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Insulin Pork

Insulin

Insulin

A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas to help move glucose from the blood into body cells for energy. People with Type 1 diabetes lose the ability to produce insulin and must inject it. Some people with Type 2 diabetes also need to inject insulin because the insulin that is produced by their pancreas does not adequately lower their blood glucose level. Scientists discovered insulin in the early 1920’s and found that it could be used to successfully treat diabetes. Since then, a variety of insulins have been developed to meet the different needs of people with diabetes. In the past, all commercially available insulin came from the pancreases of cows or pigs. Pork and beef insulins are similar to human insulin, differing only in one or a few amino acids (protein building blocks). However, even a slight difference is enough to elicit an allergic response in some people. To overcome this problem, researchers looked for ways to make insulin that would more closely resemble human insulin. Since the early 1980’s, two methods have been used to make human insulin from nonhuman sources. One method involves the use of enzymes to convert pork insulin into human insulin by altering the one amino acid that is different. The second and more widely used method uses recombinant DNA technology. In this process, bacteria or yeast cells are genetically altered to produce human insulin in large amounts. Human insulin produced by genetic engineering is purer than other forms of insulin because it is not combined with other proteins that can also trigger allergic responses. Pork and beef insulin are no longer being sold in the United States. In addition to originating from different sources, different types of insulin vary in their “action profile.” That’s to say, the Continue reading >>

Semisynthetic Human Insulin And Purified Pork Insulin Do Not Differ In Their Biological Potency.

Semisynthetic Human Insulin And Purified Pork Insulin Do Not Differ In Their Biological Potency.

Klin Wochenschr. 1984 Dec 17;62(24):1145-50. Semisynthetic human insulin and purified pork insulin do not differ in their biological potency. Arias P , Kerner W , Navascus I , Schfauer G , Pfeiffer EF . The biological potency of semisynthetic human insulin (Actrapid HM, Novo) and purified pork insulin (Actrapid MC, Novo) was assessed in normal and diabetic subjects. The blood glucose lowering effect and the related counter-regulatory response were initially tested in six healthy subjects who received an i.v. injection of 0.15 U/kg body weight of either insulin preparation. The attained insulin levels were very similar (peak at 15 min: HM 139 +/- 7, MC 129 +/- 7 microU/ml), as well as the resulting blood glucose curves. A prolonged suppression of C-peptide values was observed after injecting both preparations. The evoked counter-regulatory response [glucagon, growth hormone (GH), cortisol and catecholamines] showed minimal differences. Prolactin secretion was almost identical after HM and MC injection. A glucose clamp study was subsequently performed in six insulin-dependent diabetic (IDD) patients. Blood glucose levels were maintained at 80 mg/dl by the artificial pancreas during a 180 min infusion of MC or HM insulin (30 mU/kg/h). The amounts of dextrose infused during the last 60 min of the study were not significantly different (121 +/- 14 vs 137 +/- 11 mg/kg/h for MC and HM, respectively). It is clear from our results that at the dose levels used in this study, the biological potency of i.v. injected HM is very similar to that of MC. Continue reading >>

Porcine Insulin

Porcine Insulin

Pork insulin differs from human by only one amino acid residue, a difference largely invisible to the human immune system, which means that pork insulin is only weakly antigenic and causes few allergic reactions. Porcine insulin was traditionally favoured by the Danish insulin manufacturers, since their farming industry was orientated towards pork rather than beef. Highly purified pork insulin is virtually indistinguishable from biosynthetic human insulin in its clinical effects, although the latter is slightly more soluble and thus absorbed more rapidly. Some patients have reported loss of hypoglycaemic warning symptoms on switching from pork to human insulin and should therefore be treated with their preferred insulin, although objective evidence for this phenomenon is lacking. History The Danish insulin manufacturers Nordisk and Novo began manufacturing pork insulin in the 1920s and produced this almost exclusively thereafter. The decision was based simply upon availability, and it was not appreciated that pork insulin was closer than beef to human insulin until some 50 years later. Danish insulin was always noted for its purity, and was marketed in the 1930s without the addition of disinfectants, considered essential by manufacturers elsewhere. When glucagon was finally eliminated from other insulins in the 1950s, it was already shown to be absent from Novo insulin. See History of glucagon. The introduction of monocomponent (highly purified, single peak) pork insulin in the 1970s stimulated considerable interest in the role of insulin antibodies in modifying the pharmacokinetics of injected insulin and, coincidentally, represented the first involvement of immunologists in the study of diabetes. See the Discovery of type 1 diabetes. Highly purified insulin represente Continue reading >>

Animal Insulin

Animal Insulin

Tweet Animal insulin was the first type of insulin to be administered to humans to control diabetes. Animal insulin is derived from cows and pigs. Until the 1980s, animal insulin was the only treatment for insulin dependent diabetes. These days the use of animal insulin has largely been replaced by human insulin and human analogue insulin, however, animal insulin is still available on prescription. How is animal insulin produced? As the name suggests animal insulin is taken from the pancreases of animals, usually pigs (porcine or pork insulin) and cows (bovine or beef insulin). The insulin is purified which reduces the chance of the insulin user developing a reaction to the insulin. Can animal insulin be prescribed? Animal insulin, under the name Hypurin, is being produced by Wockhardt UK and is available on prescription. What types of animal insulin are available? Animal insulins are available in 3 different types of action and durations, short acting, intermediate and long acting: Short acting: Hypurin Porcine Neutral, Hypurin Bovine Neutral Intermediate acting: Hypurin Porcine Isophane, Hypurin Bovine Isophane Long acting: Hypurin Bovine lente, Hypurin Bovine PZI (protamine zinc insulin) Premixed: Hypurin Porcine 30/70 What are premixed animal insulins? Premixed animal insulins combine a ratio of short acting and intermediate insulin. For example, Hypurin Porcine consists of 30% short acting and 70% intermediate acting insulin. How quickly do animal insulins act? Short acting animal insulin starts to act from about 30 minutes after injecting, with their peak action occurring between 3 and 4 hours after injecting. The duration is up to 8 hours. Intermediate acting animal insulin takes about 4 to 6 hours to start acting, has its peak activity between 8 and 14 hours and Continue reading >>

Insulin Regular (pork) - Injection

Insulin Regular (pork) - Injection

Common Brand Name(s): Hypurin Regular , Regular Iletin II This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs. Insulin regular is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. This insulin is obtained from pigs and is similar to human insulin. It replaces the insulin that your body would normally make. It is a short-acting insulin. It works by helping blood sugar (glucose) get into cells so your body can use it for energy. This medication is usually used in combination with a medium- or long-acting insulin product. This medication may also be used alone or with other oral diabetes drugs (such as metformin). Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start using this medication and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor, diabetes educator, or pharmacist. Learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional and the product package. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the insulin. Insulin regular should be clear and colorless. Before injecting each dose, clean the injection site with rubbing alcoh Continue reading >>

Animal Insulin Vs Synthetic Insulin: Similar Genes, Different Origins

Animal Insulin Vs Synthetic Insulin: Similar Genes, Different Origins

Humans with diabetes started using insulin extracted from the pancreas of cows or pigs in 1922. Some people developed allergies to animal (or natural) insulin, but its use saved countless lives. Today, most people who need it use synthetic or human insulin, first manufactured in the early 1980s. Though many individuals complained of side effects after switching from animal to synthetic insulin, the synthetic type is now prescribed almost exclusively in many parts of the world. Whether natural or synthetic, the therapeutic use of insulin by humans depends on our similarity to nonhuman creatures. Our Genetic Cousins Proteins are similar to a string of beads, and the “beads” are called amino acids. The amino acids that make up our human insulin protein are nearly identical to the string of amino acids in cow and pig insulin. Pork insulin is different by one amino acid, and bovine insulin by three – similar enough for most humans to use. In the 1950s, when the complete protein structure of insulin was deciphered, some companies began modifying animal insulin. They removed the different amino acid from pig insulin, replacing it with the human counterpart. So, other than its origin, the pig insulin was made human. Although insulin was being modified before the creation of the synthetics, the production of synthetic insulin has nothing to do with altering the proteins of other mammals. It involves life forms much smaller. Synthetic Soup A protein, such as insulin, is created when its amino acid sequence (genetic information) is copied and then reproduced. Scientists who have learned the genetic sequence of human insulin create copies of it by splicing together pieces of genetic material in the proper order. Circular strands of DNA, called plasmids, are extracted from bac Continue reading >>

Questions And Answers On Importing Beef Or Pork Insulin For Personal Use

Questions And Answers On Importing Beef Or Pork Insulin For Personal Use

Why can’t I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in the U.S.? How can I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in a foreign country for my personal use? What are FDA’s concerns regarding the importation of beef or pork insulin for my personal use? Why will FDA allow me to import beef or pork insulin into the U.S. if the product is not approved? How does FDA determine whether it will allow me to import beef or pork insulin for my personal use? Where can I obtain information on USDA requirements to import beef or pork insulin from a foreign country? Q-1. Why can’t I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in the U.S.? A. The manufacturing of beef insulin for human use in the U.S. was discontinued in 1998. In 2006, the manufacturing of pork insulin (Iletin II) for human use was discontinued. The discontinuation of animal-sourced insulins was a voluntary withdrawal of these products made by the manufacturers and not based on any FDA regulatory action. Although there are no FDA-approved animal-sourced insulins available in the U.S., recombinant human insulins and their analogs are safe and effective FDA-approved products available for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Q-2. How can I obtain beef or pork insulin manufactured in a foreign country for my personal use? A. You may be able to import beef or pork insulin for your personal use from a foreign country, if you follow certain FDA and USDA requirements. After your shipment of beef or pork insulin arrives in this country, the United States Customs Service will notify FDA. FDA then will decide whether or not to allow the shipment to enter the country. Q-3. What are FDA’s concerns regarding the importation of beef or pork insulin for my personal use? A. Manufacturers producing beef or pork insul Continue reading >>

Semisynthetic Human Insulin And Purified Pork Insulin Do Not Differ In Their Biological Potency

Semisynthetic Human Insulin And Purified Pork Insulin Do Not Differ In Their Biological Potency

, Volume 62, Issue24 , pp 11451150 | Cite as Semisynthetic human insulin and purified pork insulin do not differ in their biological potency The biological potency of semisynthetic human insulin (Actrapid HM, Novo) and purified pork insulin (Actrapid MC, Novo) was assessed in normal and diabetic subjects. The blood glucose lowering effect and the related counter-regulatory response were initially tested in six healthy subjects who received an i.v. injection of 0.15 U/kg body weight of either insulin preparation. The attained insulin levels were very similar (peak at 15 min: HM 1397, MC 1297 U/ml), as well as the resulting blood glucose curves. A prolonged suppression of C-peptide values was observed after injecting both preparations. The evoked counter-regulatory response [glucagon, growth hormone (GH), cortisol and catecholamines] showed minimal differences. Prolactin secretion was almost identical after HM and MC injection. A glucose clamp study was subsequently performed in six insulin-dependent diabetic (IDD) patients. Blood glucose levels were maintained at 80 mg/dl by the artificial pancreas during a 180 min infusion of MC or HM insulin (30 mU/kg/h). The amounts of dextrose infused during the last 60 min of the study were not significantly different (12114 vs 13711 mg/kg/h for MC and HM, respectively). It is clear from our results that at the dose levels used in this study, the biological potency of i.v. injected HM is very similar to that of MC. Semisynthetic human insulinBiological potencyInsulin hypoglycaemiaEuglycaemic clamp monocomponent, highly purified pork insulin Supported by Landesversicherungsanstalt Wrttemberg and Dotation Herbert Weishaupt e.V. Fellow of the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst 19821984 Fellow of the Deutscher Akademischer Austausc Continue reading >>

Where Did Beef And Pork Go?

Where Did Beef And Pork Go?

I recently received an e-mail about beef and pork insulin. The writer inquired: “Who would I write to about bringing back Pork and Beef insulin to the United States? The people who did well on the P&B have had many troubles with the synthetic Insulin. I don’t understand the pharmaceutical companies’ position on removing P&B all together (aside from the financial). When a heart med works for some but not for all, they produce new meds but they don’t take away the first med. It is very confusing for me to not be able to obtain what worked for me. Any suggestions about who to write to would be most appreciated.” The writer has some good questions, but sadly, has some misinformation mixed in. First, I must point out that there have been heart medications that worked but have been replaced. Once upon a time, there was a product called “dig leaf” (digitalis is a heart medication that is derived from a plant called foxglove). It worked, but it was totally replaced when newer versions of digitalis became available: first digitoxin, then digoxin. To get back to insulin: why did pork and beef insulin disappear? Two reasons that I’m aware of: purity, and production cost. The previous beef and pork insulin products (which were extracted from pancreases from slaughter houses) were impure, and back in the mid-1970’s were purified from the level of 90% insulin and 10% “junk” such as C-peptide and other stuff. Later, it was more pure: 95/5, and then 99/1. Semisynthetic human insulin, on the other hand, is very, very, very pure. Why worry about the junk? Because that other stuff that was mixed with the insulin is immunogenic, and can cause allergic reactions – that we rarely hear of now-a-days from the use of semisynthetic human insulin. And it’s my understandi Continue reading >>

Medical Ethics, Pork Insulin

Medical Ethics, Pork Insulin

I am a medical student in Texas (non-Jewish), and I am currently writing an article on medical ethics. Specifically, my paper deals with a scenario in which a patient who is an orthodox Jew is accidently given an insulin injection which contains both beef and pork products even though his order states that he receive only beef insulin. While I have found several articles on the internet explaining what foods are kosher and why, I am unable to determine exactly what it would mean to this patient to have been violated in such a way. I would like to know what the severity of such an incident would mean to a Jewish person. Would this incident greatly and negatviely change the persons life? Is this a type of sin or infraction that can be attoned for or forgiven, and through what means? Would revealing the mistake cause suffering on the part of the patient and his family or his religious community? Does it matter that the violation was made by mistake and not by the patient himself? Although I have concluded that the patient has an absolute right to know what has been done to his body, it would help me to know what the consequences would mean to him. If possible, could you also mention if there would be any consequences for the patients spirit if the mistake was not revealed in an effort to spare him the negative impact it might have. A timely response would be greatly appreciated. Thank you very much for your time, and for this website. It is forbidden for a Jew to EAT non-kosher meat. There is no prohibition of any kind in receiving an injegtion with elements derived from non-kosher animals. Continue reading >>

Jci -the Biological And Immunological Properties Of Pork And Beef Insulin, Proinsulin, And Connecting Peptides

Jci -the Biological And Immunological Properties Of Pork And Beef Insulin, Proinsulin, And Connecting Peptides

The biological and immunological properties of pork and beef insulin, proinsulin, and connecting peptides The recently discovered hormone precursors, pork and beef proinsulins, their respective connecting peptides, and beef proinsulin intermediates have been compared to insulin in their ability to stimulate the conversion of glucose-U-14C to 14CO2 and lipids in isolated fat cells. The concentrations of beef and pork proinsulins required to achieve the same biological effect were respectively, 15 and 10 times that of insulin. Beef proinsulin intermediates required only 2.6 times the concentration of insulin for the same effect. Pork and beef connecting peptides in high or low concentrations alone or in combination with proinsulin, insulin, or proinsulin intermediates showed no biological effect on the isolated fat cell system. The insulin-like activity of beef and pork proinsulins on the isolated fat cell system was not abolished with pancreatic trypsin or kallikrein inhibitors. Pork insulin antiserum inhibited the biological activity of pork insulin and proinsulin as well as that of beef insulin or proinsulin. Pork proinsulin antiserum also inhibited the insulin-like activity of both pork insulin and proinsulin. By the radioimmunoassay method, pork insulin antiserum bound only to [unk] as much proinsulin as insulin. Beef proinsulin intermediates, on the other hand, were found to react with the pork insulin antiserum to an extent nearly equal to that of insulin. These data suggest that (a) proinsulin exhibits its effect on the isolated fat [] Continue reading >>

Insulin Pork | Definition Of Insulin Pork By Medical Dictionary

Insulin Pork | Definition Of Insulin Pork By Medical Dictionary

Insulin pork | definition of Insulin pork by Medical dictionary Also found in: Dictionary , Thesaurus , Encyclopedia . 1. the major fuel-regulating hormone of the body, a double-chain protein formed from proinsulin in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas . Insulin promotes the storage of glucose and the uptake of amino acids, increases protein and lipid synthesis, and inhibits lipolysis and gluconeogenesis. Secretion of insulin is a response of the beta cells to a stimulus; the primary stimulus is glucose, and others are amino acids and hormones such as secretin, pancreozymin , and gastrin . These chemicals play an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels by triggering insulin release after a meal. After insulin is released from the beta cells, it enters the blood stream and is transported to cells throughout the body. The cell membranes have insulin receptors to which the hormone becomes bonded or fixed. An interaction between the insulin and its receptors leads to biochemical processes that include (1) the transport of glucose, amino acids, and certain ions across the membrane and into the cell body; (2) the storage of glycogen in liver and muscle cells; (3) the synthesis of triglycerides and storage of fat; (4) the synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA, and (5) inhibition of gluconeogenesis, degradation of glycogen and protein, and lipolysis. Although insulin increases the transport of glucose across the cell membrane of most cells, in the brain glucose enters the cells by simple diffusion through the blood--brain barrier. 2. a preparation of the hormone, first discovered in 1921, used in treatment of diabetes mellitus ; it may be bovine or porcine in origin (prepared from the pancreas of the animals) or a recombinant human type, Continue reading >>

Frequently Asked Questions: Animal-sourced Insulin

Frequently Asked Questions: Animal-sourced Insulin

A1) Insulin is a hormone that is made by beta cells in our pancreas. These beta cells manufacture and release the insulin into our blood so that it may circulate and allow glucose to enter and fuel the cell. As such, when insulin enters the cells the remaining supply of glucose in our blood decreases. That is, the presence of insulin in our body has the effect of lowering blood glucose. Insulin also controls other aspects of metabolism that are required by the body to sustain life, such as converting fat into glucose and glucose into fat. Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is the term used to describe higher-than-normal glucose levels in the blood. There are different causes and types of diabetes, but all have the common abnormality of a high level of glucose in the blood. Since the presence of insulin in our body lowers our blood glucose, insulin injections are often used to control glucose levels. Failure to control blood sugar levels leads to complication such as loss of vision, diseases of the arteries, the kidneys and the heart. Insulin is an absolute requirement when treating type 1 diabetes; in persons with type 2 diabetes, insulin is used when other means of treatment, such as diet and pills, are insufficient or no longer work. Q2) What are animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic human insulin? A2) Two types of insulin may be used in the management of diabetes: animal-sourced insulin and biosynthetic (man-made) (human) insulin. Insulin was originally derived from the pancreases of cows and pigs. Animal-sourced insulin is made from preparations of beef or pork pancreases, and has been used safely to manage diabetes for many years. With the exception of beef/pork insulin, which is no longer available, they are still being used safely today. Over the years, insulin produ Continue reading >>

Essential Or Expenable? Eli Lilly Puts Beef/pork Insulin On The Endangered Species List

Essential Or Expenable? Eli Lilly Puts Beef/pork Insulin On The Endangered Species List

Eli Lilly, the manufacturer of 80 percent of America’s insulin is planning to take Iletin I (beef/pork) insulins off of the market. Lilly has made no formal public announcement of these plans, but since May of this year anyone who calls Lilly’s 800 customer service line is politely informed that, “Production will cease in 1998, and it is expected that the stock will be completely depleted some time in 1999.” What does this mean for the estimated 300,000 in the United States who depend on Iletin I? It all depends on who you ask. Pros and Cons For years the benefits and disadvantages of animal and human insulins have been debated. Many argue that animal insulins are an outdated form of insulin therapy that presents a number of potential complications, and that the problems some patients claim to experience on human insulin are unsubstantiated. From as far back as 1987 it has been believed that human insulins are the insulins of choice for “Patients with a history of animal source insulins … women with type 1 of child bearing age, pregnant women with type 1 or 2 … type 2 patients who require insulin temporarily … (and) type 2 patients who develop the need for insulin due to loss of islet cell mass,” among others. (Arthur Krosnick, MD, Consultant, July 1987;27(7); 78-87) Still, patients and doctors have reported to have found clinical advantages using animal insulin. James R. Hart, Jr. of Corning California is one of these patients. For 37 years Hart was a well controlled type 1 on NPH Iletin I (50 units per day). Then he switched to human insulin. “I started suffering from poor control and hypoglycemic unawareness,” he says. After hearing that others had experienced similar problems Hart “demanded to be put back on Iletin I.” Since switching back Continue reading >>

Two Tons Of Pig Parts: Making Insulin In The 1920s

Two Tons Of Pig Parts: Making Insulin In The 1920s

To kick off National Diabetes Month, pharmacy curator Diane Wendt shares how the Smithsonian has covered the history of insulin manufacturing. I recently picked up a copy of Diabetes Forecast (The American Diabetes Association's healthy living magazine) featuring Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor on the cover. In her autobiography My Beloved World published earlier this year, Sotomayor recounts her experience living with diabetes since being diagnosed with Type 1 at the age of seven. The stories of successful and celebrated people like Sotomayor are inspirational for all of us, but especially meaningful to the millions of Americans also affected by diabetes. But what really caught my curatorial eye was the magazine's article about making insulin, because that happens to be the subject of a small display that opened last week at the museum called The Birth of Biotech. Both the magazine article and our display focus on the extraordinary technology developed in the late 1970s by which living microorganisms are genetically modified with a human gene in order to produce insulin for our use. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921-1922 by a team of Canadian researchers, making insulin for the treatment of diabetes has always depended on living organisms. However, before the advent of biotechnology, the organisms used were the pigs and cows destined for our dinner plates—specifically, their pancreas glands, a waste product of the meatpacking industry. According to the article in Diabetes Forecast, more than two tons of pig parts were needed to extract just eight ounces of purified insulin. Lucky for us, both pork- and beef-derived insulin are nearly identical to human insulin and can be utilized by our bodies to convert the carbohydrates we eat into energy. In the early 1 Continue reading >>

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