are responsible for the breakdown of fatty acids. Impairment of mitochondrial function causes buildup of fats and fatty acids inside muscle that can produce insulin resistance, which, in turn, can contribute to the development of diabetes later in life. The researchers, led by Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Gerald I. Shulman , who is also professor of medicine and physiology at Yale, published their findings in the February 12, 2004, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. “Prior to this work, it was pretty clear that insulin resistance was the best predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes; and that accumulation of lipid in muscle correlated very strongly with insulin resistance,” said Shulman. This correlation has been observed in cross-sectional studies, as well as in young people with a family history of type 2 diabetes, he said. The hormone insulin promotes the transport of blood glucose into cells for energy production and storage. Mitochondria within the cells convert glucose and fatty acids into energy via oxidation. Type 2 diabetes develops when cells do not respond to insulin, causing accumulations of glucose in the blood. To explore the metabolic origin of insulin resistance, Shulman and his colleagues recruited young healthy volunteers who tested positive for insulin resistance and who were the offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. They also recruited a second, control group of volunteers who exhibited insulin sensitivity who were matched for age, height, weight and physical activity. “These subjects Continue reading >>

What Causes Insulin Resistance?

What Causes Insulin Resistance?

Michael: You wrote: ” Part of the question in my mind are the relative benefits of higher HDL vs lower LDL; a topic I would love to see taken up on a NF video.” I have suggested that this be a topic of future videos. In the meantime, below is some information I’ve gathered about HDL which may be helpful to you. . **************** I am not an expert on the topic of HDL, but some of my favorite NutritionFacts forum members and some experts have had a thing or two to say on the matter. BOTTOM LINE: I synthesize the information below to mean we do not need to worry about HDL levels or HDL falling in the context of a whole plant food based diet, when LDL goes down or is already at a healthy level. . In other words, if you have high/unsafe cholesterol levels (total and LDL) overall, then also having high HDL can be protective (especially if you got that high HDL through exercise or some other healthy behavior rather than diet). But in the face of healthy LDL levels, the HDL level doesn’t seem to matter. I may be wrong about this, but see what you think. ************************************ . First, check out the following article from heart health expert Dean Ornish. He does a great job of explaining the role of HDL and when we need to worry about it’s levels vs when we do not. “A low HDL in the context of a healthy low-fat diet has a very different prognostic significance than a low HDL in someone eating a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.” . Two of our more knowledgable forum particpants, Gatherer and Darryl, have put together for us some of the strongest evidence–a list of good studies. Gatherer wrote (from comment ) : . “”Don’t put too much stock in HDL levels. Here is a news release “Raising ‘good’ cholesterol doesn’t protect against heart di Continue reading >>

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Main Driver Of Insulin Resistance Or A Dangerous Liaison?

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Main Driver Of Insulin Resistance Or A Dangerous Liaison?

1. Introduction The easy availability of appealing food high in calories is driving excess nutrient intake and the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. One of the key components of the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance, which precedes the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) [1]. Insulin resistance is reversible, but once T2D has established and beta-cells are damaged, the disease progresses [2]. As the number of people with T2D and healthcare costs continue to rise, it is important to prevent the development of T2D by improving insulin sensitivity. However, much is still unclear about the mechanisms leading to insulin resistance, which makes it difficult to develop new and effective therapies. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a feature of the metabolic syndrome and is strongly associated with insulin resistance. In NAFLD, triacylglycerols (TAGs) accumulate in the liver (hepatic steatosis) due to an imbalance between lipid storage and lipid removal [3]. This is caused by a higher dietary fat intake, increased de novo lipogenesis, and increased lipolysis in adipose tissue [4]. In addition, macrophages and other immune cells are recruited to the liver and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines [5,6]. This state of hepatic inflammation is known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and it can progress toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [4]. Because NAFLD has become a major disease burden in Western society [7], it is important to determine the exact role of NAFLD in the development of insulin resistance. Low-grade chronic inflammation and lipid accumulation in the liver and other organs (ectopic lipid accumulation) have both been implicated in causing insulin resistance [8–10]. Therefore, hepatic steatosis and hepatic inflammation Continue reading >>

Insulin, Not Cholesterol, Is The True Culprit In Heart Disease

Insulin, Not Cholesterol, Is The True Culprit In Heart Disease

About 80 percent of the cholesterol in your body is made internally, primarily by your liver. The remaining 20 percent comes from your diet. If you consume less, your body will compensate by making more, and vice versa By themselves, total cholesterol and LDL are virtually useless predictors for cardiovascular disease. However, elevated LDL may be a good marker for insulin resistance Evidence suggests high total cholesterol and even high LDL are insignificant when trying to determine your heart disease risk. Your best predictor is your insulin sensitivity By Dr. Mercola The video above, "The Fat Emperor: Insulin Versus Cholesterol," features Ivor Cummins, a biochemical engineer with a background in medical device engineering and leading teams in complex problem solving. In 2013, Cummins ran into health problems. His serum ferritin was very high (which is a potent risk factor for heart disease), as were his liver enzymes. After consulting with three different doctors, he realized none of them really understood the root cause of these problems, or how to address them. As a result, he delved into the medical literature, found the problem and reversed his abnormal test results. He also dropped 35 pounds in the process. Eventually, he got more involved in health and began giving lectures such as this one, which was presented at the Low Carb USA Keto Getaway1 in Florida this past January. He also has a website, thefatemperor.com,2 where he notes: "I refer primarily to the 'diet-heart' hypothesis, which proposed that dietary saturated fat elevated blood cholesterol, and the latter drove heart disease mortality like nothing else. The evidence at the time was loose correlation, certainly not causation, and seems almost laughably naïve in retrospect. However, the tenaciousness o Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Insulin Resistance

How To Avoid Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a syndrome at the center of many chronic and serious health problems, including diabetes, obesity, heart disease and polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS. Insulin is one of the “major” hormones and it has a cascading effect on the rest of your hormones, including the “minor” hormones estrogen, progesterone and testosterone. Insulin resistance occurs because, for many of us, most of our calories come in the form of simple carbohydrates — sugars that quickly enter the bloodstream as glucose. The body has to release high levels of insulin to keep all that glucose in the bloodstream from spiraling out of control. Over time, the cells simply can’t keep up. They stop responding to the insulin signal and the body becomes “insulin resistant.” Now, the body is forced to release even more insulin because it cannot let blood sugar get too high. Having excess insulin in the bloodstream, or hyperinsulinemia, is a serious problem because the body can’t endure prolonged high levels of insulin. Too much insulin disrupts cellular metabolism and spreads inflammation. When your body is unable to keep blood glucose under control, it leads to diabetes, though that is only the most obvious disease caused by insulin resistance. Along the way, there are many other serious negative health effects that can happen before full-blown diabetes takes hold. Diabetes can then spiral into other health problems. You can stop this chain of events by making diet and lifestyle changes. You can start by understanding how insulin can get out of balance in the first place. How imbalanced insulin contributes to other hormonal imbalances Since insulin is considered a “major” hormone, it can affect many other hormone systems, including your “sex” hormones. A woman’s Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Risk Factor For Heart Disease And Diabetes

Insulin Resistance: Risk Factor For Heart Disease And Diabetes

MORE Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body's cells cannot properly intake insulin. Insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is a hormone that helps the body use energy from blood glucose, or blood sugar from digested food, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. "Think of insulin as the key that unlocks the door to their cells. That door needs to be opened in order for glucose to exit the blood into the cell," said Kimber Stanhope, a nutrition research scientist at the University of California at Davis. When people are insulin resistant, their pancreas, which acts as the locksmith of sorts, is still making those "keys," but the locks — the receptors on cells that take in blood sugar — aren't working as well as they should, Stanhope said. That’s a problem because insulin doesn't just play a role in helping the body use blood sugar as fuel; it's critical for many other bodily processes as well. Being insulin resistant can put people on the path towards developing Type 2 diabetes, and is the single best predictor of who will develop diabetes 10 or 20 years down the line. Once someone is pre-diabetic or diabetic, the pancreas simply can't produce enough insulin to make the cells sufficiently take up glucose and blood sugar levels rise. Insulin resistance also raises the risk of other disorders, such as heart disease. More than 50 million Americans have metabolic disorders that include insulin resistance, according to the American Heart Association. The condition occurs in more than 50 percent of obese children, according to a 2006 study published in the journal Diabetes Care. Causes One of the primary causes of insulin resistance is excess body fat, Stanhope said. "Nearly everybody that is ov Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance Causes And Symptoms

Insulin Resistance Causes And Symptoms

One in three Americans—including half of those age 60 and older1— have a silent blood sugar problem known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases the risk for prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and a host of other serious health problems, including heart attacks, strokes2 and cancer.3 What is Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, body fat and liver start resisting or ignoring the signal that the hormone insulin is trying to send out—which is to grab glucose out of the bloodstream and put it into our cells. Glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the body’s main source of fuel. We get glucose from grains, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, and drinks that bring break down into carbohydrates. How Insulin Resistance Develops While genetics, aging and ethnicity play roles in developing insulin sensitivity, the driving forces behind insulin resistance include excess body weight, too much belly fat, a lack of exercise, smoking, and even skimping on sleep.4 As insulin resistance develops, your body fights back by producing more insulin. Over months and years, the beta cells in your pancreas that are working so hard to make insulin get worn out and can no longer keep pace with the demand for more and more insulin. Then – years after insulin resistance silently began – your blood sugar may begin to rise and you may develop prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. You may also develop non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a growing problem associated with insulin resistance that boosts your risk for liver damage and heart disease. 5 Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is usually triggered by a combination of factors linked to weight, age, genetics, being sedentary and smoking. - A large waist. Experts say the be Continue reading >>

Information On The Causes & Symptoms Of Insulin Resistance And High Levels Of Blood Glucose.

Information On The Causes & Symptoms Of Insulin Resistance And High Levels Of Blood Glucose.

What is Insulin Resistance? To understand insulin resistance, it helps to understand a little about how insulin works and its function in the body. Insulin is an essential hormone created in the pancreas, which is involved in the metabolism of sugars in the body. Without it, we are unable to convert the food we eat into usable energy. When we eat something, much of the digested food is broken down into glucose, the body’s main source of energy. The pancreas then responds to the increased blood sugar levels by secreting insulin into the blood stream. Most cells in your body contain insulin receptors which help to bind the insulin to the cell. Once insulin is attached to the cell, other receptor sites are activated, which allows the glucose to enter the cell and provide it with life-sustaining energy. Insulin also plays other vital roles in the body such as the storing of excess nutrients and magnesium, the retention of sodium and the management of various other hormones in the body including growth hormones, testosterone, and progesterone. Insulin is also responsible for stopping the liver from releasing any fat, a potential metabolic fuel, into the blood after a meal. Insulin resistance occurs when despite the body producing sufficient amounts of insulin, the cells in the body become resistant to its effects. When this happens, the body requires more than the normal amount of insulin to have an affect, and as a result, the pancreas produces more insulin. As long as the pancreas can keep up with the high insulin demands, blood sugar levels will remain normal, however, the increased insulin levels can have other negative health effects such as weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, fatty liver disease and hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovarian sy Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin Resistance?

What Is Insulin Resistance?

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps unlock the body's cells so that sugar (glucose) from the food we eat can be used by the cells for energy. In people with type 2 diabetes, a combination of problems occurs, and scientists aren't really sure which is the chicken and which is the egg. The person's body may not be producing enough insulin to meet their needs, so some glucose can't get into the cells. Glucose remains in the bloodstream, causing high blood glucose levels. In many cases, the person may actually be producing more insulin than one might reasonably expect that person to need to convert the amount of food they've eaten at a meal into energy. Their pancreas is actually working overtime to produce more insulin because the body's cells are resistant to the effects of insulin. Basically the cells, despite the presence of insulin in the bloodstream, don't become unlocked and don't let enough of the glucose in the blood into the cells. Scientists don't know exactly what causes this insulin resistance, and many expect that there are several different defects in the process of unlocking cells that cause insulin resistance. Medications for type 2 diabetes focus on different parts of this insulin-cell interaction to help improve blood glucose control. Some medications stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. Others improve how the body uses insulin by working on this insulin resistance. Physical activity also seems to improve the body's ability to use insulin by decreasing insulin resistance, which is why activity is so important in diabetes management. Find more information about diabetes in The Joslin Guide to Diabetes available from the Joslin Online Store. Continue reading >>

Hydrochlorothiazide, But Not Candesartan, Aggravates Insulin Resistance And Causes Visceral And Hepatic Fat Accumulation

Hydrochlorothiazide, But Not Candesartan, Aggravates Insulin Resistance And Causes Visceral And Hepatic Fat Accumulation

Treatment with angiotensin II receptor blockers is associated with lower risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with thiazide diuretics. The Mechanisms for the Diabetes Preventing Effect of Candesartan Study addressed insulin action and secretion and body fat distribution after treatment with candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and placebo. Twenty-six nondiabetic, abdominally obese, hypertensive patients were included in a multicenter 3-way crossover trial, and 22 completers (by predefined criteria; 10 men and 12 women) were included in the analyses. They underwent 12-week treatment periods with candesartan (C; 16 to 32 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (H; 25 to 50 mg), and placebo (P), respectively, and the treatment order was randomly assigned and double blinded. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (56 mU/m2 per minute) clamps were performed. Intrahepatic and intramyocellular and extramyocellular lipid content and subcutaneous and visceral abdominal adipose tissue were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI. Insulin sensitivity (M-value) was reduced following H versus C and P (6.07±2.05, 6.63±2.04, and 6.90±2.10 mg/kg of body weight per minute, mean±SD; P≤0.01). Liver fat content was higher (P<0.05) following H than both P and C. The subcutaneous to visceral abdominal adipose tissue ratio was reduced following H versus C and P (P<0.01). Glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were higher (P<0.05) after H, but not C, versus P. There were no changes in body fat, intramyocellular lipid, extramyocellular lipid, or first-phase insulin secretion. Blood pressure was reduced similarly by C and H versus P. In conclusion Continue reading >>

Causes Of Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinism

Causes Of Insulin Resistance And Hyperinsulinism

The main reason for hyperinsulinism or excessive release of insulin is insulin resistance. Most of the time people get insulin resistance as a result of eating too much and being overweight. Even if you are overweight, they’re ways to increase insulin sensitivity. Usually, if people lose weight their insulin resistance will go down. One should realize that insulin resistance is a broad term and that you could be insulin sensitive in one way and resistant in another. Fat, muscle and the liver store glucose. You could be insulin sensitive in your muscles and resistant in your fat cells, in which case you’ll be muscular and lean. This isn’t always optimally healthy. For example, if you have elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha it will cause insulin resistance in fat cells but not muscle cells. This isn’t a good situation even though aesthetically you’ll look good. Sometimes thin people can also have insulin resistance. PCOS is a relatively common disorder among women, affecting up to 10% of women 12-45. Thin women with PCOS also have insulin resistance. There is also research that suggests that there is a male version of PCOS experienced by a certain percentage of men. PCOS and its associated IR is much easier to detect in women because of overt androgenic signs like facial hair growth, alopecia (balding) and fertility issues, but males can have a similar kind of issue and wouldn’t be noticeable because men all healthy men have facial hair, etc… However, the symptoms can manifest itself as premature balding. In thin people, IR can in part be caused by an inefficient conversion of Inositol to D-Chiro-Inositol and because of excess inflammation and oxidative stress. In overweight people who initially were never tired after eating carbs, being Continue reading >>

Nutritional Programming Of Insulin Resistance: Causes And Consequences

Nutritional Programming Of Insulin Resistance: Causes And Consequences

Strong evidence indicates that adverse prenatal and early postnatal environments have a significant long-term influence on risk factors that result in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease later in life. Here we discuss current knowledge of how maternal and neonatal nutrition influence early growth and the long-term risk of developing insulin resistance in different organs and at the whole-body level. Accumulating evidence supports a role for epigenetic mechanisms underlying this nutritional programming, consisting of heritable changes that regulate gene expression which in turn shapes the phenotype across generations. Deciphering these molecular mechanisms in key tissues and discovering key biological markers may provide valuable insight towards the development of effective intervention strategies. Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance Is Good? – T2d 7

Insulin Resistance Is Good? – T2d 7

Everybody says that insulin resistance is bad. Very bad. It’s the root cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic syndrome, isn’t it? So, if it is so bad, why do we all develop it in the first place? What’s the root cause? My friend Dr. Gary Fettke from Tasmania wrote an illuminating book called ‘Inversion’ where he describes how you can learn a lot from looking at things from another perspective. Invert (turn upside down) your perspective, and see how your horizons are immensely broadened. So let’s look at why we develop insulin resistance. Why is it good? Root Cause Analysis What is the root cause of insulin resistance? Some people say inflammation or oxidative stress or free radicals causes insulin resistance. Those are total cop-out answers. Inflammation is the body’s non-specific response to injury. But what causes the injury in the first place? That’s the real problem. The inflammation is only the body’s response to whatever is causing the injury. Think about it this way. Suppose we are battlefield surgeons. After decades on the job, we decide that blood is bad. After all, every time we see blood, bad things are happening. When we don’t see blood, bad things are not happening. It must be the blood that is dangerous. So, deciding that blood is what is killing people, we invent a machine to suction all the blood of people. Genius! The problem, of course, is what’s causing the bleeding, rather than the blood itself. Look for the root cause. Bleeding’s only the response, not the cause. Bleeding is a marker for disease. So is inflammation. Something causes bleeding, the body’s non specific response. Something causes inflammation, the body’s non specific response. Gunshots cause bleeding, knife wounds cause bleeding, and shrapnel causes bl Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance And Weight Gain

Insulin Resistance And Weight Gain

Hormones are powerful and you should not take them lightly. Several hormones may either speed-up or impede your weight loss success. Insulin is one such hormone. Resistance to insulin causes diabetes and weight gain. Escaping insulin resistance can give you control over your blood sugar and your weight too! What is Insulin? But, what is insulin? What does it do? Insulin is a hormone released by your pancreas - an organ in your abdomen. When you eat, your body senses that and signals your pancreas to release insulin. Your body releases insulin in response to glucose, amino acids and fats in your meals (1-3). But, its secretion is highest when you eat sugary foods. What Does Insulin Do? After its release, insulin assists the entry of glucose from your food into your body cells. Think of insulin as a key that unlocks the door for glucose to enter into your body cells. When your system gets loaded with glucose, it causes a shift in your metabolism. It slows down the breakdown of fat. More importantly, it starts the synthesis of new fat. Insulin redirects excess glucose into fat cells and triggers ‘adipogenesis’- synthesis of fat (4-7). No wonder sugary stuff is so fattening! Insulin Sensitivity vs. Insulin Resistance Insulin sensitivity is the term for how your body responds to insulin. If your body is ‘sensitive’ to insulin, it means everything is on the right track. The key is turning the locks just fine and there is no need to worry. But, things become different when ‘resistance’ replaces ‘sensitivity’. When you become resistant to insulin, it means the key is not turning the locks the way it is supposed to. Glucose is not entering into the cells and fat synthesis is on the rise (8). Insulin Resistance - Cause or Consequence? The link between insulin resi Continue reading >>

A Visual Guide To Insulin Resistance

A Visual Guide To Insulin Resistance

What Is It? Insulin is a hormone that acts like a key. It unlocks your cells to let in glucose (a kind of sugar) from your blood to make energy. Sometimes, this lock-and-key process doesn't work. Then glucose builds up in your blood, even when you make more insulin. Scientists have some ideas, but they aren't sure why your cells stop responding. Some issues with your blood system can also increase the likelihood of getting insulin resistance, including low HDL "good" cholesterol, high levels of a kind of fat called triglycerides in your blood, heart disease, a previous stroke, and blood vessel disease in your neck or legs. People with an African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, Asian American, or a Pacific Islander heritage are more likely to become resistant to insulin. If your parent, brother, or sister has type 2 diabetes, your risk is higher. If your mother had diabetes while she was pregnant with you (gestational diabetes), your risk also goes up. The test for insulin resistance is complicated and uncomfortable, so instead, your doctor will probably test you for prediabetes (blood sugar that's higher than it should be). A lab can check the level of glucose in your blood after you haven't eaten for a while, or find an "average" blood sugar level for the past few months. Numbers that are higher than normal suggest you're insulin resistant. It's hard on your pancreas to keep cranking out extra insulin to try to get glucose into your body's cells. Eventually, the cells that make insulin can burn out, leading to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. If you catch insulin resistance early and make changes to your lifestyle, you may stop that from happening. Cut back on sweets, refined grains, and animal fats, and have lots of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Th Continue reading >>

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