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Insulin Definition

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin, hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu, who was working independently and called the substance “pancrein.” After Banting and Best isolated insulin, they began work to obtain a purified extract, which they accomplished with the help of Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod and Canadian chemist James B. Collip. Banting and Macleod shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin. Proinsulin is relatively inactive, and under normal conditions only a small amount of it is secreted. In the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells the proinsulin molecule is cleaved in two places, yielding the A and B chains of insulin and an intervening, biologically inactive C peptide. The A and B chains become linked together by two sulfur-sulfur (disulfide) bonds. Proinsulin, insulin, and C peptide are stored in granules in the beta cells, from which they are released into the capillaries of the islets in response to appropriate stimuli. These capillaries empty into the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestines, and pancrea Continue reading >>

Definitions Of The Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Definitions Of The Insulin Resistance Syndrome

Richard Pasternak (Boston, MA) discussed the deliberations that led the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III to propose a new definition of the metabolic syndrome (1) and the impact of this proposal in heightening awareness of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of death in the developed world, and Pasternak noted that contrary to general perceptions, malignancy is only approximately half as frequent a cause of mortality as CHD among women. The concept of metabolic syndrome extends in a precise way an important subset of patients at high risk for CHD. The definition was created to be clinically practical, evidence based, and applicable to existing datasets. The ATP did not find adequate evidence to recommend routine measurement of insulin sensitivity or of inflammatory markers. The 2-h glucose was not included because it was similarly felt not to add sufficient numbers of persons to justify the additional effort involved. The panel has been criticized for not calling the metabolic syndrome a CHD equivalent, but Pasternak pointed out that at that time there was no evidence that this was the case. Rather, the presence of the metabolic syndrome was felt to accentuate the risk accompanying elevated LDL cholesterol, mediated through existing and emerging risk factors. Clinical trials show evidence for modification of atherogenic dyslipidemia, blood pressure, and the prothrombotic state (with aspirin, which the panel recommended only for persons with CHD but which Pasternak suggested is appropriate for all persons with the syndrome) in persons undergoing LDL-lowering therapy. The primary management strategy should be to reverse its root causes of obesity and physical inactivity, with an option Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that controls blood sugar levels and facilitates the conversion of food into energy. It also helps store sugar which is released when blood sugar levels are low or more energy is needed, like when exercising or hungry. Problems arise when the pancreas isn't releasing insulin the way it should be. When there is too much insulin then the blood sugar levels can be too low and can result in hypoglycemia. When there is not enough insulin then diabetes can occur. The ingestion or injection of insulin can be a treatment for diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed in childhood while Type 2 diabetes develops later in life. Continue reading >>

Basal Bolus - Basal Bolus Injection Regimen

Basal Bolus - Basal Bolus Injection Regimen

Tweet A basal-bolus injection regimen involves taking a number of injections through the day. A basal-bolus regimen, which includes an injection at each meal, attempts to roughly emulate how a non-diabetic person’s body delivers insulin. A basal-bolus regimen may be applicable to people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. What is a basal-bolus insulin regimen? A basal-bolus routine involves taking a longer acting form of insulin to keep blood glucose levels stable through periods of fasting and separate injections of shorter acting insulin to prevent rises in blood glucose levels resulting from meals. What is basal insulin? The role of basal insulin, also known as background insulin, is to keep blood glucose levels at consistent levels during periods of fasting. When fasting, the body steadily releases glucose into the blood to our cells supplied with energy. Basal insulin is therefore needed to keep blood glucose levels under control, and to allow the cells to take in glucose for energy. Basal insulin is usually taken once or twice a day depending on the insulin. Basal insulin need to act over a relatively long period of time and therefore basal insulin will either be long acting insulin or intermediate insulin. What is bolus insulin? A bolus dose is insulin that is specifically taken at meal times to keep blood glucose levels under control following a meal. Bolus insulin needs to act quickly and so short acting insulin or rapid acting insulin will be used. Bolus insulin is often taken before meals but some people may be advised to take their insulin during or just after a meal if hypoglycemia needs to be prevented. Your doctor will be able to advise you if you have any questions as to when your bolus insulin should be taken. Advantages of a basal-bolus regimen One of t Continue reading >>

Definition Of 'insulin'

Definition Of 'insulin'

noun The Sun (2017) Leslie, Dr R D G Diabetes (1989) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002) The Sun (2016) Times, Sunday Times (2011) Times, Sunday Times (2008) The Sun (2016) The Sun (2010) Times, Sunday Times (2013) Budd, Martin Diets to Help Diabetes (1983) Times, Sunday Times (2006) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)This careful balance of insulin and blood sugar helps to tell our body when we are full and when we are hungry. The Sun (2009) The Sun (2014) The Sun (2009) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)You can eat in a way that helps to reduce insulin resistance and make your body's cells more responsive again. Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)In theory this would lead to a rush of insulin that brings blood sugar back to normal and encourages the storage of any excess sugar as fat. Times, Sunday Times (2009) The Sun (2010) Christianity Today (2000)But they also release sugar rapidly into the blood, which can encourage a surge in the hormone insulin, which encourages the body to store fat. Times, Sunday Times (2012)There is a strong link between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance, so it is important to include it if you have PCOS. Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional ap Continue reading >>

Role Of Insulin Resistance In Human Disease (syndrome X): An Expanded Definition

Role Of Insulin Resistance In Human Disease (syndrome X): An Expanded Definition

Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake is characteristic of individuals with impaired glucose intolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and it also occurs commonliyn patients with high blood pressure. The physiological response to a decrease in insulin-mediated glucose uptake is an increase in insulin secretion, and as long as a state of compensatory hyperinsulinemia can be maintained, frank decompensation of glucose tolerance can be prevented. However, it is likely that the defect in insulin action and/or the associated hyperinsulinemia will lead to an increase in plasma triglyceride and a decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and high blood pressure. It seems likely that the cluster of changes associated with resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake comprise a syndrome, which plays an important role in the etiology and clinical course of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, high blood pressure, and coronary heart disease. Keywords Continue reading >>

Signs Of Insulin Resistance

Signs Of Insulin Resistance

What is insulin resistance? Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas. It allows your cells to use glucose (sugar) for energy. People with insulin resistance have cells throughout their bodies that don’t use insulin effectively. This means the cells have trouble absorbing glucose, which causes a buildup of sugar in their blood. If your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes, you have a condition called prediabetes caused by insulin resistance. It’s not entirely clear why some people develop insulin resistance and others don’t. A sedentary lifestyle and being overweight increases the chance of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The effects of insulin resistance Insulin resistance typically doesn’t trigger any noticeable symptoms. You could be insulin resistant for years without knowing, especially if your blood glucose levels aren’t checked. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimates that nearly 70 percent of individuals with insulin resistance and prediabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes if significant lifestyle changes aren’t made. Some people with insulin resistance may develop a skin condition known as acanthosis nigricans. This condition creates dark patches often on the back of the neck, groin, and armpits. Some experts believe it may be caused by a buildup of insulin within skin cells. There’s no cure for acanthosis nigricans, but if caused by a specific condition, treatment may allow for some of your natural skin color to return. Insulin resistance increases the risk of being overweight, having high triglycerides, and having elevated blood pressure. Since insulin resistance increases your risk for progressing to diabetes, you may not notice right away if you develop Continue reading >>

Insulin: Definition, Function, Blood Glucose Control, Types Of Insulins: Rapid Acting, Lantus, Lispro

Insulin: Definition, Function, Blood Glucose Control, Types Of Insulins: Rapid Acting, Lantus, Lispro

Related Articles: Guide To Diabetes Human Body Diagrams What Is Insulin And What Does It Do? Insulin is a hormone produced by a cluster of cells inside the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans. The main function of insulin is to regulate the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. A hormone is like a chemical messenger. It is made in one part of the body (in this case, the pancreas) and is secreted (usually) into the bloodstream. Blood transports hormones to different parts of the body where they carry out their work. Hormones instruct cells in the body what to do. In this case, insulin tells cells to open up so that they can absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood and use it as fuel for energy. If glucose could not enter the cell, our organs would have no fuel and would quickly fail to work. Other Functions Of Insulin In addition to promoting the access of glucose into cells, insulin is also called a builder hormone. This is because it helps fat and muscle to form. It promotes the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen for times when glucose is not coming in. It also blocks the breakdown of protein. How Does It Regulate Blood Glucose? Blood glucose rises in the blood after eating a meal (particularly a meal which contains lots of carbohydrates) and falls when we have not eaten for a while or have exercised a lot (exercise uses up glucose). Typical signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) are weakness and shaking (you may notice your hands shake if you go for long periods without eating). If your blood sugar is too high (hyperglycemia) glucose spills into your urine. This draws water out of your blood so you need to urinate more often and feel excessively thirsty. To avoid this situation, the body naturally tries to keep blood glucose levels steady at between 60 to Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

History Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas gland, one of the glands in the endocrine system. Insulin, working in harmony with other hormones, regulates the level of blood sugar (glucose). Endocrine glands are ductless glands; that is, they pour their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. The pancreas, a gland in the upper abdomen, has cells within it that secrete insulin directly into the bloodstream. An insufficient level of insulin secretion leads to high blood sugar, a disease called diabetes mellitus or, simply, diabetes. Specifically, diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by the body’s inability to use the hormone insulin to effectively convert carbohydrates into the simple sugar glucose that cells store and use to perform vital functions. Without glucose to fuel their activity, the cells use fat instead, producing ketones as a waste product. Ketones build up in blood and disrupt brain functions. Common signs of diabetes are excessive thirst, urination, and fatigue. The disease can also cause vision loss, decreased blood supply to hands and feet, pain, and skin infections. If left untreated diabetes can induce coma and cause death. Diabetes often runs in families. In the United States about 10% of the Caucasian population suffers from diabetes, and it is even more common among African-American, Mexican-American, and certain Native American groups. The sixth leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes remains a major health problem. According to the American Diabetes Association, about 20.8 million children and adults (about 7% of the U.S. population), as of 2006, suffer from diabetes mellitus. About 14.6 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. However, about 6.2 million people (about one-third) do not know that they ha Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

A A A Insulin Reaction An insulin reaction occurs when a person with diabetes becomes confused or even unconscious because of hypoglycemia (hypo=low + glycol = sugar + emia = in the blood) caused by insulin or oral diabetic medications. (Please note that for this article blood sugar and blood glucose mean the same thing and the terms may be used interchangeably.) The terms insulin reaction, insulin shock, and hypoglycemia (when associated with a person with diabetes) are often used interchangeably. In normal physiology, the body is able to balance the glucose (sugar levels) in the bloodstream. When a person eats, and glucose levels start to rise, the body signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin "unlocks the door" to cells in the body so that the glucose can be used for energy. When blood sugar levels drop, insulin production decreases and the liver begins producing glucose. In people with diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the body's demand. Treatment may include medications taken by mouth (oral hypoglycemics), insulin, or both. The balance of food intake and medication is not automatic, and a person with diabetes needs to be aware that too much medication or too little food may cause blood sugar levels to drop. Interestingly, brain cells do not need insulin to access the glucose in the blood stream. Brain cells also cannot store excess glucose, so when blood sugar levels drop, brain function is one of the first parts of the body to become affected. In an insulin reaction, the blood sugar levels are usually below 50 mg/dL (or 2.78 mmol/L in SI units). Continue Reading A A A Insulin Reaction (cont.) Insulin reactions occur when there is an imbalance of food intake and the amount of insulin in the body. The oral hypoglycemic mediat Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Recombinant Human Insulin

Recombinant Human Insulin

a form of insulin (trade name Humulin) made from recombinant DNA that is identical to human insulin; used to treat diabetics who are allergic to preparations made from beef or pork insulin Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

Princeton's Wordnet(0.00 / 0 Votes)rate This Definition:

Princeton's Wordnet(0.00 / 0 Votes)rate This Definition:

hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. In the liver and skeletal muscles, glucose is stored as glycogen, and in fat cells it is stored as triglycerides. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the release of glucagon. With the exception of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, insulin is provided within the body in a constant proportion to remove excess glucose from the blood, which otherwise would be toxic. When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level, the body begins to use stored sugar as an energy source through glycogenolysis, which breaks down the glycogen stored in the liver and muscles into glucose, which can then be utilized as an energy source. As a central metabolic control mechanism, its status is also used as a control signal to other body systems. In addition, it has several other anabolic effects throughout the body. When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes mellitus can result. As a consequence, insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 1 diabetes depend on external insulin for their survival because the hormone is no longer produced internally. Patients with type 2 diabetes are often insulin resistant and, because of such resistance, may suffer from a "relative" insulin deficiency. Some patients with type 2 diabetes may eventually require insulin if other medications fail to control blood glucose le Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Practice Essentials Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day to attain glycemic control and to prevent ketosis. The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. Many of these disorders are associated with various endocrine, metabolic, and genetic conditions. These syndromes may also be associated with immunological diseases and may exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] The metabolic syndrome —a state of insulin-resistance that is also known as either syndrome X or the dysmetabolic syndrome—has drawn the greatest attention because of its public health importance. In addition to hypertension, findings can include central obesity, peripheral arterial disease, type A syndrome, type B syndrome, ancanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, and other insulin-resistant states. In clinical practice, no single laboratory test is used to diagnose insulin resistance syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings corroborated with laboratory tests. Individual patients are screened based on the presence of comorbid conditions. Lab tests include the plasma glucose level, the fasting insulin level, and a lipid profile, among others. Treatment involves pharmacologic therapy to reduce insulin resistance, along with surgical management of underlying causes if appropriate. Comorbid conditions should be evaluated and addressed; this is generally feasible on an outpatient basis, though some patients wi Continue reading >>

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