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Insulin Human Nph

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

Insulin Nph Isophane U-100 Human Subcutaneous : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - Webmd

Insulin Nph Isophane U-100 Human Subcutaneous : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - Webmd

Insulin isophane is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with diabetes . Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke . This man-made insulin product is the same as human insulin . It replaces the insulin that your body would normally make. It is an intermediate-acting insulin (isophane). It starts to work more slowly but lasts longer than regular insulin. Insulin isophane works by helping blood sugar ( glucose ) get into cells so your body can use it for energy. Insulin isophane is often used in combination with a shorter-acting insulin. It may also be used alone or with other oral diabetes drugs (such as metformin ). How to use Insulin NPH Human Recomb Suspension Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start using insulin isophane and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor, diabetes educator, or pharmacist. Learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional and the product package. Before using, gently roll the vial or cartridge, turning it upside down and right side up 10 times to mix the medication . Do not shake the container. Check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the insulin . Insulin isophane should look evenly cloudy/milky after mixing. Do not use if you see clumps of white material, a "frosty" appearance, or particles stuck to the sides of the vial or cartridge. Before injecting each dose, clean the injection site with rubbing alcohol. Change the injection site each time to lessen injury under the skin Continue reading >>

Human Insulin Novolin 70/30 Prefilled (novo Nordisk)

Human Insulin Novolin 70/30 Prefilled (novo Nordisk)

70% NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension and 30% Regular, Human Insulin Injection (recombinant DNA origin) in a 1.5 ml Prefilled Syringe 100 units/mL NOVOLIN N PREFILLED NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension (recombinant DNA origin) in a 1.5 ml Prefilled Syringe 100 units/mL NOVOLIN R PREFILLED Regular, Human Insulin Injection (recombinant DNA origin) in a 1.5 ml Prefilled Syringe 100 units/mL Please read both sides of this leaflet carefully before using this product. Novolin Prefilled syringe is for single person use only. See Important Notes section. WARNING ANY CHANGE OF INSULIN SHOULD BE MADE CAUTIOUSLY AND ONLY UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION. CHANGES IN PURITY, STRENGTH, BRAND (MANUFACTURER), TYPE (REGULAR, NPH, LENTE ETC.), SPECIES (BEEF, PORK, BEEF-PORK, HUMAN) AND/OR METHOD OF MANUFACTURE (RECOMBINANT DNA VERSUS ANIMAL-SOURCE INSULIN) MAY RESULT IN THE NEED FOR A CHANGE IN DOSAGE. SPECIAL CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN WHEN THE TRANSFER IS FROM A STANDARD BEEF OR MIXED SPECIES INSULIN TO A PURIFIED PORK OR HUMAN INSULIN. IF A DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT IS NEEDED, IT WILL USUALLY BECOME APPARENT EITHER IN THE FIRST FEW DAYS OR OVER A PERIOD OF SEVERAL WEEKS, ANY CHANGE IN TREATMENT SHOULD BE CAREFULLY MONITORED. PLEASE READ THE SECTIONS "INSULIN REACTION AND SHOCK" AND "DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AND COMA" FOR SYMPTOMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA (LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE) AND HYPERGLYCEMIA (HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE). INSULIN USE IN DIABETES Your physician has explained that you have diabetes and that your treatment involves injections of insulin or insulin therapy combined with an oral antidiabetic medicine. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas, a gland that lies behind the stomach. Without insulin, glucose (a simple sugar made from digested food) is trapped in the bloodstream and cannot enter the cells Continue reading >>

Novolin N (nph, Human Insulin Isophane (rdna Origin)) Dose, Indications, Adverse Effects, Interactions... From Pdr.net

Novolin N (nph, Human Insulin Isophane (rdna Origin)) Dose, Indications, Adverse Effects, Interactions... From Pdr.net

Intermediate-acting Human Insulins and Analogs Intermediate-acting insulin with a longer onset and duration of activity when compared to regular insulin; hormone secreted by pancreatic beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans essential for the metabolism and homeostasis of carbohydrate, fat, and protein; usually requires >= 2 injections/day when used as a basal insulin. Humulin N/Novolin N Subcutaneous Inj Susp: 1mL, 100U For the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or for type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately managed by diet, exercise, and oral hypoglycemics. NOTE: A consensus algorithm issued by the ADA and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes lists basal or intermediate-acting insulin as a second line or third line agent in patients with type 2 diabetes not controlled on oral drugs; metformin is the initial recommended therapy in all type 2 diabetics without contraindications. Once insulin is added, therapy can be intensified (e.g., addition of prandial insulin) to achieve optimal glycemic control. In patients who are receiving a sulfonylurea, the sulfonylurea should be discontinued when insulin therapy is initiated. The total daily dose is given as 1 to 2 injections per day, given 30 to 60 minutes before a meal or bedtime. Some patients may initially be given a single daily dose 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast, but 24-hour blood glucose control may not be possible with this regimen. Thus, a second injection given 30 to 60 minutes before dinner or bedtime may be required. When oral agents are used concomitantly in type 2 DM, a low initial dose of NPH insulin (e.g., 10 units) is often given in the evening. When used for intensive insulin therapy, NPH insulin is frequently mixed with a quick-acting insulin and given twice daily, although some patients w Continue reading >>

Discovery Of Nph Insulin

Discovery Of Nph Insulin

NPH insulin Named after its inventor, Hans Christian Hagedorn, NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin has been the long-acting insulin of choice for almost 80 years and only in the last few years has lost some of its popularity to the newer long-acting insulin analogues. When first used in 1936 it was considered an excellent solution to reduce the burden of multiple injections associated with the use of regular insulin. Having a duration of action of about 14-20 hours, it is still frequently used as the basal insulin in multiple injection therapy, or as a once-daily basal insulin in those with type 2 diabetes failing on oral agents. Insulin is an acidic molecule with an iso-electric point around pH=5.4[1], and as such it is ionized at the neutral pH of the body and thus water soluble. This allows for fairly rapid diffusion of the insulin from the injection site. Hans Christian Hagedorn conceived the idea of producing an insulin compound that was less soluble by mixing it with a basic protein, so that the resulting semi-crystalline mixture had an iso-electric point closer to the neutral pH.[2] As basic protein he used a protamine derived from the sperm of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Originally, he was unsuccessful, but once the pH during the mixing reaction was adjusted to neutral pH, the mixture precipitated to form a 1:1 insulin-protamine suspension. Subsequently, it was found that the addition of small amounts of zinc led to a stable compound with a prolonged duration of action. Practical use of NPH insulin The NPH insulin suspension is only registered for s.c. use. After s.c. injection, NPH insulin has a relatively slow onset of action, with a peak action after about 4-8 hours, and a duration of action of about 14-20 hours. While the insulin and protam Continue reading >>

Medicine Information - Kaiser Permanente

Medicine Information - Kaiser Permanente

Insulin isophane is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke.This man-made insulin product is the same as human insulin. It replaces the insulin that your body would normally make. It is an intermediate-acting insulin (isophane). It starts to work more slowly but lasts longer than regular insulin. Insulin isophane works by helping blood sugar (glucose) get into cells so your body can use it for energy. Insulin isophane is often used in combination with a shorter-acting insulin. It may also be used alone or with other oral diabetes drugs (such as metformin). Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start using insulin isophane and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor, diabetes educator, or pharmacist.Learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional and the product package.Before using, gently roll the vial or cartridge, turning it upside down and right side up 10 times to mix the medication. Do not shake the container. Check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the insulin. Insulin isophane should look evenly cloudy/milky after mixing. Do not use if you see clumps of white material, a "frosty" appearance, or particles stuck to the sides of the vial or cartridge.Before injecting each dose, clean the injection site with rubbing alcohol. Change the injection site each time to lessen injury under the skin and to avoid developing problems under the skin (lipodystro Continue reading >>

Novolin N Innolet

Novolin N Innolet

NOVOLIN® N INNOLET® NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension (recombinant DNA origin) is a 3 mL disposable prefilled insulin syringe 100 units/mL (U-100) DESCRIPTION WARNING ANY CHANGE OF INSULIN SHOULD BE MADE CAUTIOUSLY AND ONLY UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION. CHANGES IN PURITY, STRENGTH, BRAND (MANUFACTURER), TYPE (REGULAR, NPH, LENTE®, ETC.), SPECIES (BEEF, PORK, BEEF-PORK, HUMAN), AND/OR METHOD OF MANUFACTURE (RECOMBINANT DNA VERSUS ANIMAL-SOURCE INSULIN) MAY RESULT IN THE NEED FOR A CHANGE IN DOSAGE. SPECIAL CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN WHEN THE TRANSFER IS FROM A STANDARD BEEF OR MIXED SPECIES INSULIN TO A PURIFIED PORK OR HUMAN INSULIN. IF A DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT IS NEEDED, IT WILL USUALLY BECOME APPARENT EITHER IN THE FIRST FEW DAYS OR OVER A PERIOD OF SEVERAL WEEKS. ANY CHANGE IN TREATMENT SHOULD BE CAREFULLY MONITORED. PLEASE READ THE SECTIONS "INSULIN REACTION AND SHOCK" AND "DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AND COMA" FOR SYMPTOMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA (LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE) AND HYPERGLYCEMIA (HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE). Product Description This package contains Novolin® N in an InnoLet® disposable prefilled insulin syringe. Novolin N is commonly known as NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension (recombinant DNA origin). The concentration of this product is 100 units of insulin per milliliter. It is a cloudy or milky suspension of human insulin with protamine and zinc. The insulin substance (the cloudy material) settles at the bottom of the insulin reservoir, therefore, the Novolin N InnoLet (nph, human insulin isophane suspension 3 ml disposable prefilled syringe) must be rotated up and down so that the contents are uniformly mixed before a dose is given. Novolin N has an intermediate duration of action. The effect of Novolin N begins approximately 1½ hours after injection. The effect is maximal be Continue reading >>

Long Acting Insulin Analogues Versus Nph Insulin (human Isophane Insulin) For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Long Acting Insulin Analogues Versus Nph Insulin (human Isophane Insulin) For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin is the current standard for basal insulin in the blood glucose lowering therapy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mode of action of this insulin is highly variable, which may be the cause for the difficulties some people with diabetes have to achieve current goals for long-term metabolic control. Therefore, new insulins which are thought to show more favourable properties of action have been developed: insulin glargine and insulin detemir. Because of their theoretical advantages, it is thought that treatment with these new insulin analogues might lead to a beneficial effect, for example less hypoglycaemia or a better metabolic control, possibly resulting in higher quality of life and treatment satisfaction less late diabetic complications such as problems with eyes, kidneys or feet and myocardial infarction, stroke or death. Although epidemiological studies indicate that high concentrations of blood glucose carry a higher risk for these late complications, evidence for a beneficial effect of glucose-lowering therapy is conflicting. Following from the different results of large clinical trials, interventions seem to carry different substance specific beneficial or adverse effects. As a consequence, conclusions on the effects of different blood glucose lowering interventions on these outcomes can not be drawn from their effect on blood glucose concentration alone. Methodological quality of all the studies was rated low ("C"). Eight studies investigated altogether 2293 people. Trials lasted between 24 and 52 weeks. Our analysis of the currently available long-term trials comparing long acting insulin analogues with NPH insulin showed that insulin glargine and insulin detemir were almost identically effective compared to N Continue reading >>

Nph Human Insulin: Does It Work In A Once-a-day Regimen?

Nph Human Insulin: Does It Work In A Once-a-day Regimen?

Abstract A clinical transfer trial was conducted to ascertain whether semisynthetic human NPH insulin has a full 24-hour duration of therapeutic effect comparable to that of NPH insulin from animal sources. Diabetic patients requiring insulin and stabilized on a once-a-day (QD) regimen of animal NPH insulin were enrolled and entered a two-week run-in period during which the constancy of their insulin requirements and the stability of their glycemic control were assessed. At the end of the run-in phase, baseline measurements were made of fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1 C, C-peptide, and insulin antibodies. Patients then were transferred to a QD regimen of semisynthetic human NPH insulin (Novolin N) in the same dose as the animal insulin. Glycemic control was reassessed after 1, 4, and 8 weeks of therapy, and a global assessment of overall glycemic control was made at the conclusion of the study. Efficacy variables were analyzed for 39 patients. Most had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and most were transferred from mixed beef/pork insulin. Six (15%) patients required significant adjustments in insulin dose or regimen; the remaining 85% completed the eight weeks of treatment with minimal changes in insulin dose. Mean values for FBG and hemoglobin A1 C did not change significantly between baseline and the end of the study. The only statistically significant change was an increase in mean body weight (P less than or equal to 0.01). Results of the investigators' global assessments showed that 74% of the patients had unchanged or improved control of glycemia after transferring to semisynthetic human NPH insulin. The average frequency of hypoglycemic events was not significantly changed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS). Continue reading >>

Common Side Effects Of Novolin N Innolet (nph, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension 3 Ml Disposable Prefilled Syringe) Drug Center - Rxlist

Common Side Effects Of Novolin N Innolet (nph, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension 3 Ml Disposable Prefilled Syringe) Drug Center - Rxlist

Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP Novolin N InnoLet [ NPH , Human Insulin Isophane Suspension ( recombinant DNA origin)] is a form of insulin, a hormone produced in the body, used to treat diabetes . Novolin N InnoLet is available over-the-counter. Common side effects of Novolin N InnoLet include localized reactions such as red, swollen and itchy skin where the insulin has been injected. The most common side effect of Novolin N InnoLet is low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ). Symptoms of low blood sugar include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion , drowsiness, weakness , dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor , trouble concentrating, confusion, or seizure (convulsions). Novolin N is commonly known as NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension (recombinant DNA origin). The concentration of this product is 100 units of insulin per milliliter. Novolin N InnoLet may interact with albuterol , clonidine , reserpine, guanethidine, or beta-blockers. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. Consult your doctor to discuss the best way to manage your diabetes while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Our Novolin N InnoLet [NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension (recombinant DNA origin)] Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of insulin allergy: itching skin rash over the entire body, wheezing, trouble breathing, fast heart rate, sweating, or feeling like you might pass out. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is Continue reading >>

Nph Insulin

Nph Insulin

NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate–acting insulin given to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.[3] It is used by injection under the skin once to twice a day.[1] Onset of effects is typically in 90 minutes and they last for 24 hours.[3] Versions are available that come premixed with a short–acting insulin, such as regular insulin.[2] The common side effect is low blood sugar.[3] Other side effects may include pain or skin changes at the sites of injection, low blood potassium, and allergic reactions.[3] Use during pregnancy is relatively safe for the baby.[3] NPH insulin is made by mixing regular insulin and protamine in exact proportions with zinc and phenol such that a neutral-pH is maintained and crystals form.[1] There are human and pig insulin based versions.[1] Protamine insulin was first created in 1936 and NPH insulin in 1946.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 2.23 to 10.35 USD per 1,000 iu of NPH insulin.[5] In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds while in the United States this amount costs about 134.00 USD.[2][6] Chemistry[edit] NPH insulin is cloudy and has an onset of 1–4 hours. Its peak is 6–10 hours and its duration is about 10–16 hours. History[edit] Hans Christian Hagedorn (1888–1971) and August Krogh (1874–1949) obtained the rights for insulin from Banting and Best in Toronto, Canada. In 1923 they formed Nordisk Insulin laboratorium, and in 1926 with August Kongsted he obtained a Danish Royal Charter as a non-profit foundation. In 1936, Hagedorn and B. Norman Jensen discovered that the effects of injecte Continue reading >>

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Synthetic human insulin is identical to your own. However, relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, regular human insulin has several undesirable features. Synthetic human insulin is identical in structure to your own natural insulin. But when it is injected under the skin it doesn’t work as well as natural insulin. This is because injected human insulin clumps together and takes a long time to get absorbed. The activity of this synthetic human insulin is not well synchronized with your body’s needs. In this section, you will find information about: Fast-acting injected insulin Relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, Regular human insulin has undesirable features, such as a delayed onset of action, and variable peak and duration of action when it is injected under the skin. Because of this, fewer and fewer medical providers are prescribing Regular insulin. The delayed onset of action is the reason you have to inject the insulin and wait before eating. And the variable duration of action predisposes to low blood sugars long after the meal is over. REGULAR INSULIN IS LESS PREDICTABLE THAN RAPID-ACTING ANALOG VERSIONS when injected under the skin. Long-acting injected insulin NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is a longer-acting human insulin that is used to cover blood sugar between meals, and to satisfy your overnight insulin requirement. A fish protein, protamine, has been added to the Regular human insulin to delay its absorption. This long acting insulin is a cloudy suspension that needs to be remixed thoroughly before each injection. Because NPH is a suspension of different sized crystals, it has a very unpredictable absorption rate and action. This results in more frequent low and high blood sugars. The use of NPH has declined with the availability of o Continue reading >>

Humulin N (insulin Isophane Aka Insulin Nph)

Humulin N (insulin Isophane Aka Insulin Nph)

Humulin N is one brand of the man-made form of insulin known as insulin NPH or insulin isophane. It is produced by Eli Lilly and Company using recombinant DNA technology from a non-pathological strain of E. coli. It combines human insulin with protamine sulfate to create a crystalline suspension. Humulin N is used to help lower blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. Humulin N is one of the few insulins available without a prescription in some states (although you must ask for it at the pharmacy counter, since it has to stay refrigerated). How Does Humulin N Work? Humulin N is an intermediate-acting insulin, which begins to take effect between one and four hours after injection. Its peak effect occurs four to 12 hours after injection and keeps working for 12 to 18 hours after injection. For some people, it can take 24 hours to clear out of their system. Humulin N acts like your body’s natural insulin to lower or normalize your blood sugar levels. It is often used in conjunction with a short-acting insulin and/or other oral anti-diabetic medications (such as Metformin). This insulin can also be mixed with certain other insulins, such as regular insulin. Consult with your doctor on whether mixing insulins is right for you. They can also instruct you on the correct way to do so. Humulin N can be used to improve glycemic control in adults and children with diabetes. Who Should Not Take Humulin N? Do not take Humulin N if you are experiencing hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Do not take Humulin N if you are allergic to insulin isophane or any of its ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, glycerol, m-cresol, phenol, protamine sulfate, and zinc. It may also contain dimethicone, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide. If your doctor prescribes Humulin N, you will inject Continue reading >>

Intermediate-acting Insulins

Intermediate-acting Insulins

Rapid-Acting Analogues Short-Acting Insulins Intermediate-Acting Insulins Long-Acting Insulins Combination Insulins Onset: 1- 2 hours Peak: 4-12 hours Duration: 14 - 24 hours (up to 24 hours) Solution: Cloudy Comments: Human Insulin Isophane Suspension. Cloudy/ milky suspension of human insulin with protamine and zinc. Mixing NPH + Aspart (Novolog ®): Compatible - NovoLog should be drawn into the syringe first. The injection should be made immediately after mixing. NPH + Lispro (Humalog ®): Compatible - Humalog should be drawn into the syringe first. The injection should be made immediately after mixing. NPH +Regular insulin: Always draw the Regular (clear) insulin into the syringe first. Phosphate-buffered insulins ( NPH insulin) should NOT be mixed with lente insulins. Zinc phosphate may precipitate, and the longer-acting insulin will convert to a short-acting insulin to an unpredictable extent. Currently available NPH and short-acting insulin formulations when mixed may be used immediately or stored for future use. NPH HUMAN INSULIN Description Humulin N [Human insulin (rDNA origin) isophane suspension] is a crystalline suspension of human insulin with protamine and zinc providing an intermediate-acting insulin with a slower onset of action and a longer duration of activity (up to 24 hours) than that of Regular human insulin. The time course of action of any insulin may vary considerably in different individuals or at different times in the same individual. As with all insulin preparations, the duration of action of Humulin N is dependent on dose, site of injection, blood supply, temperature, and physical activity. Humulin N is a sterile suspension and is for subcutaneous injection only. It should not be used intravenously or intramuscularly. The concentration of H Continue reading >>

Humulin N

Humulin N

HUMULIN® N (human insulin [rDNA origin]) isophane) Suspension DESCRIPTION HUMULIN N (human insulin [rDNA origin] isophane) suspension is a human insulin suspension. Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. HUMULIN N is a suspension of crystals produced from combining human insulin and protamine sulfate under appropriate conditions for crystal formation. The amino acid sequence of HUMULIN N is identical to human insulin and has the empirical formula C257H383N65O77S6 with a molecular weight of 5808. HUMULIN N is a sterile white suspension. Each milliliter of HUMULIN N contains 100 units of insulin human, 0.35 mg of protamine sulfate, 16 mg of glycerin, 3.78 mg of dibasic sodium phosphate, 1.6 mg of metacresol, 0.65 mg of phenol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.025 mg zinc ion, and Water for Injection. The pH is 7.0 to 7.5. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be added during manufacture to adjust the pH. Continue reading >>

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