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Insulin Inventor – Nicolae Paulescu, Romanian Inventor

Insulin Inventor – Nicolae Paulescu, Romanian Inventor

Romanian Nicolae Paulescu, inventor of insulin, discovery of insulin, pancreatic extract Nicolae Paulescu (October 30, 1869 – July 17, 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine and the discoverer of insulin. Early life and activities Born in Bucharest, he was the first of four children of father Costache Paulescu and mother Maria Paulescu. He displayed remarkable abilities as early as his first school years. He learned French, Latin and Ancient Greek at an early age, so that a few years later he became fluent in all these languages and was able to read classical works of Latin and Greek literature in the original. He also had a particular gift for drawing and music and special inclinations towards natural sciences, such as physics and chemistry. He graduated from the Mihai Viteazu High School in Bucharest, in 1888. In the autumn of 1888, Paulescu left for Paris, where he enrolled in medical school. In 1897 he graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree, and was immediately appointed as assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital. In 1900, Paulescu returned to Romania, where he remained until his death (1931) as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School, as well as a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the St. Vincent de Paul Hospital in Bucharest.Paulescu’s discovery of insulinIn 1916, he succeeded in developing an aqueous pancreatic extract which, when injected into a diabetic dog, proved to have a normalizing effect on blood sugar levels. After a gap during World War I, he resumed his research and succeeded in isolating the antidiabetic pancreatic hormone (pancreine). From April 24 to June 23, 1921, Paulescu published four papers at the Romanian Section of the Society of Biology in Paris: • Continue reading >>

Nicolae Paulescu

Nicolae Paulescu

Tweet Nicolae Paulescu was a Romanian scientist who claimed to have been the first person to discover insulin, which he called pancreine. were awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for creating usable insulin, Paulescu wrote to the Nobel Prize committee claiming that he had discovered and used insulin first. His claims were rejected, but thanks to a British professor called Ian Murray Paulescu’s achievements are now recognised as being significant in the history of insulin. Medical training Paulescu was born in Bucharest in 1869. He became fascinated with physics and chemistry as he grew up and, upon graduating from the Mihai Viteazul High School in Bucharest in 1888, moved to Paris and enrolled in medical school. Paulescu graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree and was soon appointed assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital in 1897. Three years later he returned to Romania where he served as Head of the Physiology Department of the University of Bucharest Medical School. He remained in this position until his death in 1931 Pancreine research In 1916, Paulescu developed an aqueous (watery) pancreatic extract which, when injected into a dog with diabetes, had a normalising effect on its blood sugar levels. Paulescu’s pancreine was an extract of bovine pancreas in salted water, purified with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. Shortly after, Paulescu was called to service in the Romanian Army during World War I, returning in 1921. He then wrote an extensive whitepaper about the effect of the extract, titled ‘Research on the role of the pancreas in food assimilation’, which was published in August 1921. Paulescu secured the patent rights for his method of manufacturing pancreine on April 10 1922 by the Romanian Mi Continue reading >>

Top Ten Romanian Inventions

Top Ten Romanian Inventions

There are many every day objects that we use and many things that we take for granted and could not imagine our lives without it.Some of these most common things were invented by Romanians. Here are top ten Romanian inventions 1.The quadcopter Doctor George de Bothezat and Ivan Jerome invented and developed the quadcopter, an aircraft with six bladed rotors at the end of a structure shaped in the form of an X. The quadcopter was first used by the US Air service in 1922. Now it became very popular with video film makers and it is quite accessible to buy. 2. The reaction engine The reaction engine was invented by Alexandry Ciurcu and Just Buisson. The reaction engine is an engine which provides propulsion by expelling reaction mass. Types of reaction engines include: the rocket engine and the turbojet. 3.The cervical cancer screening test Aurel Babes has discovered the screening test for cervical test which probably saved many women’s lives. Although Papanikolau was credited for the invention of this test by cervical cytology, Babes was the one that discovered that a platinum loop used in the test would help determine if cancer cells were present. His research was published in 1927. It must be noted that his method of testing is different to that of Papanikolau. 4. Anti ageing cream The anti ageing cream was invented by Ana Aslan, who was a Romanian biologist and physician. Her cream, called Gerovital contains procaine which has anti ageing effects. Her creams were used by personalities such as John F. Kenedy, Charlie Chaplin and Salvador Dali. The cream can still be bought today. 5. 3D cinema It might feel like 3D cinema is a recent invention, however, it was patented by Theodor V. Ionescu in 1936. Theodor Ionescu was a Romanian physicist who also made discoveries in p Continue reading >>

Romanian Inventors And Discoverers That Brought Important Changes To The World.

Romanian Inventors And Discoverers That Brought Important Changes To The World.

20th Century Romanian Inventors Romanian inventors and discoverers that brought important changes to the world. Petrache Poenaru (1799-1875) invented the world’s first fountain pen, while a student in Paris. His invention was patented on May 25, 1827, by the French Government. He studied in Paris, Vienna and England. He was a mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, teacher and organizer of the educational system, as well as politician and agronomist. He died on October 2, 1875, aged 76. Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (1869-1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, the discoverer of pancreatine, later named insulin. In 1990, he was elected post-mortem as member of the Romanian Academy. Three years later, in 1993, the Institute of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases in Bucharest was named in his honor (Institutul de Diabet, Nutritiesi Boli Metabolice “N. C. Paulescu). He died in 1931 in Bucharest, aged 61. Emil Racovita (1868-1947) was a Romanian biologist, zoologist and speleologist. He is considered the founder of biospeleology. Racovita was the first Romanian who went on a scientific research expedition to the Antarctic aboard the ship Belgica. He was also an influential professor, scholar and researcher. He died in 1947 in Cluj, Romania. Henri Marie Coanda (1886-1972) was a Romanian, aerodynamics pioneer and airplane builder. He invented a great number of devices, designed a “flying saucer” and discovered the Coanda effect in fluid dynamics – which was the starting point for jet planes. In 1910, he designed and built an experimental aircraft known as the Coanda. He received various awards, among which the Harry Diamond Laboratories Award, Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Aeronautical Society and Grand Gold Medal “Vielles Tiges”. Continue reading >>

Interesting Facts About Romania!

Interesting Facts About Romania!

1. The most famous novels, inspired by Romania, are “The Castle in the Carpathians” by Jules Verne, and “Dracula” by Bram Stoker. 2. Romania is the ninth largest wine producer in the world 3. Romania’s 10-bani note issued in 1917 is the smallest paper money ever printed (dimensions: 1.08 x 1.49 in). 4. The modern jet engine was invented by the Bucharest-born inventor Henri Coanda in 1910. 5. Bucharest’s mass transit network is the fourth largest in Europe. 6. Soprano Alma Gluck – the first lyrical artist to sell one million records – 7. The city of Brasov is home to the largest Gothic church between Vienna, Austria and Istanbul, Turkey. 8. Peles Castle was the first European castle entirely lit by electrical current. The electricity was produced by the castle’s own plant.The castle’s central heating system, built in 1888, is still functional and in use today. 9. Europe’s second largest underground glacier, the Scarisoara glacier, is found underneath the Bihor Mountains in Romania. It has a volume of 75,000 cubic meters and has existed for more than 3,500 years. 10. The archetypal vampire Count Dracula, created by Bram Stoker, was inspired by the Romanian prince Vlad Tepes, also known as Vlad the Impaler because he was fond of impaling his enemies and standing them along the roads. 11. In 1889 the Romanian city of Timisoara became the first in Europe to have electric street lighting. 12. Timisoara was also the first European city to introduce horse-drawn trams, also in 1869. 13. The fountain pen was invented by Craiova-born Petrache Poenaru in 1799-1875, and was patented in May 1827. 14. The tallest wooden church in the world, and the second tallest wooden structure in Europe, can be found in Sapanta Peri, Maramures of northwestern Romania. It has a Continue reading >>

The World Without Romania: How Would It Be?

The World Without Romania: How Would It Be?

Probably most of the people in this world wouldn’t be able to find Romania on the map, while there are still many who probably never heard of this country. And if it weren’t for vampires and Dracula, probably even fewer people would’ve known about this country. Which means that, if it somehow never existed, we wouldn’t have lost much, right? Well, it seems that’s not the case. I stumbled upon an extremely nice YouTube video that I am sharing with you, simply titled “The World Without Romania”. Spend five minutes to check it out below and see that this country has indeed contributed a lot to the modern world (just like, I am sure, most countries on this planet have). I know it’s more of history lesson than anything, but it certainly is one of the funnest possible about Romania. So here’s the video “The World Without Romania”: For those who don’t have the patience to go through it, here are some of fun facts about Romania that can be learned in the video below: – the fountain pen was invented by Romanian inventor Petrache Poenaru – Stefan Odobleja is the “father of cybernetics”. Today’s computers? They started here! – Insulin has been invented by Romanian scientist Nicolae Paulescu. Just imagine the world without it! – Henri Coanda invented the world’s first jet plane – The first history of religions book was written by a Romanian author, Mircea Eliade – The Romanians were the first to play baseball. Oina is the name of the game, invented back in 1364 and it is extremely similar to modern day baseball. – and much more This video, of course, doesn’t cover all the interesting facts about Romania, but it’s a good start. Continue reading >>

Discovery Of Insulin

Discovery Of Insulin

The discovery of insulin was one of the most dramatic and important milestones in medicine - a Nobel Prize-winning moment in science. Witnesses to the first people ever to be treated with insulin saw "one of the genuine miracles of modern medicine," says the author of a book charting its discovery.1 Starved and sometimes comatose patients with diabetes would return to life after receiving insulin. But how and when was the discovery made, and who made it? How and when was insulin discovered? The discovery of insulin did not come out of the blue; it was made on the back of a growing understanding of diabetes mellitus during the nineteenth century. Diabetes itself had been understood by its symptoms as far back as the 1600s - when it was described as the "pissing evile" - and the urination and thirst associated with it had been recognized thousands of years before. A feared and usually deadly disease, doctors in the nineteenth century knew that sugar worsened diabetes and that limited help could be given by dietary restriction of sugar. But if that helped, it also caused death from starvation. Scientists observed the damaged pancreases of people who died with diabetes. In 1869, a German medical student found clusters of cells in the pancreas that would go on to be named after him. Paul Langerhans had discovered the beta cells that produce insulin. Other work in animals then showed that carbohydrate metabolism was impossible once the pancreas was removed - the amount of sugar in the blood and urine rose sharply, and death from diabetes soon followed. In 1889, Oscar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering removed a dog's pancreas to study its effects on digestion. They found sugar in the dog's urine after flies were noticed feeding off it. In humans, doctors would once have diagnose Continue reading >>

Do Romanian Schools Produce Idiots?

Do Romanian Schools Produce Idiots?

If Romania cut military spending to Irish levels, that would release 0.76% of GDP for education spending. Delivering 21% growth in education spending over two years, that would be a start. Teaching salaries and calibre of graduates working in schools - along with provision of decent meals, science equipment and study material - are a crucial part of success. Certainly, promoting uptake of the many subsidised EU study opportunities is good for Romania in the long run - Romania will develop, and Romanians will increasingly return with better education, language skills, civil expectations for quality government and business connections throughout the EU. Yes, one of the problems is that parents (and consequently the children) put great importance to the final result (e.g. Baccalaureate or degree), not the path that makes the gives the individual the real education. Non-technical fields are easier, that's why they are preferred. But it's also because the salaries of technically educated people like engineers are laughingly small in the Czech Republic - that's why you should not be surprised that everybody wants to be an economist, a lawyer, a manager, a football player, etc. Give adequate credit and compensation to people from technological fields and the attitude of people towards these fields can change. Classes of ethics are not self-redemption, that's why I mentioned them along with parental role-models and medial (e.g. public space) role-models. The same applies to the religion. Every little helps but it is obviously not a self-redemption too considering that heavily pious countries like Italy or Poland are not known to be corruption-free too (on the other hand, protestant and atheist countries in northern Europe are known for relatively limited corruption). As various Continue reading >>

Canadian Inventions — Insulin

Canadian Inventions — Insulin

Until 1922 diabetes was treated through starvation diets and exercise. Right up until January 22, 1922, having diabetes ruthlessly and inevitably meant blindness, renal failure, heart attacks, strokes, leg amputations and/or a reduced life expectancy. But on January 23, 1922, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, two Canadian doctors, started human trials using insulin — a naturally occurring hormone that converts sugar into energy — in an effort to find a treatment for the debilitating disease. The first human injected with insulin — taken from the pancreas of dogs — was 14-year old Leonard Thompson*, whose prospects for survival into his 20’s were slim, none and “I’m sorry Mrs. Thompson, your son has passed away.” But the boys health improved almost immediately, and so did every other diabetic they injected. With insulin reintroduced to their blood stream, diabetics could control their blood sugar level for the first time. Insulin is not a cure, but Banting and Best’s discovery has saved the lives of hundreds of millions of people around the world and improved the quality of life for each and every one of them. Diabetes is still an evil little bastard of a disease, afflicting 177 million individuals worldwide. It is a Top Five Killer in most countries — usually just behind heart disease and cancer — and is the leading cause of adult blindness, kidney disease, heart attack, stroke and non-traumatic amputations. According to Health Canada “Diabetes is a lifelong condition where either your body does not produce enough insulin, or your body cannot use the insulin it produces. Your body needs insulin to change the sugar from food into energy.” A relatively recent Health Canada report revealed that “in 1999/2000, 5.1% of Canadians (1,196,370) aged Continue reading >>

The Greatest Canadian Invention: Insulin

The Greatest Canadian Invention: Insulin

In slightly-old news, the CBC aired a program last week announcing the Greatest Canadian Invention: the Toronto-created insulin. Other notable Toronto inclusions are the electron microscope, the G-suit, the light bulb (with the patent sold to Edison, somehow a very Toronto thing to do), pablum, and UV degradable plastics. The somewhat random list is still up on the CBC's website, although if there's one selection that isn't debatable it's poutine. I think I would have put it ahead of five-pin bowling, at least. If we had to come up with a list of the Greatest Torontonian inventions, what would top it? I'd nominate the Peameal Bacon Sandwich, but I'm sure we've birthed greater contributions to the city and the world at large. Feel free to drop ideas into the comments section if you think of anything worthy of the honour. Image from the CBC. Latest in Announcements Continue reading >>

Romania

Romania

Romania – a land of natural beauty and culture! Romania is a country steeped in culture and beauty and is still one of Europe’s best-kept secrets. Home to many world famous inventors, artists and nature reserves, Romania has an abundance of treasures waiting to be discovered. Let’s take a journey there together and find out more about this fascinating country. A geography lesson Romania is the 12th largest country in Europe and shares its borders with Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova. It also touches the Black Sea with a beach-lined coast stretching for almost 250 km. The country is divided into mountains, hills and plains. The Carpathian mountain range occupies one third of the country and is host to many outdoor activities including skiing, climbing and biking. Europe’s second largest river, the legendary Danube, flows through Romania and ends its eight country journey there at the Black Sea. The Danube Delta is one of the largest and most biodiverse wetlands on the planet and is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, featuring over 300 species of birds and 45 different freshwater fish in its numerous lakes and marshes. A paradise for nature lovers from all over the world! Little Paris Little Paris was the name given to Bucharest during the 1900s as it enjoyed a reputation of being a fashionable city renowned for its glorious buildings and high life. According to Romanian legend, Bucharest was founded by a local shepherd named Bucur which literally means joy. Fond of his beautiful pipe playing and tasty wine, the locals decided to name the burgeoning town after him. Today, the capital and largest city of Romania is a great bustling metropolis. Places of interest If you ever decide to visit Romania or would like to recommend the countr Continue reading >>

Great Romanian Inventions

Great Romanian Inventions

Romanian Inventions More than a object, the history of that. What you know about the pen? Or the insulin? Both are made by romanians. And other more. Let me tell you something about that. Hard to believe bot not impossible because that is the truth. Sonic drilling In 1934, Ion St.Basgan patented in Romania the sonic drilling. After that, in 1937, the inventor patented the invention in the U.S., for deep-sea oil drilling. At that time, using the classic drill, Americans do not reach more than 1,500 meters deep. Using sonic drilling they reached nearly 12,000 meters depth. Propeller machine gun synchronization and more In World War I British air fleet was inferior to the German planes because last had superior arms. British admiralty decided to make a contest of inventions which help the British to win the war. George Constantinescu invented the device that synchronize airplane machine gun with the propeller. Also George Constantinescu is the father of Sonics - the science of mechanical power transmission through vibration. An if you like to drive your car for the automatic gear that is also possible because George Constantinescu invented the automatic gear. Insulin injection Nicolae Paulescu, a professor of psychology at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, is the one who discovered for the first time in 1921, insulin, the hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and minerals in the body protidelor. Paulescu is one that has demonstrated efficacy in reducing hyperglycemia and this substance to use insulin to treat diabetes. His discovery has saved millions of lives. Jet Engine In October 1910, the Grand Palace on the Champs-Elysee, Paris hosted the second edition of the International Aerospace Exhibition. We Continue reading >>

Nicolae Păulescu – The Romanian Scientist Who Discovered Insulin

Nicolae Păulescu – The Romanian Scientist Who Discovered Insulin

Nicolae Păulescu – the Romanian scientist who discovered insulin The two Canadians are believed to have made the discovery, because Păulescu had only managed to create a substance administrable to dogs when the First World War started in Romania and the scientist was forced to postpone the final stages of his research. Banting and Best used Păulescu’s work and developed the substance that was called insulin and could be administered to humans. Nicolae Păulescu was born on the 8th of November 1869 in Bucharest, Romania. He was the first of the four children born to the Păulescu family. The young Păulescu showed remarkable abilities from a very early age by rapidly becoming fluent in French, Latin and Ancient Greek. He also had a talent for drawing, music and an inclination towards natural sciences. He finished high school in 1888 and then went to Paris to enroll in Medical School. He obtained his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1897 and then he worked at the Notre-Dame du Perpétuel-Secours Hospital until 1900, when he returned to Romania. In 1916, he managed to obtain a substance which he extracted from a bovine pancreas and which he called pancreine. He wrote a paper in which he described his findings, called “Research on the Role of the Pancreas in Food Assimilation”, which he submitted to the Archives Internationales de Physiologie in Liège, Belgium. It was published in August 1921. Prof. Paulescu used this article and his patent to try to prove that was the true discoverer of insulin and the one who truly deserved the Nobel Prize, but it was to no avail. He died in 1931 very unhappy about not receiving the recognition he deserved. In 1968, the Scottish physiologist Ian Murray initiated an international campaign to restore the truth and as a result, the N Continue reading >>

But What Have The Romanians Ever Done For Us ?

But What Have The Romanians Ever Done For Us ?

The jet engine used by modern airplanes was invented by Romanian inventor and aerodynamics pioneer Henry Coanda. George Emil Palade (1912–2008) – cell biologist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1974) The prize was granted for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation which together laid the foundations of modern molecular cell biology., Victor Babeș was a Romanian physician, biologist, and one of the earliest bacteriologists. He made early and significant contributions to the study of rabies, leprosy, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases. The monoplane (1903) and the steam generator with internal combustion were designed, built and tested by Romanian inventor and aviation pioneer Traian Vuia. The steam generator with internal combustion is still used today in thermal power stations. The fountain pen was invented by the mathematician, engineer and inventor Petrache Poenaru, invention which has been patented in 1827. Ana Aslan was a Romanian biologist and physician who discovered the anti-aging effects of procaine, based on which she developed the drugs Gerovital H3 and Aslavital. The sonic drilling has been invented by Ion St. Basgan in 1934. After 3 years, the inventor patented the invention in the U.S., for deep-sea oil drilling. The parachuted chair, the early version of the ejection seat was invented in 1930 by Romanian inventor Anastase Dragomir. Nadia Comăneci is a Romanian gymnast, winner of three Olympic gold medals at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the first female gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. Hurmuzescu electroscope’ was invented in 1894 by Dragomir Hurmuzescu, physicist, inventor, professor and member of the Romanian Academy. His inventi Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

For many years scientists believed that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas was the key to preventing diabetes and controlling normal metabolism. No one could find it, until in the summer of 1921 a team at the University of Toronto began trying a new experimental approach suggested by Dr. Frederick Banting. By the spring of 1922, the Toronto researchers — Banting, Charles Best, J.B. Collip and their supervisor, J.J.R. Macleod, were able to announce the discovery of insulin. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize for one of the most important, and most controversial, breakthroughs in modern medical history. Early Research For many centuries people knew about diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes), but it was only dimly understood until the end of the 19th century. Initially, the body’s inability to process carbohydrates and other nutrients, signified most obviously by the presence of sugar in the urine, was thought to be a liver or a stomach disorder. In 1889 German researchers Oskar Minkowski and Josef von Mehring discovered that dogs that had their pancreas removed immediately became severely and fatally diabetic. Something in the pancreas appeared to be essential to prevent diabetes. Researchers immediately began to try to find the mysterious substance. Results were mostly negative; for example, feeding pancreas to diabetic patients did no good. Still, new knowledge about the body’s dependence on chemical messengers — or hormones — added plausibility to the hypothesis that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas maintains normal metabolism. The gland was already known to have an external secretion, digestive juices that flow into the duodenum. Another German researcher, Paul Langerhans, had discovered a separa Continue reading >>

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