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Insulin Dependent Diabetes Definition

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

My current understanding compels me to formulate the following brief answer: If both type 1 (an autoimmune) and type 2 (a lifestyle) diabetes are pulled together, I’d describe them with the unifying name ‘fuel partitioning disease of insulin’. Now, that’s not to say that type 1 diabetes does not have a strong lifestyle component as well… You may rightfully ask what I mean by ‘fuel partitioning disease’? Understanding the physiological role of insulin in the body leads you to this conclusion. The general role of insulin was perfectly described by George Cahill in his Banting Memorial Lecture way back in 1971: “Insulin serves as the body's signal for the fed or fasted state. High insulin levels, the “fed” signal, initiate tissue uptake and storage of fuels. Low insulin levels, the “fasted” signal, initiate mobilization of stored fuels from tissue stores, the rate being proportional to the lowness of the insulin. Certain metabolic states such as obesity or trauma alter the concentration of insulin at which no net transfer of fuel occurs, resulting in insulin resistance or hyper-sensitivity.” Our understanding has been refined to some extent since then, but the basics are well described. In fact, where our knowledge has improved the most is the mechanisms underlying the impaired action of insulin. As it seems now, as soon as (especially superficial, below the waistline) subcutaneous fat depots fail to take up and store lipids (fat) in an appropriate (insulin sensitive) way, these lipids get deposited in less appropriate places. First, in deeper subcutaneous, then visceral, epicardial, etc. adipose depots, and if those become full as well, fat starts flooding all insulin sensitive organs, such as the liver, the pancreas, and the endothelium (the inn Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic condition that develops when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when insulin fails to work properly, which is referred to as insulin resistance. Insulin is the hormone that stimulates cells to uptake glucose from the blood to use for energy. When this is the case, cells are not instructed by insulin to take up glucose from the blood, meaning the blood sugar level rises (referred to as hyperglycemia). People usually develop type 2 diabetes after the age of 40 years, although people of South Asian origin are at an increased risk of the condition and may develop diabetes from the age of 25 onwards. The condition is also becoming increasingly common among children and adolescents across all populations. Type 2 diabetes often develops as a result of overweight, obesity and lack of physical activity and diabetes prevalence is on the rise worldwide as these problems become more widespread. Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all diabetes cases (the other form being type 1 diabetes) and treatment approaches include lifestyle changes and the use of medication. Types of Diabetes Also known of as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes usually occurs in childhood or adolescence. In type 1 diabetes, the body fails to produce insulin. Patients have to be given the hormone, which is why the condition is also known of as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), since it can be treated with lifestyle changes and/or types of medication other than insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is significantly more common than type 1 diabetes. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes The increased blood glucose level seen in diabetes can eventually damage a person’s Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach and has two main functions: to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help us digest food to produce the hormone called insulin. Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body. Type 2 diabetes is caused by: insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas a resistance to the action of insulin in the body's cells – especially in muscle, fat and liver cells. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with being overweight, but it's less clear what causes it, compared to the Type 1 disease. Term watch Type 2 diabetes used to be called 'non-insulin dependent diabetes'. This is because insulin injections were not part of its treatment. As some people with Type 2 also now require insulin, the term Type 2 is preferred. In the first few years after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes high levels of insulin circulate in the blood because the pancreas can still produce the hormone. Eventually insulin production dwindles. For reasons we don't understand, the effect of insulin is also impaired. This means it doesn't have its normal effect on the cells of the body. This is called insulin resistance. What is insulin resistance? Insulin resistance has a number of knock-on effects: it causes high blood glucose it disturbs the fat levels in the blood, making the arteries of the heart more likely to clog (coronary heart disease) The insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in people with Type 2 diabetes don't seem to come under attack from the immune system as they do in Type 1. But they are still unable to cope with the need to produce a surge of insulin after a meal. Normally, this insulin surge causes the body to store excess glucose coming in and so keeps Continue reading >>

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus And Driving

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus And Driving

treated with Insulin Group 1 entitlement: must have awareness of hypoglycaemia must not have had more than one episode of hypoglycaemia requiring the assistance of another person in the preceding twelve months there must be appropriate blood glucose monitoring must not be regarded as a likely source of danger to the public while driving the visual standards for acuity and visual field must be met impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia has been defined by the Secretary of State's Honorary Medical Advisory Panel on Driving and Diabetes as, 'an inability to detect the onset of hypoglycaemia because of a total absence of warning symptoms' If meets the medical standard a 1, 2 or 3 year licence will be issued Group 2 entitlement May apply for any Group 2 licence. Must satisfy the following criteria : no episode of hypoglycaemia requiring the assistance of another person has occurred in the preceding 12 months has full awareness of hypoglycaemia regularly monitors blood glucose at least twice daily and at times relevant to driving using a glucose meter with a memory function to measure and record blood glucose levels. At the annual examination by an independent Consultant Diabetologist, 3 months of blood glucose readings must be available must demonstrate an understanding of the risks of hypoglycaemia. There are no other debarring complications of diabetes such as a visual field defect if meets the medical standards a 1 year licence will be issued treated with temporary with insulin e.g. - gestational diabetes, post-myocardial infarction, participants in oral/inhaled insulin trials Group 1 entitlement provided they are under medical supervision and have not been advised by their doctor that they are at risk of disabling hypoglycaemia, need not notify DVLA. If experiencing disabli Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

The more severe form of diabetes is type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes. It’s sometimes called “juvenile” diabetes, because type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and teenagers, though it can develop at any age. Immune System Attacks With type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks part of its own pancreas. Scientists are not sure why. But the immune system mistakenly sees the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as foreign, and destroys them. This attack is known as "autoimmune" disease. These cells – called “islets” (pronounced EYE-lets) – are the ones that sense glucose in the blood and, in response, produce the necessary amount of insulin to normalize blood sugars. Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter -- and allow you to use the glucose for energy. Without insulin, there is no “key.” So, the sugar stays -- and builds up-- in the blood. The result: the body’s cells starve from the lack of glucose. And, if left untreated, the high level of “blood sugar” can damage eyes, kidneys, nerves, and the heart, and can also lead to coma and death. Insulin Therapy So, a person with type 1 treats the disease by taking insulin injections. This outside source of insulin now serves as the “key” -- bringing glucose to the body’s cells. The challenge with this treatment is that it’s often not possible to know precisely how much insulin to take. The amount is based on many factors, including: Food Exercise Stress Emotions and general health Balancing Act These factors fluctuate greatly throughout every day. So, deciding on what dose of insulin to take is a complicated balancing act. If you take too much, then your body burns too much glucose -- and your blood sugar can drop to a dangerously lo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 2? Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the body fails to metabolise glucose (sugar) correctly. This causes levels of sugar in the blood to increase, a state known as hyperglycaemia. When a person does not have diabetes, a gland called the pancreas produces and secretes a hormone called insulin. The hormone is used by the body’s tissues to metabolise glucose. Usually the amount of insulin secreted increases in relation to the amount of carbohydrate (sugar) a person consumes. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion from the pancreas often decreases. This is referred to as reduced insulin secretion. In addition the body tissues do not respond adequately to the insulin which is produced. Normally the insulin would be used by the body to draw glucose into the cells, where it could be stored as energy which could be used by the body later (e.g. when exercising or any of the other activities which involve energy expenditure). In type 2 diabetes, the glucose is not taken into the cells. This is referred to as insulin resistance. It causes glucose to stay in the blood stream and hyperglycaemia is the result. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was previously called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and late onset diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because they are inaccurate. Insulin is often used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The condition is increasingly diagnosed in young people. Statistics Almost one in 20 Australians, or one million people, were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2008. The actual proportion of Australians with the condition may be higher as many people are not diagnosed until they develop complications, for example diabetic retinopathy. Of those who have been diagnosed Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas to be destroyed, preventing the body from being able to produce enough insulin to adequately regulate blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes may sometimes be referred to as juvenile diabetes, however, this term is generally regarded as outdated as, whilst it is commonly diagnosed in children, the condition can develop at any age. Insulin dependent diabetes is another term that may sometimes be used to describe type 1 diabetes. Because type 1 diabetes causes the loss of insulin production, it therefore requires regular insulin administration either by injection or by insulin pump. Type 1 diabetes symptoms Type 1 diabetes symptoms should be acted upon immediately, as without treatment this type of diabetes can be deadly. Symptoms include: Type 1 diabetes tends to develop more slowly in adults than it does in children and in some cases type 1 diabetes in adults may be misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes in adults over 35 years old will sometimes be referred to as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood (LADA). See more information on recognising the signs of type 1 diabetes Type 1 causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by a fault in the body’s immune response in which the immune system mistakenly targets and kills beta cells, the cells in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin. As more insulin producing cells in the pancreas are killed off, the body can no longer control its blood glucose levels and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. What causes the initial fault in the immune system is yet to be discovered, however, research suggests that the condition results from a combination of genetic predisposition with an environmental trigger. What tri Continue reading >>

Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes

Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes

diabetes [pathology] | adult onset diabetes [sense-specific] | juvenile-onset diabetes [pathology, sense-specific] | diabetes mellitus [synonym, sense-specific] | Type I diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | insulin-dependent diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | juvenile diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | Type II diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | non-insulin-dependent diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | ... any of several disorders characterized by increased urine production. | a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually occurring in genetically ... (18 of 196 words, 5 definitions, pronunciations) Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. But type 2 diabetes in children is rising. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes-90 to 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn't able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency. How are these diseases different? Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease. Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines. It cannot be prevented. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy wei Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Pregestational Diabetes

What You Should Know About Pregestational Diabetes

Pregestational diabetes occurs when you have insulin-dependent diabetes before becoming pregnant. Pregestational diabetes has seven classes that depend on your age at diagnosis and certain complications of the disease. For example, your diabetes is class C if you developed it between the ages of 10 and 19. Your diabetes is also class C if you’ve had the disease for 10 to 19 years and you have no vascular complications. Having diabetes when you’re pregnant increases some risks for both you and your baby. The class of diabetes that you have tells your doctor about the severity of your diabetes. If you have diabetes, your pregnancy will need extra monitoring. The symptoms of diabetes include: excessive thirst and hunger frequent urination changes in weight blurry vision extreme fatigue Pregnancy can also cause symptoms such as frequent urination and fatigue. It’s important to monitor your glucose levels closely to help you and your doctor determine the reason for these symptoms. Your symptoms will have a lot to do with how well-controlled your diabetes is and how your pregnancy is progressing. The pancreas produces insulin. Insulin helps your body: use glucose, or sugar, and other nutrients from food store fat build up protein If your body doesn’t produce insulin or produces it inefficiently, then your blood glucose levels will be higher than normal and affect how your body functions. Type 1 diabetes occurs when your pancreas is unable to produce insulin. It can happen when your immune system mistakenly attacks your pancreas. It can also happen for unknown reasons. Researchers aren’t sure why people develop type 1 diabetes. You’re more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if you have a family history of the disease. People who have type 1 diabetes usually receive Continue reading >>

Phd Public Health, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Phd Public Health, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long–term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes mellitus may present with characteristic symptoms such as thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision, and weight loss. In its most severe forms, ketoacidosis or a non–ketotic hyperosmolar state may develop and lead to stupor, coma and, in absence of effective treatment, death. Often symptoms are not severe, or may be absent, and consequently hyperglycaemia sufficient to cause pathological and functional changes may be present for a long time before the diagnosis is made. The long–term effects of diabetes mellitus include progressive development of the specific complications of retinopathy with potential blindness, nephropathy that may lead to renal failure, and/or neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputation, Charcot joints, and features of autonomic dysfunction, including sexual dysfunction. People with diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease. The development of diabetes is projected to reach pandemic proportions over the next10-20 years. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) data indicate that by the year 2025, the number of people affected will reach 333 million –90% of these people will have Type 2 diabetes. In most Western societies, the overall prevalence has reach Continue reading >>

Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Related to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus in·su·lin-de·pen·dent diabetes or in·su·lin-de·pen·dent diabetes mellitus (ĭn′sə-lĭn-dĭ-pĕn′dənt) American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Noun 1. insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - severe diabetes mellitus with an early onset; characterized by polyuria and excessive thirst and increased appetite and weight loss and episodic ketoacidosis; diet and insulin injections are required to control the diseasediabetes mellitus, DM - diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria; "when doctors say `diabetes' they usually mean `diabetes mellitus'"autoimmune disease, autoimmune disorder - any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues Continue reading >>

What Does Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mean?

What Does Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mean?

type II diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, ketosis-resistant diabetes mellitus, ketosis-resistant diabetes, ketoacidosis-resistant diabetes mellitus, ketoacidosis-resistant diabetes, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes mellitus, maturity-onset diabetes, mature-onset diabetes(noun) mild form of diabetes mellitus that develops gradually in adults; can be precipitated by obesity or severe stress or menopause or other factors; can usually be controlled by diet and hypoglycemic agents without injections of insulin The numerical value of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Chaldean Numerology is: 3 The numerical value of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5 Use the citation below to add this definition to your bibliography: Continue reading >>

Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Pancreas Diabetes mellitus Author: Deepali Jain, M.D. (see Authors page) Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. PubMed Search: Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus[TI] pancreas[TIAB] Cite this page: Jain, D. Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. PathologyOutlines.com website. Accessed January 4th, 2018. Early: Normal insulin secretion and plasma levels but loss of pulsatile, oscillating pattern of secretion Also loss of rapid first phase of insulin secretion triggered by glucose NO insulinitis is present Later: Mild / moderate insulin deficiency, may be due to beta cell damage Beta cells may be "exhausted" due to chronic hyperglycemia and persistent beta cell stimulation Amylin: 37 amino acid peptide, normally produced by beta cells, packaged and cosecreted with insulin In NIDDM patients, tends to accumulate outside beta cells and resembles amyloid Images hosted on other servers: Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use sugar. It affects the body's ability to use glucose, a type of sugar found in the blood, as fuel. This happens because the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not correctly respond to insulin to use glucose as energy. Insulin is a type of hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate how blood sugar becomes energy. An imbalance of insulin or resistance to insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs. There is type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They have different causes and risk factors, and different lines of treatment. This article will compare the similarities and differences of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, having gestational diabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so patients are often screened for type 2 diabetes at a later date. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1. For every person with type 1 diabetes, 20 will have type 2. Type 2 can be hereditary, but excess weight, a lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet increase At least a third of people in the U.S. will develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Both types can lead to heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and possible amputation of limbs. Causes In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These cells are destro Continue reading >>

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