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Insulin Reaction Treatment

Beware The Perils Of Severe Hypoglycemia

Beware The Perils Of Severe Hypoglycemia

Over 80 years ago, famed diabetologist Elliot Joslin said about the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes: “Ketoacidosis may kill a patient, but frequent hypoglycemic reactions will ruin him.” Unfortunately, hypoglycemia continues to be the most difficult problem facing most patients, families, and caregivers who deal with the management of type 1 diabetes on a daily basis. Frequent hypoglycemia episodes not only can “ruin,” or adversely impact the quality of life for patients, but also, when severe, can cause seizures, coma, and even death. A Tragic Case Recently, our group published a case report in the journal Endocrine Practice describing a tragic death from hypoglycemia that occurred while the patient slept in his own bed. Our patient, a 23-year-old man with type 1 diabetes who had a history of recurrent severe hypoglycemia, was using an older model insulin pump and wearing a separate, non-real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system. He was given the CGM in 2005 for the purpose of tracking his nocturnal (nighttime) blood glucose values and making further insulin pump adjustments. After he was pronounced dead in the emergency room, our diabetes nurse removed the pump and CGM to help us understand what happened. His insulin pump was found to have been working correctly. What we learned was that after supper, he had a heavy workout at a gym, followed by a late snack. Between 8 pm and midnight, he “stacked” five boluses of insulin, totaling 7.35 units (33% of his basal dose), in an attempt to keep his glucose values in “tight” control. The downloaded sensor demonstrated that his glucose values fell from about 200 mg/dL at midnight to under 50 mg/dL by 2:00 am, and to under 30 mg/dL by 5:00 am – three hours before he was found by his pare Continue reading >>

Insulin Reaction Treatment

Insulin Reaction Treatment

For a severe reaction: While waiting for emergency help, inject glucagon if you are trained to do so. For moderate to mild symptoms: 1. Raise Blood Sugar Give the person a high-sugar food such as: 3 to 4 glucose tablets 1/3 to 1/2 tube of glucose in gel form 1/2 cup orange juice 1/3 cup apple juice 1/4 to 1/3 cup raisins 2 large or 6 small sugar cubes in water 4 to 6 oz. of regular soda, not diet 1 tablespoon of molasses, honey, or corn syrup 5 hard candies 2. Repeat Treatment, if Necessary After 15 minutes, test blood sugar, if possible. If symptoms persist or blood sugar reading is below 70 mg/dL, give another high-sugar food. If the person's next meal is more than 30 minutes away, give the person a small snack, such as 1/2 sandwich, 1 oz. cheese with 4 to 6 crackers, or 1 tablespoon peanut butter with 4 to 6 crackers. 3. When to Get Medical Help Immediately If the person still doesn't feel better, go to a hospital emergency room or call 911. 4. Follow Up If you go to the hospital, doctors may give sugar intravenously. Continue reading >>

Questions & Answers About Diabetes In The Workplace And The Americans With Disabilities Act (ada)

Questions & Answers About Diabetes In The Workplace And The Americans With Disabilities Act (ada)

INTRODUCTION The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which was amended by the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 ("Amendments Act" or "ADAAA"), is a federal law that prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities include those who have impairments that substantially limit a major life activity, have a record (or history) of a substantially limiting impairment, or are regarded as having a disability.1 Title I of the ADA covers employment by private employers with 15 or more employees as well as state and local government employers. Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act provides similar protections related to federal employment. In addition, most states have their own laws prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of disability. Some of these state laws may apply to smaller employers and may provide protections in addition to those available under the ADA.2 The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces the employment provisions of the ADA. This document, which is one of a series of question-and-answer documents addressing particular disabilities in the workplace,3 explains how the ADA applies to job applicants and employees who have or had diabetes. In particular, this document explains: when an employer may ask an applicant or employee questions about her diabetes and how it should treat voluntary disclosures; what types of reasonable accommodations employees with diabetes may need; how an employer should handle safety concerns about applicants and employees with diabetes; and how an employer can ensure that no employee is harassed because of diabetes or any other disability. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT DIABETES Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by high blood glucose or sugar levels Continue reading >>

Insulin Side Effects

Insulin Side Effects

Tweet If you have recently been prescribed insulin, or have switched to a new type of insulin, you may be concerned about the side effects. You might also be experiencing side effects and not know where they are coming from. Similarly, you may be looking for information for a friend or family member. What are the side effects of insulin? Insulin side effects amongst diabetics are rare, but when they do occur, allergic reactions can be severe and can pose a significant risk to health. What do I do if I have an adverse reaction to my insulin? If you experience mild allergic reactions such as swelling, itching or redness around the injection site, experts advise diabetics to consult their GPs. Similarly, sustained nausea and vomiting are signs of insulin allergy. How do I know if my insulin is working? When taking insulin, diabetics are advised by experts to regularly check blood glucose levels using testing kits. If blood glucose tests show fluctuating or above-average blood sugar levels, diabetes is not being properly controlled and insulin is not working. Avoiding infection when taking insulin When taking insulin, try to avoid infection by using disposable needles and syringes, and sterilising any reusable equipment. Do some drugs interact with insulin? Some drugs are known to interact with insulin, and diabetics should be aware of this list. Your GP or physician should provide detailed information of how any extra drug affects insulin. Some medications that are known to influence insulin are shown below, but diabetics should consult their GP for further information: Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insuli Continue reading >>

What Are The Signs Of An Allergic Reaction To Insulin?

What Are The Signs Of An Allergic Reaction To Insulin?

The most common signs of an allergic reaction to insulin will appear at the injection site soon after the insulin shot is administered. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include swelling, redness, itching and a burning sensation. In people who have an allergic reaction, the insulin usually does not work as well as it should. Less than 1% of people are allergic to insulin. If you suspect that you are allergic to your insulin, talk to your doctor. Most likely you’re having a reaction to a preservative in the insulin and not the insulin itself, so trying another brand of insulin may relieve your symptoms. In some cases, you may need to take an oral antihistamine or have a steroid added to your insulin injection. Signs of a local allergic reaction to insulin are: • dents under the skin at injection sites • redness at injection sites, either persistent or temporary • groups of small bumps, similar to hives • swelling at injection sites If you think you may be experiencing an allergic reaction to your insulin preparation, talk to your provider. Continue Learning about Insulin Videos Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs. Continue reading >>

Insulin For Diabetes Treatment (types, Side Effects, And Preparations)

Insulin For Diabetes Treatment (types, Side Effects, And Preparations)

What is the dosage and how is insulin administrated? A meal should be consumed within 30 minutes after administering regular insulin Insulin usually is administered by subcutaneous injection into the abdominal wall, thigh, buttocks (gluteal region), or upper arm. Injection sites should be rotated within the same region. Some insulins (for example, regular insulin) also may be administered intravenously. The dose is individualized for each patient. A combination of short or rapid acting and intermediate or long acting insulin typically are used Some patients may develop resistance to insulin and require increasing doses. Multiple daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous infusions via a pump closely mimic pancreatic insulin secretion. Insulin sliding scales (doses of insulin that are based on the glucose level ) may be used for managing critically ill hospitalized patients. What are the contraindications, warnings, and precautions for insulin? Hypersensitivity to insulin or its excipients (inactive co-ingredients) Hypoglycemia may occur and is the most common side effect of insulin treatment. Severe, life-threatening allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur. Hypokalemia (low blood potassium) may occur because insulin stimulates movement of potassium from blood into cells. Combining insulin with potassium-lowering drugs may increase the risk of hypokalemia. Hepatic (liver) impairment may reduce the insulin requirement. Renal (kidney) dysfunction may reduce the insulin requirement. Illness, emotional disturbance, or other stress may alter the insulin requirement. Intravenous administration increases the risk of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia. Continue reading >>

Humalog Side Effects Center

Humalog Side Effects Center

Humalog (insulin lispro [rDNA origin]) Injection is a hormone that is produced in the body used to treat type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes in adults. Humalog is usually given together with another long-acting insulin. Humalog is also used together with oral medications to treat type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes in adults. Common side effects of Humalog include: injection site reactions (e.g., pain, redness, irritation). Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), is the most common side effect of insulin lispro such as Humalog. Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, trouble concentrating, confusions, or seizure (convulsions). Low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia). Symptoms include dry mouth, increased thirst, increased urination, uneven heartbeats, muscle pain or weakness, leg pain or discomfort, or confusion The total daily insulin requirement varies and the dose is usually between 0.5 to 1 unit/kg/day. Insulin needs may be altered during stress, major illness, or changes in exercise, meal patterns, or co-administered drugs. Humalog may interact with albuterol, clonidine, reserpine, guanethidine, or beta-blockers. Many other medicines can increase or decrease the effects of insulin lispro on lowering blood sugar. Tell your doctor all prescription and over-the-counter medications and supplements you use. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using Humalog. Discuss a plan for managing blood sugars with your doctor before becoming pregnant. Your doctor may switch the type of insulin used during pregnancy. It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding. Our Humalog (insulin lispro, USP [rDNA origin]) Inj Continue reading >>

Insulin Side Effects

Insulin Side Effects

Applies to insulin: injectable liquid, injectable solution, subcutaneous suspension Endocrine Hypoglycemia is the most common and serious side effect of insulin, occurring in approximately 16% of type 1 and 10% of type II diabetic patients (the incidence varies greatly depending on the populations studied, types of insulin therapy, etc). Although there are counterregulatory endocrinologic responses to hypoglycemia, some responses are decreased, inefficient, or absent in some patients. Severe hypoglycemia usually presents first as confusion, sweating, or tachycardia, and can result in coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, neurological deficits, and death. Blood or urine glucose monitoring is recommended in patients who are at risk of hypoglycemia or who do not recognize the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The risk for developing hypoglycemia is higher in patients receiving intensive or continuous infusion insulin therapy. The association between insulin and dyslipidemia is currently being evaluated.[Ref] Permanent neuropsychological impairment has been associated with recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia. In one retrospective study of 600 randomly selected patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, the only reliable predictors of severe hypoglycemia were a history of hypoglycemia, a history of hypoglycemia-related injury or convulsion, and the duration of insulin therapy. Those with a history of hypoglycemia had been treated with insulin for 17.4 years, which was significantly longer than the 14.3 years in the insulin-treated patients without a history of hypoglycemia. Human insulin does not appear to be associated with hypoglycemic episodes more often than animal insulin. Caution is recommended when switching from animal (either bovine or pork) to purified Continue reading >>

Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

A low blood sugar, also called hypoglycemia or an insulin reaction, is defined as a blood glucose level below 60 to 70 mg/dl. It is usually companied by one or more of the symptoms described below. Low blood sugars or insulin reactions can occur whenever insulin is used. Although less frequent, it can also occur with use of drugs that stimulate insulin production in Type 2 diabetes, such as Diabenese, Glyburide, Glipizide, and Starlix. Hypoglycemia symptoms vary greatly. Lows may occur with no symptoms, minor symptoms, or full-blown symptoms. They will vary from person to person and from one low to the next in the same person. A single symptom may make you aware that your blood sugar has become low, or you may suddenly become aware of several symptoms at once. Symptoms are created both by the effect of the low blood sugar on the brain and other organs, and by the effects of adrenaline and glucagon which are released in large quantities to raise the blood sugar. Anytime you suspect a low blood sugar, check it to be sure and, if you are low, raise your sugar quickly with glucose tablets or other fast carbohydrates. If you're too confused to check, eat quick carbs and check later. The faster you recognize hypoglycemia, the faster you can respond and bring the blood sugar back to normal. Keep in mind that you do not want to eat too much when you treat a low blood sugar, or you can begin a blood sugar rollercoaster. Identify the symptoms for insulin reactions so you can take action quickly. Insulin Reaction Symptoms shaking sweating irritability headache tingling hunger blurred vision dizziness and confusion numbness of the lips nausea or vomiting fast heart rate sudden tiredness seizures pale appearance frequent sighing personality change confusion or poor concentation loss Continue reading >>

Insulin Side Effects

Insulin Side Effects

Adverse effects and allergic reactions to insulin are possible. Here's what you should know if you take insulin to control your diabetes. If you have diabetes your body has an insulin problem. In people without diabetes, insulin is a naturally-occurring hormone but in type 2s who do not use it efficiently or who have type 1 and don't produce it, insulin must be injected. Insulin is made in a variety of forms (from rapid acting to long acting, etc) using a few different methods—through genetic engineering since 1982; withdrawn from the pancreas of deceased pigs or cows prior to that. Today there are more than 20 different types of insulin available in the United States. You may think you don't need to worry about side effects with insulin as it's a "natural" substance but when used to help control diabetes and blood glucose levels it's essentially a medication. And, as with all medications, side effects (or adverse events) are possible but do not occur in everyone. (If you feel brave and want to know more, read the prescribing information that accompanies your insulin.) It's important to note that while most people who use insulin do not experience significant side effects, you should be aware of the potential complications, just in case they occur. Insulin-Related Hypoglycemia and Hypersensitivity The most common side effect is hypoglycemia; the most-rare side effect is hypersensitivity or allergy. How can injecting insulin cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) to happen? Insulin’s job is to essentially escort the sugar from the bloodstream into our brain, muscles, and nerves. It thinks of nothing else, even if there is not enough sugar in the bloodstream to take. Meaning that if someone injects too much insulin, it will take too much sugar from the bloodstream, lead Continue reading >>

Handling A Diabetes Emergency

Handling A Diabetes Emergency

Emergencies can happen at any time, so it's best to be prepared and know what to do if an emergency occurs. Talking with your veterinarian is a crucial part of being informed and prepared to handle emergencies. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) The most common side effect experienced with insulin therapy is hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can be caused by: Missing or delaying food. Change in food, diet, or amount fed. Infection or illness. Change in the body's need for insulin. Diseases of the adrenal, pituitary, or thyroid glands, or progression of liver or kidney disease. Interaction with other drugs (such as steroids). Change (increase) in exercise. Signs of hypoglycemia may occur suddenly and can include: Weakness Depression Behavioral changes Muscle twitching Anxiety Seizures Coma Death See below for a list of other side effects. What to do If your pet is conscious, rub a tablespoon of corn syrup on his or her gums. When your pet is able to swallow, feed him or her a usual meal and contact your veterinarian. If your pet is unconscious or having a seizure, this is a medical emergency. CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN. In the meantime, you should immediately treat your pet rather than delaying management. Pour a small amount of a sugar solution (eg, corn syrup) onto your finger and then rub the sugar solution onto your pet's gums. The sugar is absorbed very quickly and your pet should respond in 1 to 2 minutes. The sugar solution should never be poured directly into your pet's mouth since there is a risk that the solution will be inhaled into the lungs. Once your pet has responded to the sugar administration and is sitting up, it can be fed a small amount of its regular food. Once the pet has stabilized, it should be transported to your veterinarian for evaluation. Your pet's diet Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Insulin-reaction And Low Blood Sugar

Diabetes: Insulin-reaction And Low Blood Sugar

Index Spanish version Related Topics Animation Diabetes: Insulin-Reaction and Low Blood Sugar What is low blood sugar? Hypoglycemia is the term used for when you have too little sugar in your blood. Low blood sugar comes on quickly and must be treated right away by your child, family, or friends. If the low blood sugar continues too long, the brain can be harmed. Because the brain grows very rapidly in the first 4 years of life, it is particularly important to prevent severe low blood sugar in young children. Early treatment helps prevent a more severe reaction. It is very important that the family and other people taking care of your child know the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Your child has low blood sugar if the result of a blood sugar test is less than 60 mg/dl or 3.3 mmol/L. Symptoms of low blood sugar usually occur when the blood sugar falls below 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L). What causes low blood sugar? Low blood sugar occurs when the body doesn’t have enough sugar to burn for energy and the level of sugar in the blood falls too low. Frequent causes include: missing a snack or meal doing extra exercise that burns more sugar than usual taking too much insulin giving a shot into a muscle resulting in rapid absorption of insulin giving the wrong amount of insulin drinking alcohol taking a bath or shower or soaking in a hot tub soon after taking a shot of insulin (blood vessels in the skin dilate from the hot water and cause insulin to be rapidly absorbed). What are the symptoms? It is important to recognize low blood sugar as early as possible so that it does not progress to a severe reaction. Symptoms of low blood sugar range from mild to severe. Mild reaction hunger at an unusual time or an upset stomach (nausea) shaky feeling sweating more than usual (often a Continue reading >>

Insulin Allergies + Type 1

Insulin Allergies + Type 1

Read Help Get Answers for Jack – a story of an 8-year-old boy who suffers a severe allergy to insulin, the life-saving medicine required for managing his Type 1 diabetes. Editor’s Note: If you suspect you have an allergy to insulin or any item that is a part of your Type 1 diabetes management, consult your physician and diabetes team. This article has been verified by Dan Desalvo, MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics in Pediatric Diabetes & Endocrinology at Baylor College of Medicine/Texas Children’s Hospital. Now imagine being allergic to the very thing that keeps you alive. Allergic reactions to insulin are rare, but they do exist. What is an insulin allergy? Adverse reactions to insulin can occur as soon as 30 seconds after an insulin injection or later, after several minutes or even after hours have passed (INDependent Diabetes Trust). It’s possible that someone with Type 1 could be allergic to one type of insulin, but not another. Just over 2% of people with diabetes exhibit some signs of an allergy to insulin, most commonly a local reaction (Insulin Nation). Why do allergic reactions to insulin occur? Before the 1980s, bovine (beef) and porcine (pork) insulin preparations were common, and often triggered allergic reactions. Fortunately, adverse reactions to insulin have significantly diminished since the introduction of scientifically engineered human insulin preparations in the 1980s. However, even with the genetically modified human insulins available today, allergic reactions still occur (though rarely) and can be quite dangerous. In some cases, the allergic reaction is to the insulin molecule itself, but it may also be to different types of fillers, preservatives, or amino acid combinations found in various insulin preparations (Joslin Diabetes Center Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Insulin-reaction Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

Diabetes: Insulin-reaction Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar)

What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is the term used for when you have too little sugar in your blood. Low blood sugar comes on quickly and must be treated right away by your child, family, or friends. If the low blood sugar continues too long, the brain can be harmed. Because the brain grows very rapidly in the first 4 years of life, it is particularly important to prevent severe low blood sugar in young children. Early treatment helps prevent a more severe reaction. It is very important that the family and other people taking care of your child know the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Your child has low blood sugar if the result of a blood sugar test is less than 60 mg/dl or 3.3 mmol/L. Symptoms of low blood sugar usually occur when the blood sugar falls below 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/L). What causes low blood sugar? Low blood sugar occurs when the body doesn't have enough sugar to burn for energy and the level of sugar in the blood falls too low. Frequent causes include: missing a snack or meal doing extra exercise that burns more sugar than usual taking too much insulin giving a shot into a muscle resulting in rapid absorption of insulin giving the wrong amount of insulin drinking alcohol taking a bath or shower or soaking in a hot tub soon after taking a shot of insulin (blood vessels in the skin dilate from the hot water and cause insulin to be rapidly absorbed). What are the symptoms? It is important to recognize low blood sugar as early as possible so that it does not progress to a severe reaction. Symptoms of low blood sugar range from mild to severe. Mild reaction hunger at an unusual time or an upset stomach (nausea) shaky feeling sweating more than usual (often a "cold" sweat) irritable mood. Moderate reaction pale or red face weak or anxious feeling headache c Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Diabetic Hypoglycemia

Diabetic hypoglycemia is a low blood glucose level occurring in a person with diabetes mellitus. It is one of the most common types of hypoglycemia seen in emergency departments and hospitals. According to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), and based on a sample examined between 2004 and 2005, an estimated 55,819 cases (8.0% of total admissions) involved insulin, and severe hypoglycemia is likely the single most common event.[1] In general, hypoglycemia occurs when a treatment to lower the elevated blood glucose of diabetes inaccurately matches the body's physiological need, and therefore causes the glucose to fall to a below-normal level. Definition[edit] A commonly used "number" to define the lower limit of normal glucose is 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l), though in someone with diabetes, hypoglycemic symptoms can sometimes occur at higher glucose levels, or may fail to occur at lower. Some textbooks for nursing and pre-hospital care use the range 80 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l to 6.7 mmol/l). This variability is further compounded by the imprecision of glucose meter measurements at low levels, or the ability of glucose levels to change rapidly. Signs and symptoms[edit] Diabetic hypoglycemia can be mild, recognized easily by the patient, and reversed with a small amount of carbohydrates eaten or drunk, or it may be severe enough to cause unconsciousness requiring intravenous dextrose or an injection of glucagon. Severe hypoglycemic unconsciousness is one form of diabetic coma. A common medical definition of severe hypoglycemia is "hypoglycemia severe enough that the person needs assistance in dealing with it". A co-morbidity is the issue of hypoglycemia unawareness. Recent research using machine learning methods have proved to Continue reading >>

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