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Insulin Definition

Role Of Insulin Resistance In Human Disease (syndrome X): An Expanded Definition

Role Of Insulin Resistance In Human Disease (syndrome X): An Expanded Definition

Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake is characteristic of individuals with impaired glucose intolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and it also occurs commonliyn patients with high blood pressure. The physiological response to a decrease in insulin-mediated glucose uptake is an increase in insulin secretion, and as long as a state of compensatory hyperinsulinemia can be maintained, frank decompensation of glucose tolerance can be prevented. However, it is likely that the defect in insulin action and/or the associated hyperinsulinemia will lead to an increase in plasma triglyceride and a decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and high blood pressure. It seems likely that the cluster of changes associated with resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake comprise a syndrome, which plays an important role in the etiology and clinical course of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, high blood pressure, and coronary heart disease. Keywords Continue reading >>

Signs Of Insulin Resistance

Signs Of Insulin Resistance

What is insulin resistance? Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas. It allows your cells to use glucose (sugar) for energy. People with insulin resistance have cells throughout their bodies that don’t use insulin effectively. This means the cells have trouble absorbing glucose, which causes a buildup of sugar in their blood. If your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes, you have a condition called prediabetes caused by insulin resistance. It’s not entirely clear why some people develop insulin resistance and others don’t. A sedentary lifestyle and being overweight increases the chance of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The effects of insulin resistance Insulin resistance typically doesn’t trigger any noticeable symptoms. You could be insulin resistant for years without knowing, especially if your blood glucose levels aren’t checked. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimates that nearly 70 percent of individuals with insulin resistance and prediabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes if significant lifestyle changes aren’t made. Some people with insulin resistance may develop a skin condition known as acanthosis nigricans. This condition creates dark patches often on the back of the neck, groin, and armpits. Some experts believe it may be caused by a buildup of insulin within skin cells. There’s no cure for acanthosis nigricans, but if caused by a specific condition, treatment may allow for some of your natural skin color to return. Insulin resistance increases the risk of being overweight, having high triglycerides, and having elevated blood pressure. Since insulin resistance increases your risk for progressing to diabetes, you may not notice right away if you develop Continue reading >>

Recombinant Human Insulin

Recombinant Human Insulin

a form of insulin (trade name Humulin) made from recombinant DNA that is identical to human insulin; used to treat diabetics who are allergic to preparations made from beef or pork insulin Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Medical Definition Of Insulin

Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. Insulin permits cells to use glucose for energy. Cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin. Diabetes: The failure to make insulin or to respond to it constitutes diabetes mellitus. Insulin is made specifically by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. If the beta cells degenerate so the body cannot make enough insulin on its own, type I diabetes results. A person with this type of diabetes must inject exogenous insulin (insulin from sources outside the body). In type II diabetes, the beta cells produce insulin, but cells throughout the body do not respond normally to it. Nevertheless, insulin also may be used in type II diabetes to help overcome the resistance of cells to insulin. By reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood, insulin is thought to prevent or reduce the long-term complications of diabetes, including damage to the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. History of Insulin: In 1921, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles H. Best discovered insulin while they were working in the laboratory of John J.R. Macleod at the University of Toronto. Banting and Best extracted material from the pancreas of dogs. They first used this material to keep diabetic dogs alive and in 1922 they used it successfully on a 14-year-old boy with diabetes. In 1923, James B. Collip, a biochemist, discovered that purifying the extract prevented many of the side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Best and Collip were overlooked but Banting and Macleod shared the prize money with them. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved insulin in 1939. Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesized completely i Continue reading >>

Definition Of 'insulin'

Definition Of 'insulin'

noun The Sun (2017) Leslie, Dr R D G Diabetes (1989) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002) The Sun (2016) Times, Sunday Times (2011) Times, Sunday Times (2008) The Sun (2016) The Sun (2010) Times, Sunday Times (2013) Budd, Martin Diets to Help Diabetes (1983) Times, Sunday Times (2006) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)This careful balance of insulin and blood sugar helps to tell our body when we are full and when we are hungry. The Sun (2009) The Sun (2014) The Sun (2009) Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)You can eat in a way that helps to reduce insulin resistance and make your body's cells more responsive again. Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional approach to deal with polycystic ovary syndrome (2002)In theory this would lead to a rush of insulin that brings blood sugar back to normal and encourages the storage of any excess sugar as fat. Times, Sunday Times (2009) The Sun (2010) Christianity Today (2000)But they also release sugar rapidly into the blood, which can encourage a surge in the hormone insulin, which encourages the body to store fat. Times, Sunday Times (2012)There is a strong link between magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance, so it is important to include it if you have PCOS. Colette Harris, With Theresa Cheung PCOS DIET BOOK: How you can use the nutritional ap Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells Types: Humulin, recombinant human insulin a form of insulin (trade name Humulin) made from recombinant DNA that is identical to human insulin; used to treat diabetics who are allergic to preparations made from beef or pork insulin Type of: endocrine, hormone, internal secretion the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect hypoglycaemic agent, hypoglycemic agent any of various agents that decrease the level of glucose in the blood and are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance

Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood. Insulin plays a major role in metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Insulin's Role in Blood Glucose Control When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin into the blood. Insulin and glucose then travel in the blood to cells throughout the body. Insulin helps muscle, fat, and liver cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream, lowering blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates the liver and muscle tissue to store excess glucose. The stored form of glucose is called glycogen. Insulin also lowers blood glucose levels by reducing glucose production in the liver. In a healthy person, these functions allow blood glucose and insulin levels to remain in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells. The beta cells in the pancreas try to keep up with this increased demand for insulin by producing more. As long as the beta cells are able to produce enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance, blood glucose levels stay in the healthy range. Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes and prediabetes because the bet Continue reading >>

Insulin: Definition, Function, Blood Glucose Control, Types Of Insulins: Rapid Acting, Lantus, Lispro

Insulin: Definition, Function, Blood Glucose Control, Types Of Insulins: Rapid Acting, Lantus, Lispro

Related Articles: Guide To Diabetes Human Body Diagrams What Is Insulin And What Does It Do? Insulin is a hormone produced by a cluster of cells inside the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans. The main function of insulin is to regulate the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. A hormone is like a chemical messenger. It is made in one part of the body (in this case, the pancreas) and is secreted (usually) into the bloodstream. Blood transports hormones to different parts of the body where they carry out their work. Hormones instruct cells in the body what to do. In this case, insulin tells cells to open up so that they can absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood and use it as fuel for energy. If glucose could not enter the cell, our organs would have no fuel and would quickly fail to work. Other Functions Of Insulin In addition to promoting the access of glucose into cells, insulin is also called a builder hormone. This is because it helps fat and muscle to form. It promotes the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen for times when glucose is not coming in. It also blocks the breakdown of protein. How Does It Regulate Blood Glucose? Blood glucose rises in the blood after eating a meal (particularly a meal which contains lots of carbohydrates) and falls when we have not eaten for a while or have exercised a lot (exercise uses up glucose). Typical signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) are weakness and shaking (you may notice your hands shake if you go for long periods without eating). If your blood sugar is too high (hyperglycemia) glucose spills into your urine. This draws water out of your blood so you need to urinate more often and feel excessively thirsty. To avoid this situation, the body naturally tries to keep blood glucose levels steady at between 60 to Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Insulin resistance can develop into type 2 diabetes if left untreated. However, making lifestyle changes can drastically reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Learn more about insulin resistance, including risk factors, how to test for it, and how you can reverse it. Definition Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which tells the cells (muscle, fat, and liver) of the body to absorb excess glucose circulating in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the human body. Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin is produced, but the cells do not absorb excess glucose, resulting in high levels of glucose in the blood, and in more insulin being produced. This condition is also called metabolic syndrome or syndrome X. It can lead to type 2 diabetes and a higher risk of heart disease, unless lifestyle changes are made. There are no obvious symptoms of insulin resistance. A blood glucose test can show that it exists, but most often people have it without knowing for a long time. Your physician can identify if you are at risk by certain risk factors. These include: Obesity - particularly excess belly fat Physical inactivity Ethnicity - those with African American, Native American, Hispanic and Asian American are more at risk (in conjunction with other risk factors) Being age 45 or older Steroid use Sleep problems Smoking Treatment Changes in lifestyle habits, especially diet and exercise, are the primary means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. There are also medications, like metformin and thiazolidinedione, that help make the cells more receptive to insulin. However, some research studies have shown that diet and exercise are almost twice as effective as the medications. Insulin resistance can be reversed by doing the following: Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Related to insulin: glucagon, diabetes, insulin injection, insulin resistance in·su·lin (ĭn′sə-lĭn) n. 1. A polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and functions in the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, especially the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which lowers the blood glucose level. It consists of two linked polypeptide chains called A and B. 2. Any of various pharmaceutical preparations containing this hormone or a close chemical analog, derived from the pancreas of certain animals or produced through genetic engineering and used in the medical treatment and management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. insulin (ˈɪnsjʊlɪn) n (Biology) a protein hormone, secreted in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans, that controls the concentration of glucose in the blood. Insulin deficiency results in diabetes mellitus [C20: from New Latin insula islet (of the pancreas) + -in] Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014 in•su•lin (ˈɪn sə lɪn, ˈɪns yə-) n. 1. a hormone, produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, that regulates the metabolism of glucose and other nutrients. 2. any of several commercial preparations of this substance, each absorbed into the body at a particular rate: used for treating diabetes. Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionar Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

in·su·lin a protein hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas, which helps the body use sugar and other carbohydrates a preparation extracted from the pancreas of sheep, oxen, etc. and used hypodermically in the treatment of diabetes mellitus Origin of insulin from Classical Latin insula, island (see isle) + -in: in allusion to the islets of Langerhans insulin noun A polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and functions in the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, especially the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which lowers the blood glucose level. It consists of two linked polypeptide chains called A and B. Any of various pharmaceutical preparations containing this hormone or a close chemical analog, derived from the pancreas of certain animals or produced through genetic engineering and used in the medical treatment and management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Origin of insulin New Latin īnsula island (of Langerhans) ( from Latin island ) -in THE AMERICAN HERITAGE® DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FIFTH EDITION by the Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries. Copyright © 2016, 2011 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. insulin Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

Must Read Articles Related To Insulin Reaction

A A A Insulin Reaction An insulin reaction occurs when a person with diabetes becomes confused or even unconscious because of hypoglycemia (hypo=low + glycol = sugar + emia = in the blood) caused by insulin or oral diabetic medications. (Please note that for this article blood sugar and blood glucose mean the same thing and the terms may be used interchangeably.) The terms insulin reaction, insulin shock, and hypoglycemia (when associated with a person with diabetes) are often used interchangeably. In normal physiology, the body is able to balance the glucose (sugar levels) in the bloodstream. When a person eats, and glucose levels start to rise, the body signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin "unlocks the door" to cells in the body so that the glucose can be used for energy. When blood sugar levels drop, insulin production decreases and the liver begins producing glucose. In people with diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to meet the body's demand. Treatment may include medications taken by mouth (oral hypoglycemics), insulin, or both. The balance of food intake and medication is not automatic, and a person with diabetes needs to be aware that too much medication or too little food may cause blood sugar levels to drop. Interestingly, brain cells do not need insulin to access the glucose in the blood stream. Brain cells also cannot store excess glucose, so when blood sugar levels drop, brain function is one of the first parts of the body to become affected. In an insulin reaction, the blood sugar levels are usually below 50 mg/dL (or 2.78 mmol/L in SI units). Continue Reading A A A Insulin Reaction (cont.) Insulin reactions occur when there is an imbalance of food intake and the amount of insulin in the body. The oral hypoglycemic mediat Continue reading >>

Insulin Definition

Insulin Definition

Insulin is a protein secreted by the islet cells of the pancreas. It is used to allow glucose to enter the cells of the body to be used for cellular metabolism. People who have type 1 diabetes have antibodies that have destroyed the islet cells so they no longer make insulin. Those with type 2 diabetes produce insulin but have insulin resistance so the glucose cannot get in the cells to be used for fuel. There are also insulin preparations, most often used by type 1 diabetics. The insulin levels vary according to the length of time that they are active in the body. The most common type of exogenous (manmade) insulin is U-100. Most insulin is made in a factory; however, some people use insulin that has been harvested from animals. Insulin is normally released by the islet cells (beta cells) of the pancreas in response to a decrease in blood sugar levels. In normal individuals, the insulin facilitates the transfer of glucose from the bloodstream to the cells, where it is used as part of the metabolic process within the cells. Exogenous insulin must be injected into the fatty tissues because it cannot survive the acidic environment of the stomach. In some cases, a person can become allergic to the insulin they are taking for their diabetes. This is more common among those taking animal insulins. Types of Injectable Insulin Type 1 diabetics and some type 2 diabetics take exogenous insulin as part of their management of diabetes. The different types of insulin are as follows: Rapid Acting Insulin. This is insulin that begins to take effect within 15 minutes and peaks after about an hour. Its total duration of action is between 2 and 4 hours. Regular or Short Acting Insulin. This is insulin that gets into the blood within a half hour of injection and peaks at about 3-6 hours. Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

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