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Insulin Resistance And Glaucoma

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Our eye exams start with a pre-testing exam that includes taking a complete health and eye history. Then a auto-refraction, screening visual field and a tonometer test are each performed. During the exam our physicians will check your eye health using a slit-lamp evaluation to check external factors and to check for intra-ocular medical condiditions such as refractive errors including astigmatism, cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration and other eye disease. Based on your need, further special testing may be necessary on subsequent visits. ​You will obtain a prescription for glasses that can be filled. Should you have any questions concerning your eyes, our physicians are always happy to answer them. CONTACT LENS EVALUATIONS Contact lens evaluations are not included in the Comprehensive eye examination. Separate tests are needed if contact lenses are desired. Find more information on contact lenses on our contact lens page. OCULAR TRAUMA OR OCULAR INFECTIONS Eye injuries can and do happen any time and our office is equipped to provide medical treatment for most issues. Our doctors can diagnose and treat eye infections, remove foreign bodies, treat welding burns, along with treating seasonal allergies. Many times medical insurance will cover these visits! SPECIALIZED TESTING The doctor may request more detailed testing to be done in our office in cases of macular degeneration, retinal issues, glaucoma, diabetes and/or insulin resistance. These tests may include: Visual Fields are for the determination of the extent of the visual field usually for the purpose of detecting anomalties in the visual pathway related to glaucoma, ocular hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance and macular degeneration. Fundus Photography is the use of a retinal camera as an alternative Continue reading >>

Doctors Make A Case For Glaucoma As Type 4 Diabetes

Doctors Make A Case For Glaucoma As Type 4 Diabetes

Scientists at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi have outlined the role of insulin resistance in the development of glaucoma, a condition they claim should be known as "type 4 diabetes". This follows Alzheimer's disease being tagged by some in the international research community as type 3 diabetes earlier in the decade. Researchers Dr Muneeb Faiq, a clinical researcher working on glaucoma, neurodegeneration and diabetes, and Dr Tanuj Dada, (pictured) a professor of ophthalmology at AIIMS, claim in a paper published in Current Molecular Medicine that diabetes can afflict the brain and exist independently of the other types of diabetes. This brain diabetes may or may not be accompanied with high blood sugar. Their hypothesis is that the brain is a separate compartment and much of its metabolism is independent of systemic metabolism. Based on this idea, the researchers claim that the brain can suffer from diabetes (independent of regular type 1 and type 2 forms). If the diabetes affects the cerebral part it becomes Alzheimer's disease (type 3 diabetes) and if it afflicts the visual pathway it becomes glaucoma (type 4 diabetes). The researchers argue that the whole concept is based on insulin signalling and what they have termed "Insulin Hypofunctionality". Proper insulin signalling is important for the survival of neurons, particularly retinal ganglion cells (cells that die in glaucoma). Loss of healthy insulin signalling causes "Insulin Hypofunctionality" which leads to the activation of many disease pathways that finally culminate in irreversible vision loss. This discovery is expected to open a new field of therapy for glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases based on the damage caused by insulin resistance. We kicked some goals for our mem Continue reading >>

Elevated Intraocular Pressure Is Associated With Insulin Resistance And Metabolic Syndrome

Elevated Intraocular Pressure Is Associated With Insulin Resistance And Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a well-known risk factor for glaucoma, has recently been shown to be associated with some metabolic complications and obesity. We investigated the link between IOP and metabolic disturbances, focusing especially on metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Eye examinations, including IOP measurement, were conducted on 943 subjects (533 men and 410 women). Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic pressure, fasting insulin, glucose, lipids, and other metabolic parameters were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score and McAuley index were calculated to assess whole-body insulin resistance. Both of these insulin resistance indices showed positive associations with IOP (p < 0.05), even after statistical adjustment for other risk factors. IOP was higher in participants with metabolic syndrome, as compared to those who did not have metabolic syndrome. The mean IOP tended to increase linearly with the presence of increasing numbers of components for metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that insulin resistance might contribute to an explanation that would account for many previous findings concerning the association between IOP and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Continue reading >>

7 Habits That May Prevent Glaucoma

7 Habits That May Prevent Glaucoma

Often called the “silent thief” of vision, glaucoma is a group of diseases that damages the optic nerve gradually — and often without any warning signs. The best way to save your sight from glaucoma is to catch it early, through regular comprehensive dilated eye exams. However, research studies have also supported some lifestyle changes to prevent glaucoma (and a few other diseases, too). We sat down with Louis R. Pasquale, M.D., Director of the Glaucoma Service at Mass. Eye and Ear, who offered 7 tips for glaucoma prevention. 1) Eat lots of leafy green vegetables. An observational study that followed 100,000 patients for 26 years found that boosting intake of leafy greens is associated with a reduced risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma. Glaucoma damages the optic nerve, which carries visual information to the brain. Increased pressure from fluid in the eye or impaired blood flow to the optic nerve are thought to be hallmark causes of glaucoma. Leafy greens are loaded with nitrate, which your body converts to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide helps maintain optimal blood flow and potentially keeps eye pressure low. Eating two salads a day with romaine and leafy greens can lead to a 60 percent reduction in developing paracentral glaucoma. Bottom line: Fill your plate with leafy green vegetables—not only can this help prevent glaucoma, but it is also linked to lower rates of inflammation, cancer, heart disease and macular degeneration. 2) Protect your eyes from the sun—and start young. When you’re out in the sun, your eyes have to process a large number of light rays. Inevitably, some harmful UV rays will come your way. These UV rays could contribute to the formation of exfoliation material in the anterior segment of your eye, clogging the drain and dialin Continue reading >>

Glaucoma And Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Eyes?

Glaucoma And Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Eyes?

People with diabetes are twice as likely to be at risk of having glaucoma compared to people without diabetes. We will first look at how the eye works, what glaucoma is, followed by the relationship between glaucoma and diabetes. Clara’s story Clara’s eyes were feeling tired all of the time. She was attributing the tiredness to her Type 2 diabetes, but she wasn’t too sure about it. That’s why she contacted TheDiabetesCouncil to raise her concerns about the increasing pressure in her eyes. Her left eye had suddenly become red, and she was experiencing sharp pain in her eyes. She had somewhat of a headache, too. After hearing about Clara’s symptoms, she was advised to see her eye doctor for an examination, as glaucoma was suspected. Clara got in touch with us to report that she had been to her ophthalmologist, and she had been diagnosed with the most common type of glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma. She was using some drops in both eyes, and she relayed that she was feeling better, and that the pain in her eye and other symptoms have subsided. To help others in Clara’s situation, we have written this comprehensive guide about glaucoma and diabetes. How does the eye work? If you want to understand eye diseases, specifically glaucoma, it’s important to understand how the eye operates. It’s an incredible, wonderful organ! Without our eyes, we could not see the world around us. The eye is a spherically shaped organ that has a tough outer surface. The covering in the front of the eye is curvy. This covering is called the cornea. The cornea is responsible for focusing light. It also serves to protect the eye. Light makes its way through the eye by way of the anterior chamber. In this chamber, there is fluid called aqueous humor that the light travels through. Light Continue reading >>

The Role Of Magnesium In The Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Glaucoma

The Role Of Magnesium In The Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Glaucoma

International Scholarly Research Notices Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 745439, 7 pages 1Department of Ophthalmology, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Medical School, 53020 Rize, Turkey 2Department of Ophthalmology, Duzce State Hospital, 81100 Duzce, Turkey 3Department of Ophthalmology, Sorgun State Hospital, 66700 Yozgat, Turkey 4Department of Ophthalmology, Yatağan State Hospital, 48500 Muğla, Turkey 5Department of Ophthalmology, Onsekizmart University Medical School, 17020 Canakkale, Turkey 6Department of Ophthalmology, Gazi University Medical School, 06560 Ankara, Turkey 7Department of Medical Pharmacology, Gazi University Medical School, 06560 Ankara, Turkey Academic Editor: Paolo Fogagnolo Copyright © 2014 Feyzahan Ekici et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Glaucoma is characterized by chronic optic neuropathy resulting in progressive vision loss. Not only is glaucoma considered as a condition of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), but also other risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Vascular dysregulation in ocular blood flow and oxidative stress are currently suggested as important risk factors for glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell loss. New treatment modalities that improve ocular blood flow and reduce oxidative stress have been investigated in many studies. Magnesium (Mg) is thought to be one of the molecules that has a treatment potential in glaucoma. Mg has been shown to improve blood flow by modifying endothelial function via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Mg also exhibits neuroprotective Continue reading >>

Methazolamide Is A New Hepatic Insulin Sensitizer That Lowers Blood Glucose In Vivo

Methazolamide Is A New Hepatic Insulin Sensitizer That Lowers Blood Glucose In Vivo

We previously used Gene Expression Signature technology to identify methazolamide (MTZ) and related compounds with insulin sensitizing activity in vitro. The effects of these compounds were investigated in diabetic db/db mice, insulin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, and rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. MTZ reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels in db/db mice, improved glucose tolerance in DIO mice, and enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of exogenous insulin administration in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in DIO mice revealed that MTZ increased glucose infusion rate and suppressed endogenous glucose production. Whole-body or cellular oxygen consumption rate was not altered, suggesting MTZ may inhibit glucose production by different mechanism(s) to metformin. In support of this, MTZ enhanced the glucose-lowering effects of metformin in db/db mice. MTZ is known to be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI); however, CAIs acetazolamide, ethoxyzolamide, dichlorphenamide, chlorthalidone, and furosemide were not effective in vivo. Our results demonstrate that MTZ acts as an insulin sensitizer that suppresses hepatic glucose production in vivo. The antidiabetic effect of MTZ does not appear to be a function of its known activity as a CAI. The additive glucose-lowering effect of MTZ together with metformin highlights the potential utility for the management of type 2 diabetes. Despite significant advances in knowledge, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and comorbidities continues to increase (1) and alternative ways of tackling this disease are needed. The molecular complexity of insulin resistance is reflected by the requirement in most cases for combination therapy to improve metabolic control; yet even this Continue reading >>

Glaucoma And Diabetes

Glaucoma And Diabetes

Tweet Glaucoma may occur amongst people with and without diabetes, and can be a complication of diabetes if retinopathy develops. Glaucoma is caused by an excess amount of fluid pressing on the nerve at the back of the eye. How does glaucoma start? The eye produces a small amount of fluid like water in its middle chamber, which flows around the lens of the eye into the front chamber. The fluid leaves the eye using a drainage network and then enters the bloodstream. Commonly, glaucoma causes the drainage system to become blocked, and fluid becomes trapped in the eye. This causes pressure to build up in the eye and pass to the nerve at the rear of the eye. This nerve may become damaged by glaucoma. Is glaucoma linked with diabetes? People with diabetic retinopathy have an increased risk of glaucoma. This can happen if abnormal blood vessel growth, which can occur as a result of retinopathy, blocks the natural drainage of the eye. What are the symptoms of glaucoma? Glaucoma has very few symptoms in its early stage, so people may be unaware that something is wrong with them. As someone with diabetes, an optometrist or another eye specialist should test you for glaucoma at least once each year. How is glaucoma diagnosed? Glaucoma may be diagnosed by an optometrist by measuring your eye pressure, checking the eye at the optic nerve, and testing the field of your vision. A common test these days is a noncontact tonometry test (NCT test) in which a brief puff of air will be directed into the front of your eye. The machine you sit in front of measures the resistance of your eye to the puff of air without needing to make contact with your eye. The puff of air is noticeable but is not painful. Experts will quickly be able to determine if you have glaucoma. How is glaucoma treated? Continue reading >>

Good Hope, Heartlands, And Solihull Eye Clinics

Good Hope, Heartlands, And Solihull Eye Clinics

Links What is myopia ..spectacles Myopia occurs when light is focused in front of the retina. A minus lens will focus the light further back on the retina. enlarge myopia: light focuses in front of the retina a minus lens focuses light further back onto the retina Short-sighted Another term for myopia is short sighted...that is everything close is clear, everything far away is out of focus and blurred. If an eye is -3.00 diopters myopic, as opposite, distance vision is blurred, reading is clear and focused. Enlarge. 3 optical causes of myopia Theoretically myopia can occur for 3 reasons... the eye is longer than usual...this is termed axial myopia. This is the commonest form of myopia. This is common, discussed below. Less common: the cornea is more curved than usual and so is stronger. The light is focused too far forward, in front of the retina A low degree of myopic can be caused as we get older by lens changes: the lens of the eye becomes stronger, as in early cataract formation. The stronger lens focuses the light too far forward. Glasses or contact lenses etc Spectacles or contact lenses help most people see really well. But if you have significant myopia, and cannot wear contact lenses, laser refractive surgery may help. This another strongly recommends glasses and contact lenses. Children. The causes of (axial length) myopia...abnormal eye growth Axial length myopia...that is a large eye, may develop in utero or at a very young age ...the eye may grow quickly or 'ballistically'. due to lack of control of visually guided growth genetic causes (including some of those causing high myopia above) reading & close work when young does lengthen the eye and causes myopia BJO 2011 education levels in Singapore Eye 12 cataracts or anything preventing light reaching retina Continue reading >>

Doctor, I Have A Question.? What Is The Relationship Between Diabetes And Glaucoma? Written By Louis R. Pasquale, Md, Farvo

Doctor, I Have A Question.? What Is The Relationship Between Diabetes And Glaucoma? Written By Louis R. Pasquale, Md, Farvo

Assoc. Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School Director, Glaucoma Service, Massachusetts Eye & Ear The relationship between diabetes and glaucoma can be controversial and confusing. First we must understand that there are two types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), there is a complete loss of the pancreatic beta cells that make insulin. The profound inability to make insulin in T1D necessitates that nearly all patients with this condition be treated with insulin replacement therapy. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), the cells that make insulin are not destroyed. In fact, T2D patients can typically make more insulin than patients without diabetes. When blood sugar levels are high, the secreted insulin is ineffective at lowering blood glucose levels, producing a state of insulin resistance. The treatment of T2D is often directed at lifestyle measures that reduce insulin resistance like diet and exercise, although some of these patients also require medications to lower blood sugar. Second, we must understand that there are many different types of glaucoma so we must both specify the type of diabetes (T1D or T2D) and the type of glaucoma we are referring to when we examine the relation between diabetes and glaucoma. One thing is clear: uncontrolled T1D or T2D for a long enough period will lead to the development of diabetic retinopathy, consisting of leaking blood vessels and poor retinal blood supply that disrupts retinal function. Left unchecked the retina becomes starved for oxygen and develops new blood vessels and the stimulus for new blood vessel formation can travel to the anterior segment of the eye. This triggers new blood vessel formation in the ocular anterior segment and interferes with the normal internal drainage system of the eye leading to elevated Continue reading >>

Want To Know Unique Steps To Truly Treat Glaucoma Naturally?

Want To Know Unique Steps To Truly Treat Glaucoma Naturally?

How Do You Get The Eye Disease Glaucoma? To maintain normal eye pressure, the eye balances the amount of humor. Aqueous humor is the fluid inside the eyeball. To keep the balance the eye produces small amounts of new fluid. At the same time, the same amount has to flow out. With glaucoma, the draining doesn't work correctly. The humor circulation malfunctions. Too much fluid builds up. That build-up increases the pressure within the eyeball. Over time the pressure erodes the optic nerve fibers. That is the root cause for the loss of vision. Genetics is the excuse for everything today. The problem is that it makes the patient helpless. But research in epigenetics shows that the environment changes DNA. So the patient is in full control. Because we have the power to change our environment. Nobody found a "glaucoma gene". People call glaucoma genetic because some children have glaucoma at birth. So they call it genetic. But that's untrue. Even if a parent has glaucoma. It means that the child lives in an environment that creates glaucoma. An environment that causes circulation issues in the eyes. An environment that causes fluids in the eye to accumulate. A lot of that build up has to do with hormones. Research links the blockages to hormonal imbalances. That comes down to food, diet, and toxicity. Plus other factors that need more research. vascular glaucoma open-angle glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma is more widespread. Diabetes causes hormonal imbalances. The most important is insulin resistance. But that causes other imbalances too. Because of that, the eye can't drain fluids. The excess fluids increase the pressure in the eyeball. Over time that pressure damages the optic nerve. The nerve damage and the eye pressure change the vision. With glaucoma the eye pressure increa Continue reading >>

Visible Signs Of Insulin Resistance: Opportunities Lost

Visible Signs Of Insulin Resistance: Opportunities Lost

The hope of a young physician’s call for “Small fevers are gratefully accepted” can be matched by the despair of the senior physician’s “If only diabetes were a little more symptomatic.” The senior physicians’ hopes can be fulfilled to a certain extent—if only. While hypertension, hyperglycemia, and glaucoma may be asymptomatic, hirsutism and acne are not. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age [1]. Of its manifestations, hyperandrogenism and infertility are the most prominent which bring young girls and women to medical attention. Being seen primarily by gynecologists and cosmetologists, the metabolic profile associated with PCOS lay silent. Symptomatic treatment for acne, hirsutism, or menstrual irregularity appeared to solve the problem. It is now increasingly recognized that PCOS is a metabolic disorder with cosmesis and infertility being part of a spectrum that includes accelerated atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, coronary artery disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus [1, 2]. The Androgen Excess Society criteria for diagnosis of PCOS included (a) hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and/or hyperandrogenemia; (b) ovarian dysfunction, oligo-anovulation and/or polycystic ovaries; and (c) exclusion of other androgen-excess or androgen-related disorders [3]. The recent position statement on PCOS from the European Society of Endocrinology [4] recognized its broad spectrum and emphasized the contributing roles of obesity; body composition; the occurrence of sleep disorders (that are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus) [5, 6, 7], with a separate section to cardiometabolic risk factors; and the need for targeting these along with infertility and hirsutism. The primary Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance Is A Risk Factor For Increased Intraocular Pressure: The Hisayama Study

Insulin Resistance Is A Risk Factor For Increased Intraocular Pressure: The Hisayama Study

Go to: Abstract To investigate association of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate index of insulin resistance, with IOP in a general Japanese population. In 2007, a total of 3119 Japanese community-dwellers, aged 40 years or older, underwent eye examinations, including IOP measurement with a noncontact tonometer. Of these, 2254 residents participated in this study. Fasting serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured to determine the HOMA-IR. The association of HOMA-IR with IOP was assessed using a linear regression model, adjusted for age and possible risk factors that can elevate IOP. The mean IOP ± SD was 13.7 ± 2.7 mm Hg in the right eye and 13.6 ± 2.7 mm Hg in the left eye. After adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking habits, alcohol intake, and regular exercise, increased HOMA-IR levels were significantly associated with increasing IOP (P < 0.05). In the subgroup analyses based on the presence or absence of possible confounding risk factors, there was no evidence of heterogeneity between all subgroups (P for heterogeneity > 0.08). Keywords: intraocular pressure, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), population-based study, cohort study Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Sugar And Glaucoma

The Connection Between Sugar And Glaucoma

Is there are connection between sugar and glaucoma? The relationship between glaucoma and sugar diseases such as diabetes is confusing and controversial. The first thing to realize is that there is type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as many different types of glaucoma. In the first type of diabetes, the beta cells in the pancreas no longer make diabetes. In the second type of diabetes, insulin-making cells are not destroyed. Patients with this type make more insulin than non-diabetics. However, the high blood sugar is not lowered by the increase in insulin due to insulin resistance. In type 1 diabetes, insulin replacement therapy is the treatment. On the other hand, lifestyle measures are taken to deal with type 2 as well as medications. Various Glaucoma Types Since there are various types of glaucoma as well, there needs to be a determination of the type of diabetes there is as well as the type of glaucoma in order to determine the relationship. One thing that is certain is that a long period of uncontrolled diabetes of both types will lead to poor blood supply to the retina and leaking blood vessels. The retina starves for oxygen. A Word About Open-Angle Glaucoma and Diabetes For years, researchers have been intrigued by the most common glaucoma type called open-angle glaucoma and diabetes. Compared to people with no diabetes, those with the disease have twice the likelihood of developing glaucoma in comparison. In the same way, there is a higher chance of someone with open-angle glaucoma compared to someone who does not have the disease. Diabetic Eye Disease For diabetics, diabetic eye disease is a common complication. This term refers to eye problems that a group of people with diabetics develops. One of them is glaucoma. Diabetic eye disease also includes cataracts Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Eyesight

Diabetes And Your Eyesight

Diabetes is a complex disease resulting from the inability of the body to produce insulin, a hormone that takes sugar out of the blood and into cells where it can be used for energy. Without enough insulin, there is too much sugar in your blood. It’s like having a car full of gas but no key; you have the fuel you need, but can’t start using it. Diabetes affects more than 29 million Americans. The most common form of diabetes is adult-onset diabetes. Adult-onset diabetes typically strikes those who are over 40, overweight and have a sedentary lifestyle. Other risk factors include those with a family history of diabetes and those belonging to certain ethnic groups. Persons of African, Native American, Japanese, Latino or Polynesian descent are more at risk. Diabetic Eye Disease A common complication of diabetes is diabetic eye disease. Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of sight-threatening eye problems that people with diabetes may develop. Glaucoma is one of these diseases. Diabetic eye disease also includes diabetic retinopathy and cataracts. Diabetic retinopathy, a disease which damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina (the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye) is the most common diabetic eye disease. Diabetic retinopathy affects nearly 7.7 million Americans age 40 and older. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens that results in blurring of normal vision. People with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to develop cataracts as other adults. Cataracts also tend to develop at an earlier age. Diabetes and Glaucoma The relationship between diabetes and open-angle glaucoma (the most common type of glaucoma), has intrigued researchers for years. People with diabetes are twice as likely to develop glaucoma as are non-diabetics, although som Continue reading >>

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