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Insulin Production

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Insulin

Insulin, hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu, who was working independently and called the substance “pancrein.” After Banting and Best isolated insulin, they began work to obtain a purified extract, which they accomplished with the help of Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod and Canadian chemist James B. Collip. Banting and Macleod shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin. Proinsulin is relatively inactive, and under normal c Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Phyllis Stewart

    Insulin Resistance

    Insulin

    Medicine and Healthcare



    Is there a way or test to find out whether one has insufficient insuline production or insuline resistance problem?




    1 Answer








    Don’t go slurping your urine, for heaven’s sake. Your doctor can order a blood test, called a C-peptide. This test will give an exact measurement of how much insulin your beta cells in your pancreas are making. If there is none, then you are a Type I, insulin-dependent diabetic. Simple. No home test or blood glucose measurement can tell you that.

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    Does insulin resistance decrease mTOR signalling from excess insulin?


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