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Insulin Resistance And Alcohol Consumption

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies.

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This reduced risk might be explained by improved insulin sensitivity or improved glycemic status, but results of intervention studies on this relation are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched up to August 2014. Intervention studies on the effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers of insulin sensitivity or glycemic status of at least 2 weeks' duration were included. Investigators extracted data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality. RESULTS: Fourteen intervention studies were included in a meta-analysis of six glycemic end points. Alcohol consumption did not influence estimated insulin sensitivity (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.08 [-0.09 to 0.24]) or fasting glucose (SMD 0.07 [-0.11 to 0.24]) but reduced HbA1c (SMD -0.62 [-1.01 to -0.23]) and fasting insulin concentrations (SMD -0.19 [-0.35 to -0.02]) compared with the control condition. Alcohol consumption among women reduced fasting insulin (SMD -0.23 [-0.41 to -0.04]) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (SMD 0.16 [-0.04 to 0.37]) but not among men. Results were similar after excluding studies with high alcohol dosages (>40 g/day) and were not influenced by dosage and duration of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Although the studies had small sample sizes and were of short duration, the current evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may decrease fasting insulin and HbA1c concentrations among nondiabetic subjects. Alcohol co Continue reading >>

Binge Drinking Raises Risk For Type 2 Diabetes Via Insulin Resistance

Binge Drinking Raises Risk For Type 2 Diabetes Via Insulin Resistance

Binge drinking directly causes insulin resistance, which in turn leads to type 2 diabetes. This was the finding of a new study on rats, that the researchers say is the first to show binge drinking alone, separate from other factors like overeating, increases risk for type 2 diabetes. People with a history of binge drinking have a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. But until this study it was not clear how the link worked, and whether binge drinking alone raised the risk. Researchers at the Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, in New York, write about their findings in the 30 January issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine. They also found that alcohol appears to disrupt insulin-receptor signaling by causing inflammation in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain that among other things, is important for metabolic processes. Insulin Resistance The main role of the insulin receptor is to control the uptake of glucose. Decrease in signaling of this receptor means the cells can't take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (too much glucose in the blood), and other consequences of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is where insulin does not bind properly to the receptor, thus hampering its ability to send the right signals to cells so they can use glucose for energy. This can happen even when the pancreas is producing enough insulin to keep glucose levels under control. A symptom of insulin resistance is high levels of insulin in the bloodstream. This is a major component of metabolic syndrome, a group of risk factors that together increase the risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Senior author Christoph Buettner, an Associate Professor of Medicine, Continue reading >>

Effects Of Moderate Alcohol Intake On Fasting Insulin And Glucose Concentrations And Insulin Sensitivity In Postmenopausal Womena Randomized Controlled Trial

Effects Of Moderate Alcohol Intake On Fasting Insulin And Glucose Concentrations And Insulin Sensitivity In Postmenopausal Womena Randomized Controlled Trial

Context Epidemiologic data demonstrate that moderate alcohol intake is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic individuals. No controlled-diet studies have addressed the effects of daily moderate alcohol consumption on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine whether daily consumption of low to moderate amounts of alcohol influences fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled crossover trial of 63 healthy postmenopausal women, conducted at a clinical research center in Maryland between 1998 and 1999. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to consume 0, 15, or 30 g/d of alcohol for 8 weeks each as part of a controlled diet. All foods and beverages were provided during the intervention. An isocaloric beverage was provided in the 0-g/d arm. Energy intake was adjusted to maintain constant body weight. Main Outcome Measures Fasting insulin, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations, measured at the end of each dietary period; insulin sensitivity, estimated with a published index of glucose disposal rate corrected for fat-free mass based on fasting insulin and fasting triglyceride concentrations, compared among treatments with a mixed-model analysis of variance. Results A complete set of plasma samples was collected and analyzed for 51 women who completed all diet treatments. Consumption of 30 g/d of alcohol compared with 0 g/d reduced fasting insulin concentration by 19.2% (P = .004) and triglyceride concentration by 10.3% (P = .001), and increased insulin sensitivity by 7.2% (P = .002). Normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals responded similarly. Only fasting triglyceride Continue reading >>

Does Alcohol And Tobacco Use Increase The Risk Of Diabetes?

Does Alcohol And Tobacco Use Increase The Risk Of Diabetes?

Yes, alcohol and tobacco use may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Alcohol Although studies show that drinking moderate amounts of alcohol may actually lower the risk of diabetes, the opposite is true for people who drink greater amounts of alcohol. Moderate alcohol use is defined as one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger. Too much alcohol may cause chronic inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), which can impair its ability to secrete insulin and potentially lead to diabetes. Tobacco Tobacco use can increase blood sugar levels and lead to insulin resistance. The more you smoke, the greater your risk of diabetes. People who smoke heavily — more than 20 cigarettes a day — have almost double the risk of developing diabetes compared with people who don’t smoke. Continue reading >>

Effect Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption On Adipokines And Insulin Sensitivity In Lean And Overweight Men: A Diet Intervention Study

Effect Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption On Adipokines And Insulin Sensitivity In Lean And Overweight Men: A Diet Intervention Study

Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: a diet intervention study European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 62, pages 10981105 (2008) Contributors: JWJB had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design:JWJB, FJK, GS, HFJH. Acquisition of data: JWJB, HFJH. Analysis and interpretation of the data:JWJB, ECdZ, FJK, GS, HFJH. Drafting of the manuscript: JWJB, ECdZ. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: JWJB, ECdZ, FJK, GS, HFJH. Statistical analysis: JWJB, ECdZ. Study supervision: HFJH. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.525 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27 kg/m2; n=9) men (1825 years). Three cans of beer (40 g alcohol) or alcohol-free beer daily during 3 weeks. Adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations increased (P<0.01) by 11 and 8%, while acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) concentrations decreased by 12% (P=0.04) after moderate alcohol consumption. Concentrations of leptin and resistin remained unchanged. Insulin sensitivity by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was not affected by moderate alcohol consumption, but 2 h glucose concentrations were lower (P=0.01) after beer (4.50.1 mmol/l) than alcohol-free beer (4.90.1 mmol/l). Both free fatty acids and glucagon concentrations showed a stronger increase (P<0.01) after 90 min during OGTT after beer than alcohol-free beer. Changes of adiponectin were positively correlated (r=0.69, P<0.001), and changes o Continue reading >>

Effects Of Body Weight And Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity

Effects Of Body Weight And Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity

Abstract Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, which can eventually lead to type-2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption is a protective factor against insulin resistance, and thus protects against the development of type-2 diabetes. The mechanism by which alcohol protects against the development of type-2 diabetes is not well known. To determine the mechanism by which alcohol improves insulin sensitivity, we fed water or alcohol to lean, control, and obese mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways. Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with the development of type-2 diabetes. We assessed possible gene expression alterations in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained WAT from mice fed a calorie restricted (CR), low fat (LF Control) or high fat (HF) diets and either water or 20% ethanol in the drinking water. We screened the expression of genes related to the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin regulation using a gene array composed of 384 genes. Obesity induced insulin resistance and calorie restriction and alcohol improved insulin sensitivity. The insulin resistance in obese mice was associated with the increased expression of inflammatory markers Cd68, Il-6 and Il-1α; in contrast, most of these genes were down-regulated in CR mice. Anti-inflammatory factors such as Il-10 and adrenergic beta receptor kinase 1 (Adrbk1) were decreased in obese mice and increased by CR and alcohol. Also, we report a direct correlation between body weight and the expression of the following genes: Kcnj11 (potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11), Lpin2 (lipin Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance, Fatty Liver, Alcohol - And The Hole In My Bucket.

Insulin Resistance, Fatty Liver, Alcohol - And The Hole In My Bucket.

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Insulin resistance, fatty liver, alcohol - and the hole in my bucket. The "hole in my bucket" bit is because I seem to be going round in circles at the moment. I think it started with someone saying that drinking alcohol gave you a fatty liver and someone else saying that a fatty liver was the main cause of insulin resistance. I had been enjoying the beer and wine a little too much (plus a wee dram as a nightcap) and had put on a couple of pounds. All this started me wondering how much effect my drinking was having on my weight and BG control. First stage: lay of the booze for a little (but how to define little). Which turned up this by Dr. Jason Fung. With the new recognition of NAFLD, research confirmed the extraordinarily close association between obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Obese individuals have five to fifteen times the rate of fatty liver. Up to 85% of type 2 diabetics have fatty liver. Even without the diabetes, those with insulin resistance alone have higher levels of liver fat. These three diseases clearly clustered together. Where you found one, you almost invariable found the others. Then . Study after study shows a more effective weight loss on a low-carb diet . And if you reduce abdominal fat, youre also reducing the amount of liver fat. The disease fatty liver is strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes . Not surprisingly, yet another study * shows that a low-carb diet is a good treatment for fatty liver. In only six days on a low-carb diet, the reduction in the amount of liver fat was about the same as it was for seven months (!) on a calorie-restricted diet. Furthermore, the volume of the liver decreased q Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Alcohol On Insulin Resistance

The Effect Of Alcohol On Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance and diabetes are not the same thing, but these medical issues are closely related. With insulin resistance, the body stops responding normally to the hormone insulin. This leads to a buildup of blood sugar. If left unchecked, insulin resistance commonly leads to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Some people, with a condition called prediabetes, are insulin resistant but are not yet diabetic. Research suggests that alcohol has an effect on insulin resistance. This effect seems to be variable, however, depending on the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern of drinking. A person's sex, race and body mass index also seem to influence the effect of alcohol on insulin resistance. Video of the Day Past studies suggested that moderate drinking might reduce insulin resistance and protect against T2DM. More current studies, however, call this into question. A September 2015 "Diabetes Care" article reported on pooled results from 38 studies that evaluated the relationship between alcohol intake and T2DM risk. The researchers found that overall, people who drank 1 standard alcoholic beverage daily were 18 percent less likely to develop T2DM compared to nondrinkers. However, when the researchers analyzed the results further, they found the protective effect was only experienced by certain groups of people. Influence of Gender In examining the results of the 2015 "Diabetes Care" study by the sex of the participants, a reduced T2DM risk associated with alcohol consumption was seen only in women. The greatest level of reduced risk was seen with moderate drinking among women, approximately 2 standard drinks per day. Female study participants who drank heavily -- approximately 5 or more drinks per day -- did not experience a reduced risk for T2DM. Among men, drinking was fo Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Alcohol Intake On Insulin Sensitivity In Men

The Effect Of Alcohol Intake On Insulin Sensitivity In Men

A randomized controlled trial Abstract OBJECTIVE—Population data suggest that alcohol consumption may influence the risk of diabetes in a biphasic manner, but this has not been tested by any controlled interventions. The object of this study was to determine whether reducing alcohol intake in moderate-to-heavy drinkers (40–110 g/day) results in improvement in insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A 4-week run-in period where subjects maintained their usual drinking pattern was followed by randomization to a two-way cross-over intervention study. In each of two 4-week treatment interventions, subjects either substituted their usual alcohol intake with a 0.9% alcohol beer or maintained their usual alcohol intake. At the end of each 4-week period, insulin sensitivity as determined by the low-dose insulin glucose infusion test and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score, and biomarkers of alcohol consumption (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase [γ-GT] and HDL cholesterol) were measured. RESULTS—A total of 16 healthy men aged 51.0 ± 2.7 (mean ± SEM) years with a BMI of 26.4 ± 0.61 kg/m2 completed the study. There was a large reduction in alcohol intake (72.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.9 ± 1.6 g/day, P < 0.001) and significant reductions in γ-GT (geometric mean 24.4 units/l [95% CI 19.7–30.2] vs. 18.6 units/l [15.5–22.2], P < 0.01) and HDL cholesterol (1.36 ± 0.07 vs. 1.13 ± 0.07 mmol/l, P < 0.001). There was no effect of alcohol on insulin sensitivity index (ISI), fasting insulin, glucose, or HOMA score. CONCLUSIONS—A substantial reduction in alcohol intake from 7.2 to 0.8 standard drinks per day in healthy men did not change insulin sensitivity as measured by ISI or HOMA score. Presently, it is difficult to simply define overall effects of alcohol on the ins Continue reading >>

Those Weekend Beers Are Making You Insulin Resistant

Those Weekend Beers Are Making You Insulin Resistant

Click to listen to the audio… Those weekend beers are making you insulin resistant A beer boepie – you’ve managed to acquire one. According to your mother-in-law, it’s because you spend the weekends sitting in your chair, eating too much food and drinking beer with your mates. Her fix, which she eagerly shares every opportunity she gets, is that YOU get out of that chair and fix all the stuff around the house, that needs fixing. Your mother-in-law is wrong Stop celebrating…. She’s right, you do need to “fix” it, if you want to be around for the long haul and avoid a heart attack and/or a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. What she’s got wrong is the “fix” – a simple calorie management approach, won’t work. Your beer belly is not being caused by a calorie problem per se, even if you’re eating too much and exercising too little. The problem is routed in the alcohol – your weekend of beer drinking, is making you insulin resistant the rest of the week. This is the finding of a group of researchers from Mount Sinai Medical Centre. The lab bash The research team threw a big party, which lasted three days, for a group of laboratory rats. Some of the rats attending the party, had an opportunity to get a little tipsy, the rest of animals, indulged in fine food. The tipsy rats were kept liquored up by the research team, receiving 3 g/kg of alcohol per day – this set up was designed to simulate a weekend of binge drinking. While the rats enjoying the fine dining, okay, it wasn’t that fancy, they were fed standard rat chow, but their calorie intake was carefully matched to the rats who got to “drink” the whole weekend. So the calorie intake was the same for all the rats, but the metabolic consequences were different. The hang over effect When the pa Continue reading >>

Can Brief Periods Of Alcohol Abstinence Really Improve Insulin Resistance?

Can Brief Periods Of Alcohol Abstinence Really Improve Insulin Resistance?

With commentary by Joel Zonszein, MD, professor of clinical medicine and director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center, the Bronx. Abstaining from alcohol on a short-term basis improved insulin resistance, according to new research by scientists in the U.K. However, a U.S. expert says the findings are counter to other research and to traditional advice that moderate alcohol intake may benefit those with diabetes. The U.K. researchers, who presented their data at the Liver Meeting 2015 in December in San Francisco, evaluated 102 men and women who were enrolled in the UK's "Dry January" campaign. Those who participated were moderate drinkers who agreed to abstain for a month. The researchers measured changes in insulin resistance (when the body's cells are resistant to the effects of insulin), and also looked at markers of a condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) after a month of the men and women being ''on the wagon." They found reduced insulin resistance, reduced liver stiffness and better blood pressure. The improvements held even after they adjusted for such factors as age, gender, exercise, smoking and diet changes. The researchers can't say how durable the benefits might be, as they only looked at the one-month window. The researchers concluded that the risk of NAFLD increases with more alcohol intake. NAFLD is an extra buildup of fat cells in the liver, but not believed to be caused by alcohol, according to the Liver Foundation. Those who are overweight or have diabetes are more at risk, experts know. Alcohol & diabetes: another view The findings run counter to what would be expected, says Joel Zonszein, MD, professor of clinical medicine and director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center, the Bron Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies

The Effect Of Alcohol Consumption On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Intervention Studies

OBJECTIVE Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This reduced risk might be explained by improved insulin sensitivity or improved glycemic status, but results of intervention studies on this relation are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed and Embase were searched up to August 2014. Intervention studies on the effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers of insulin sensitivity or glycemic status of at least 2 weeks' duration were included. Investigators extracted data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality. RESULTS Fourteen intervention studies were included in a meta-analysis of six glycemic end points. Alcohol consumption did not influence estimated insulin sensitivity (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.08 [−0.09 to 0.24]) or fasting glucose (SMD 0.07 [−0.11 to 0.24]) but reduced HbA1c (SMD −0.62 [−1.01 to −0.23]) and fasting insulin concentrations (SMD −0.19 [−0.35 to −0.02]) compared with the control condition. Alcohol consumption among women reduced fasting insulin (SMD −0.23 [−0.41 to −0.04]) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (SMD 0.16 [−0.04 to 0.37]) but not among men. Results were similar after excluding studies with high alcohol dosages (>40 g/day) and were not influenced by dosage and duration of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS Although the studies had small sample sizes and were of short duration, the current evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may decrease fasting insulin and HbA1c concentrations among nondiabetic subjects. Continue reading >>

Binge Drinking Induces Whole-body Insulin Resistance By Impairing Hypothalamic Insulin Action

Binge Drinking Induces Whole-body Insulin Resistance By Impairing Hypothalamic Insulin Action

Individuals with a history of binge drinking have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Whether binge drinking impairs glucose homeostasis and insulin action is unknown. To test this, we treated Sprague-Dawley rats daily with alcohol (3 g/kg) for three consecutive days to simulate human binge drinking and found that these rats developed and exhibited insulin resistance even after blood alcohol concentrations had become undetectable. The animals were resistant to insulin for up to 54 hours after the last dose of ethanol, chiefly a result of impaired hepatic and adipose tissue insulin action. Because insulin regulates hepatic glucose production and white adipose tissue lipolysis, in part through signaling in the central nervous system, we tested whether binge drinking impaired brain control of nutrient partitioning. Rats that had consumed alcohol exhibited impaired hypothalamic insulin action, defined as the ability of insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus to suppress hepatic glucose production and white adipose tissue lipolysis. Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, as assessed by insulin receptor and AKT phosphorylation, decreased after binge drinking. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed increased hypothalamic inflammation and expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a negative regulator of insulin signaling. Intracerebroventricular infusion of CPT-157633, a small-molecule inhibitor of PTP1B, prevented binge drinking–induced glucose intolerance. These results show that, in rats, binge drinking induces systemic insulin resistance by impairing hypothalamic insulin action and that this effect can be prevented by inhibition of brain PTP1B. Continue reading >>

Association Between Alcohol Consumption And Incidence Of Impaired Insulin Secretion And Insulin Resistance In Japanese: The Saku Study

Association Between Alcohol Consumption And Incidence Of Impaired Insulin Secretion And Insulin Resistance In Japanese: The Saku Study

Association between alcohol consumption and incidence of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Japanese: The Saku study Author links open overlay panel YukakoTatsumiabc The risk of developing impaired insulin secretion increases with increase in alcohol consumption. The risk of developing insulin resistance increases with increase in alcohol consumption. There is no sex difference in the associations between alcohol consumption and the risk of insulin action. To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Japanese. The participants in this 5-year cohort study were 2100 Japanese aged 3074years without type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired insulin secretion, or insulin resistance who underwent a medical checkup including 75-g OGTT between April 2008 and March 2009 at Saku Central Hospital. Alcohol consumption was categorized as follows: non-drinker (0g/week), light drinker (1139g/week in men and 169g/week in women), moderate drinker (140274g/week in men and 70139g/week in women) and heavy drinker (275g/week in men and 140g/week in women). The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs among light to heavy drinkers for incidence of impaired insulin secretion (insulinogenic index 51.7) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR2.5), detected by an OGTT at the time of a follow-up medical checkup before the end of March 2014, were estimated by multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models as reference values for non-drinkers. There were 708 cases of impaired insulin secretion and 191 cases of insulin resistance. The HRs (95% CIs) for impaired insulin secretion in light, moderate and heavy drinkers were 1.16 (0.961.40), 1.35 (1.071.70) and 1.64 (1.242.16), respectively (P for trend <0.001). For insulin resistance, the HR Continue reading >>

Alcohol Consumption And Its Effects On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status

Alcohol Consumption And Its Effects On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Status

Study finds type 2 risk in nondiabetic patients decreased… Moderate alcohol consumption can reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes as compared to heavy drinking, and the risk reduction differs between men and women. In a previous study, alcohol consumption of 24 g alcohol/day reduces type 2 diabetes risk by 40% in women compared to 13% in men with 22 g alcohol/day consumption. The effects of alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes includes increased insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammatory effects, or effects of adiponectin. These pathways have been closely studied in the past. For example, Brien et al showed alcohol consumption increased adiponectin, but no effects on inflammation, and no quantitative result on insulin sensitivity. Some studies suggest a positive correlation between alcohol consumption and insulin sensitivity, but the data were inconsistent or showed no effects. The aim is to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity using meta-analysis of intervention studies. PubMed and Embase were used to search for articles published up to August 2014. References and related citation were also screened for relevant articles. The primary outcome was the relationship between insulin sensitivity and alcohol consumption. Inclusion criteria included randomized trials, trials with an alcohol intervention, trials with an alcohol-free control group, relevant outcome measures as previously described, intervention period of at least 2 weeks, and articles written in English or Dutch. Exclusion criteria included patients with a history of alcoholism or heavy drinkers and animal studies. Data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality were extracted and analyzed. A total of 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The s Continue reading >>

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