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Insulin Definition

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin. Diabetes: The failure to make insulin or to respond to it constitutes diabetes mellitus. Insulin is made specifically by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. If the beta cells degenerate so the body cannot make enough insulin on its own, type I diabetes results. A person with this type of diabetes must inject exogenous insulin (insulin from sources outside the body). In type II diabetes, the beta cells produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to it. Nevertheless, insulin also may be used in type II diabetes to help overcome the resistance of cells to insulin. By reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin is thought to prevent or reduce the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. History of Insulin: In 1921, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin while they were working in the laboratory of John J.R. Macleod at the University of Toronto. Banting and Best extracted material from the pancreas of dogs. They first used this material to keep diabetic dogs alive and in 1922 they used it successfully on a 14-year-old boy with diabetes. In 1923, James B. Collip, a biochemist, discovered that purifying the extract prevented many of the side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Best and Collip were overlooked but Banting and Macleod shared the prize money with them. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved insulin in 1939. Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesized completely i Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

History Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas gland, one of the glands in the endocrine system. Insulin, working in harmony with other hormones, regulates the level of blood sugar (glucose). Endocrine glands are ductless glands; that is, they pour their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. The pancreas, a gland in the upper abdomen, has cells within it that secrete insulin directly into the bloodstream. An insufficient level of insulin secretion leads to high blood sugar, a disease called diabetes mellitus or, simply, diabetes. Specifically, diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by the body’s inability to use the hormone insulin to effectively convert carbohydrates into the simple sugar glucose that cells store and use to perform vital functions. Without glucose to fuel their activity, the cells use fat instead, producing ketones as a waste product. Ketones build up in blood and disrupt brain functions. Common signs of diabetes are excessive thirst, urination, and fatigue. The disease can also cause vision loss, decreased blood supply to hands and feet, pain, and skin infections. If left untreated diabetes can induce coma and cause death. Diabetes often runs in families. In the United States about 10% of the Caucasian population suffers from diabetes, and it is even more common among African-American, Mexican-American, and certain Native American groups. The sixth leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes remains a major health problem. According to the American Diabetes Association, about 20.8 million children and adults (about 7% of the U.S. population), as of 2006, suffer from diabetes mellitus. About 14.6 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. However, about 6.2 million people (about one-third) do not know that they ha Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin, hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu, who was working independently and called the substance “pancrein.” After Banting and Best isolated insulin, they began work to obtain a purified extract, which they accomplished with the help of Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod and Canadian chemist James B. Collip. Banting and Macleod shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin. Proinsulin is relatively inactive, and under normal conditions only a small amount of it is secreted. In the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells the proinsulin molecule is cleaved in two places, yielding the A and B chains of insulin and an intervening, biologically inactive C peptide. The A and B chains become linked together by two sulfur-sulfur (disulfide) bonds. Proinsulin, insulin, and C peptide are stored in granules in the beta cells, from which they are released into the capillaries of the islets in response to appropriate stimuli. These capillaries empty into the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestines, and pancrea Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Insulin resistance can develop into type 2 diabetes if left untreated. However, making lifestyle changes can drastically reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Learn more about insulin resistance, including risk factors, how to test for it, and how you can reverse it. Definition Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which tells the cells (muscle, fat, and liver) of the body to absorb excess glucose circulating in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the human body. Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin is produced, but the cells do not absorb excess glucose, resulting in high levels of glucose in the blood, and in more insulin being produced. This condition is also called metabolic syndrome or syndrome X. It can lead to type 2 diabetes and a higher risk of heart disease, unless lifestyle changes are made. There are no obvious symptoms of insulin resistance. A blood glucose test can show that it exists, but most often people have it without knowing for a long time. Your physician can identify if you are at risk by certain risk factors. These include: Obesity - particularly excess belly fat Physical inactivity Ethnicity - those with African American, Native American, Hispanic and Asian American are more at risk (in conjunction with other risk factors) Being age 45 or older Steroid use Sleep problems Smoking Treatment Changes in lifestyle habits, especially diet and exercise, are the primary means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. There are also medications, like metformin and thiazolidinedione, that help make the cells more receptive to insulin. However, some research studies have shown that diet and exercise are almost twice as effective as the medications. Insulin resistance can be reversed by doing the following: Continue reading >>

Definition Of 'insulin'

Definition Of 'insulin'

noun The Sun (2017) Leslie, Dr R D G Diabetes (1989) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002) The Sun (2016) Times, Sunday Times (2011) Times, Sunday Times (2008) The Sun (2016) The Sun (2010) Times, Sunday Times (2013) Budd, Martin Diets to Help Diabetes (1983) Times, Sunday Times (2006) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)This careful balance of insulin and blood sugar helps to tell our body when we are full and when we are hungry. The Sun (2009) The Sun (2014) The Sun (2009) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)You can eat in a way that helps to reduce insulin resistance and make your body's cells more responsive again. Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)In theory this would lead to a rush of insulin that brings blood sugar back to normal and encourages the storage of any excess sugar as fat. Times, Sunday Times (2009) The Sun (2010) Christianity Today (2000)But they also release sugar rapidly into the blood, which can encourage a surge in the hormone insulin, which encourages the body to store fat. Times, Sunday Times (2012)There is a strong link between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance, so it is important to include it if you have PCOS. Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional ap Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Insulin Definition

Insulin Definition

Insulin is a protein secreted by the islet cells of the pancreas. It is used to allow glucose to enter the cells of the body to be used for cellular metabolism. People who have type 1 diabetes have antibodies that have destroyed the islet cells so they no longer make insulin. Those with type 2 diabetes produce insulin but have insulin resistance so the glucose cannot get in the cells to be used for fuel. There are also insulin preparations, most often used by type 1 diabetics. The insulin levels vary according to the length of time that they are active in the body. The most common type of exogenous (manmade) insulin is U-100. Most insulin is made in a factory; however, some people use insulin that has been harvested from animals. Insulin is normally released by the islet cells (beta cells) of the pancreas in response to a decrease in blood sugar levels. In normal individuals, the insulin facilitates the transfer of glucose from the bloodstream to the cells, where it is used as part of the metabolic process within the cells. Exogenous insulin must be injected into the fatty tissues because it cannot survive the acidic environment of the stomach. In some cases, a person can become allergic to the insulin they are taking for their diabetes. This is more common among those taking animal insulins. Types of Injectable Insulin Type 1 diabetics and some type 2 diabetics take exogenous insulin as part of their management of diabetes. The different types of insulin are as follows: Rapid Acting Insulin. This is insulin that begins to take effect within 15 minutes and peaks after about an hour. Its total duration of action is between 2 and 4 hours. Regular or Short Acting Insulin. This is insulin that gets into the blood within a half hour of injection and peaks at about 3-6 hours. Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that controls blood sugar levels and facilitates the conversion of food into energy. It also helps store sugar which is released when blood sugar levels are low or more energy is needed, like when exercising or hungry. Problems arise when the pancreas isn't releasing insulin the way it should be. When there is too much insulin then the blood sugar levels can be too low and can result in hypoglycemia. When there is not enough insulin then diabetes can occur. The ingestion or injection of insulin can be a treatment for diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed in childhood while Type 2 diabetes develops later in life. Continue reading >>

Definitions Of The Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Definitions Of The Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Richard Pasternak (Boston, MA) discussed the deliberations that led the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III to propose a new definition of the metabolic syndrome (1) and the impact of this proposal in heightening awareness of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of death in the developed world, and Pasternak noted that contrary to general perceptions, malignancy is only approximately half as frequent a cause of mortality as CHD among women. The concept of metabolic syndrome extends in a precise way an important subset of patients at high risk for CHD. The definition was created to be clinically practical, evidence based, and applicable to existing datasets. The ATP did not find adequate evidence to recommend routine measurement of insulin sensitivity or of inflammatory markers. The 2-h glucose was not included because it was similarly felt not to add sufficient numbers of persons to justify the additional effort involved. The panel has been criticized for not calling the metabolic syndrome a CHD equivalent, but Pasternak pointed out that at that time there was no evidence that this was the case. Rather, the presence of the metabolic syndrome was felt to accentuate the risk accompanying elevated LDL cholesterol, mediated through existing and emerging risk factors. Clinical trials show evidence for modification of atherogenic dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and the prothrombotic state (with aspirin, which the panel recommended only for persons with CHD but which Pasternak suggested is appropriate for all persons with the syndrome) in persons undergoing LDL-lowering therapy. The primary management strategy should be to reverse its root causes of obesity and physical inactivity, with an option Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Definition And Clinical Spectrum

Insulin Resistance: Definition And Clinical Spectrum

INTRODUCTION Insulin resistance can be broadly defined as a subnormal biological response to normal insulin concentrations. By this definition, it may pertain to many biological actions of insulin in many tissues of the body. Typically, however, in clinical practice, insulin resistance refers to a state in which a given concentration of insulin is associated with a subnormal glucose response [1]. The term first came into use several years after the introduction of insulin therapy in 1922 to describe occasional diabetic patients who required increasingly large doses of insulin to control hyperglycemia. Most of these patients developed insulin resistance secondary to antibodies directed against the therapeutic insulin, which at that time was both impure and derived from non-human species [2]. Antiinsulin antibodies are rare in patients treated with recombinant human insulin, and the spectrum of clinical disorders in which insulin resistance plays a major role has changed markedly. Insulin resistance, rather than being a rare complication of the treatment of diabetes, is now recognized as a component of several disorders, including the following (table 1): Extreme insulin-resistance syndromes, such as the type B syndrome with autoantibodies against the insulin receptor [3], and rare inherited disorders, such as Leprechaunism with insulin-receptor mutations [4] and the lipodystrophic states [5]. Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity, stress, infection, uremia, acromegaly, glucocorticoid excess, and pregnancy, which cause secondary insulin resistance. Common disorders such as the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and ovarian hyperthecosis, in which the mechanism of the a Continue reading >>

Basal Bolus - Basal Bolus Injection Regimen

Basal Bolus - Basal Bolus Injection Regimen

Tweet A basal-bolus injection regimen involves taking a number of injections through the day. A basal-bolus regimen, which includes an injection at each meal, attempts to roughly emulate how a non-diabetic person’s body delivers insulin. A basal-bolus regimen may be applicable to people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. What is a basal-bolus insulin regimen? A basal-bolus routine involves taking a longer acting form of insulin to keep blood glucose levels stable through periods of fasting and separate injections of shorter acting insulin to prevent rises in blood glucose levels resulting from meals. What is basal insulin? The role of basal insulin, also known as background insulin, is to keep blood glucose levels at consistent levels during periods of fasting. When fasting, the body steadily releases glucose into the blood to our cells supplied with energy. Basal insulin is therefore needed to keep blood glucose levels under control, and to allow the cells to take in glucose for energy. Basal insulin is usually taken once or twice a day depending on the insulin. Basal insulin need to act over a relatively long period of time and therefore basal insulin will either be long acting insulin or intermediate insulin. What is bolus insulin? A bolus dose is insulin that is specifically taken at meal times to keep blood glucose levels under control following a meal. Bolus insulin needs to act quickly and so short acting insulin or rapid acting insulin will be used. Bolus insulin is often taken before meals but some people may be advised to take their insulin during or just after a meal if hypoglycemia needs to be prevented. Your doctor will be able to advise you if you have any questions as to when your bolus insulin should be taken. Advantages of a basal-bolus regimen One of t Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

A A A Insulin Reaction An insulin reaction occurs when a person with diabetes becomes confused or even unconscious because of hypoglycemia (hypo=low + glycol = sugar + emia = in the blood) caused by insulin or oral diabetic medications. (Please note that for this article blood sugar and blood glucose mean the same thing and the terms may be used interchangeably.) The terms insulin reaction, insulin shock, and hypoglycemia (when associated with a person with diabetes) are often used interchangeably. In normal physiology, the body is able to balance the glucose (sugar levels) in the bloodstream. When a person eats, and glucose levels start to rise, the body signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin "unlocks the door" to cells in the body so that the glucose can be used for energy. When blood sugar levels drop, insulin production decreases and the liver begins producing glucose. In people with diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the body's demand. Treatment may include medications taken by mouth (oral hypoglycemics), insulin, or both. The balance of food intake and medication is not automatic, and a person with diabetes needs to be aware that too much medication or too little food may cause blood sugar levels to drop. Interestingly, brain cells do not need insulin to access the glucose in the blood stream. Brain cells also cannot store excess glucose, so when blood sugar levels drop, brain function is one of the first parts of the body to become affected. In an insulin reaction, the blood sugar levels are usually below 50 mg/dL (or 2.78 mmol/L in SI units). Continue Reading A A A Insulin Reaction (cont.) Insulin reactions occur when there is an imbalance of food intake and the amount of insulin in the body. The oral hypoglycemic mediat Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

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