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Insulin Correction Dose Table

Whats New In Version 2

Whats New In Version 2

There are some subtle, but significant changes in this release based largely on valuable feedback from our users. If you are upgrading or restoring data from a previous version of RapidCalc you must review and, where necessary, update your settings before use. Customised time periods: The day is now divided into 6 time periods: Breakfast, Morning, Lunch, Afternoon, Evening and Overnight. You can specify the start time for each period, which then runs until the start of the next time period. Carbohydrate ratios: When measuring carbs in grams, carbohydrate ratios are now expressed in terms of "grams of carbohydrate covered by 1 unit of insulin" (g/unit) rather than "units of insulin needed to cover 1 carb portion" (u/portion). If you are upgrading or restoring a backup from a previous version of RapidCalc where you were measuring carbs in grams, then your carbohydrate ratios will be converted automatically from u/portion to g/unit. Basal dose reminders: Basal doses can now be scheduled at specific times of day with optional reminders. Post-meal Blood Glucose check reminders: You can now schedule reminders to test your blood glucose at a configurable time after meals. Maximum safe RAI dose limit: The suggested RAI dose can now be limited to a maiumum safe value for pediatric use. Additional statistics: Additional statistics are now available via drill-downs from the main statistics page. Improved settings interface: The settings interface has been completely redesigned to make it easier to use. Extended BG input range: The maximum blood glucose value you can enter has been increased to 33 mmol/L (600 mg/dL). Support for iPhone: The screen layout has been extended on the iPhone 5 to make maximum use of the extra screen height. Support for iOS 7: The application has be updat Continue reading >>

Sliding Scale Insulin Therapy: How It Works, Doses, Alternatives

Sliding Scale Insulin Therapy: How It Works, Doses, Alternatives

A healthy pancreas releases a burst of insulin as a person begins to eat. This prepares the body for the intake of glucose that is to come. For people who have type 1 diabetes or insulin-deficient type 2 diabetes, these bursts must be recreated through insulin injections either before or after a meal. The sliding scale is one way of working out how much insulin to take before each meal. Most doctors advise against the sliding scale approach. In fact, the American Diabetes Association have pushed for this treatment method to no longer be used. How the sliding scale works The "sliding scale" is actually a chart of insulin dosages. A doctor creates this chart based on how the patient's body responds to insulin, their daily activity, and an agreed-upon carbohydrate intake. As one moves along the chart, insulin dosage changes depending on two factors: Pre-meal blood glucose level This is usually plotted from low to high, down the chart's left-most column. As one slides from top to bottom, insulin dosage increases. This is because more insulin is needed to manage greater amounts of blood glucose. Mealtime This is usually plotted along the chart's top row. As one moves from breakfast to lunch to dinner within the same blood glucose level, dosage may vary. This is because insulin sensitivity, the way the body responds to insulin, can change throughout the day. The fat content of meals can also change through the day, and the doctor may have taken that into consideration. To work out the right dosage using a sliding scale, people should: test their blood glucose level find the matching blood glucose value along the chart's left-hand column slide horizontally along that value's row, until the current meal is reached take a dosage that matches the number where the two values meet Continue reading >>

Insulin Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin therapy is recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an initial A1C level greater than 9 percent, or if diabetes is uncontrolled despite optimal oral glycemic therapy. Insulin therapy may be initiated as augmentation, starting at 0.3 unit per kg, or as replacement, starting at 0.6 to 1.0 unit per kg. When using replacement therapy, 50 percent of the total daily insulin dose is given as basal, and 50 percent as bolus, divided up before breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Augmentation therapy can include basal or bolus insulin. Replacement therapy includes basal-bolus insulin and correction or premixed insulin. Glucose control, adverse effects, cost, adherence, and quality of life need to be considered when choosing therapy. Metformin should be continued if possible because it is proven to reduce all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in overweight patients with diabetes. In a study comparing premixed, bolus, and basal insulin, hypoglycemia was more common with premixed and bolus insulin, and weight gain was more common with bolus insulin. Titration of insulin over time is critical to improving glycemic control and preventing diabetes-related complications. Insulin is secreted continuously by beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner throughout the day. It is also secreted in response to oral carbohydrate loads, including a large first-phase insulin release that suppresses hepatic glucose production followed by a slower second-phase insulin release that covers ingested carbohydrates 1 (Figure 12). Clinical recommendation Evidence rating References Analogue insulin is as effective as human insulin but is associated with less postprandial hyperglycemia and delayed hypoglycemia. A 17–19 Fasting glucose readings should be used to titrate basal insul Continue reading >>

Correction Factor

Correction Factor

The 1800 Rule For Determining Your Correction Factor When your blood sugar goes unexpectedly high, a correction bolus can be used to bring it down. To use the right correction bolus, you first determine your correction factor. The 1500 Rule for Regular was originally developed by Paul Davidson, M.D. in Atlanta, Georgia. Because the blood sugar tends to drop faster and farther on Humalog and Novolog insulins, we modified the 1500 Rule to an 1800 Rule for these insulins. (Some use a 2000 rule for these insulins.) The 1800 Rule shows how far your blood sugar is likely to drop per unit of Humalog and Novolog insulin. The 1500 Rule shows how far it will drop per unit of Regular. Numbers between 1600 and 2200 can be used to determine the correction factor. The number 1800 should work when the TDD is set correctly and the basal insulin makes up 50% of the TDD in someone with Type 1 diabetes. A number smaller than 1800 will work better when basal insulin doses make up less than 50% of the TDD, while a number higher than 1800 works better for those whose basal doses make up more than 50% of their TDD. Also recheck your TDD and basal percentage to make sure they are correctly set. Setting up your correction boluses can be done only after your basal doses have been tested for accuracy. If your basal doses are set too high, using a correction bolus may lead to lows, while basal doses that are too low will make it appear that correction boluses are not the right amount to bring high readings down as expected. The 1800 Rule: Works for Type 1 diabetes and most Type 2s Estimates the point drop in mg/dl per unit of Humalog or Novolog 1800/TDD = point drop per unit of Humalog (see Table) Example: Someone's Total Daily Dose of insulin = 30 units 1800/30 u/day = a 60 point drop per unit of Continue reading >>

Insulin Regular Dosage

Insulin Regular Dosage

Applies to the following strengths: beef-pork 100 units/mL; pork 100 units/mL; human recombinant 100 units/mL; pork 500 units/mL; human recombinant 500 units/mL The information at Drugs.com is not a substitute for medical advice. Always consult your doctor or pharmacist. Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 1 Note: Regular human insulin is available in 2 concentrations: 100 units of insulin per mL (U-100) and 500 units of insulin per mL (U-500) Individualize dose based on metabolic needs and frequent monitoring of blood glucose -Total daily insulin requirements are generally between 0.5 to 1 unit/kg/day -Most individuals with type 1 diabetes should be treated with multiple-daily insulin (MDI) injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) MDI Regimens: Utilizing a combination of prandial (i.e., bolus, rapid, or short-acting insulins) and basal (i.e., intermediate or long acting insulin) insulin, administer 3 to 4 injections per day; regular human insulin is a short-acting prandial insulin. --Administer U-100 insulin subcutaneously 3 or more times a day approximately 30 minutes prior to start of a meal --Administer U-500 insulin subcutaneously 2 to 3 times a day approximately 30 minutes prior to start of a meal CSII (Insulin Pump) Therapy: U-100 insulin only -Initial programming should be based on the total daily insulin dose of previous MDI regimen; check with pump labeling to ensure pump has been evaluated with the specific insulin to be used (e.g., Novolin(R) is not recommended for use in insulin pumps due to risk of precipitation). -While there is significant interpatient variability, approximately 50% of the total dose is provided as meal-related boluses and the remainder as a basal infusion. Intravenous Administration: U-100 insulin only; -Closely moni Continue reading >>

How To Interpret Blood Glucose Monitoring Charts And Adjust Insulin Doses

How To Interpret Blood Glucose Monitoring Charts And Adjust Insulin Doses

Interpreting blood glucose results and being able to adjust insulin doses are useful skills for pharmacists to possess.The key to acquiring these skills is in understanding: The insulin regimen and the onset, peak and duration of action for the insulins used The glucose levels to aim for How to titrate insulin doses How all of the above relates to patients’ lifestyles and eating habits Understanding the regimen Insulin may be given alone or, for those with type 2 diabetes, with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), often metformin. Although this article focuses on adjusting insulin doses, readers should bear in mind that oral doses may also need to be adjusted. The three most commonly used insulin regimens are: Once daily intermediate-acting or long-acting insulin — normally given at bedtime or during the day, usually with an OAD Twice-daily pre-mixed insulin — one injection before breakfast, one before the evening meal (pre-mixed insulins contain fixed ratios of short- and long-acting insulins) Basal-bolus insulin — three daily injections of rapid- or short-acting insulin with meals and one or two injections of intermediate- or long-acting (basal) insulin The onset, peak and duration profiles of insulin products currentlyavailable in the UK are in the table. These should be used wheninterpreting a blood glucose result, to determine which insulin wasexerting its effect at the time of glucose measurement. Insulin preparations and their onset, peak and duration of action Preparation Onset (hr) Peak (hr) Duration (hr) Soluble insulin Human Actrapid 0.5 2–5 8 Humulin S 0.5 1–3 5–7 Hypurin Bovine Neutral 0.5/1 2–5 6–8 Apidra (Insulin glulisine) 0.25 1 3–4 Humalog (Insulin lispro) 0.25 1–1.5 2–5 Novorapid (Insulin aspart) 0.25 1–3 3–5 Hypurin Porcine Neu Continue reading >>

Diabetics: How To Calculate High Blood Glucose Correction Using The Rule Of 1800

Diabetics: How To Calculate High Blood Glucose Correction Using The Rule Of 1800

The mantra of a diabetic is control. Having blood sugars out of control leads to all sorts of bad things. Like (for the guys) impotence. You want normal blood glucose levels. As a diabetic, this is one of the health choices you want to make. Trust me on this one. Some Diabetes 101: You need insulin for cells to use sugars. Type 1 Diabetics do not produce insulin, and need to take insulin shots or injections. Food makes blood sugar go up. Insulin makes it go down. Too much sugar for too long damages the body. Too little blood sugar makes you pass out. The job of a Type 1 diabetic is to walk a tightrope and keep the blood sugar in a certain range. Diabetics use a glucometer to test their blood sugar. (NOTE: This is a dramatic oversimplification. Stress raises blood sugar levels. Exercise will help drop it. But you get the picture). Step 1: Time to Play With Math! Blood glucose is the amount of sugar in your blood. The normal range for blood glucose on a fast is 80 to 110 milligrams per deciliter. As a diabetic, I fudge a little on that range...I might fall below 80 or run up a little higher. But the goal is to keep the blood glucose in a fairly tight range. One important lesson for the diabetic is how to calculate an insulin correction factor. The insulin correction factor (or insulin sensitivity factor) is a bolus of insulin to bring down a higher than range blood sugar level. In order to know this factor, you need to know how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar! Time to play with math! Step 2: The Rule of 1800 There are several simple formulas for figuring this out. In general, one unit of rapid-acting insulin will take care of about 12-15 grams of carbohydrate, but this can range depending on a lot of factors. Besides, it is useful to do the Continue reading >>

Insulin Correction Dose Calculator -beta

Insulin Correction Dose Calculator -beta

perinatology.com Please enable JavaScript to view all features on this site. Insulin Correction Dose Calculator Select the type of insulin, enter the total daily dose of insulin used, the carbohydrate content of the meal, and press 'calculate' button to estimate the amount of insulin needed to cover the carbohydrate content of the meal. All calculations must be confirmed before use. The suggested results are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither Perinatology.com nor any other party involved in the preparation or publication of this site shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary Insulin Type Rapid acting Insulin (Humalog, Novolog) Short acting (Regular) Total Daily Dose of Insulin (TDD) units Carbohydrate Content of meal : grams Current Blood Glucose mg/dL Target Pre-Meal Blood Glucose mg/dL Carbohydrate Ratio = One unit of insulin covers grams of carbohydrate Insulin Sensitivity Factor (ISF) = One unit insulin decreases blood glucose by mg/dL Insulin required to cover carbohydrate in meal units Correction to Dose Of Insulin units Dose Of Insulin for meal units Meal related insulin boluses are calculated according to the carbohydrate content of the meal using the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) The carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) is the number of grams of carbohydrate that are covered by 1 unit of insulin. The CIR is calculated by dividing the constant 450 by the Total Daily Dose (TDD). The CIR may be different for different meals of the day. CIR-= 450 / TDD Example: TDD= 50 units insulin CIR= 450 /50 = 9 grams/unit The meal has 90 grams of carbohydrate Meal insulin bolus = carbohydrates/carbohydrate to insulin ratio CIR =90/9= 10 units If the post meal blood sugar is above the targeted blood sugar range for 2 to 3 days then consider Continue reading >>

Insulin Nph (otc)

Insulin Nph (otc)

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Suggested guidelines for beginning dose: 0.2 unit/kg/day Dosing Considerations Dosage of human insulin, which is always expressed in USP units, must be based on the results of blood and urine glucose tests and must be carefully individualized to optimal effect Dose adjustments should be based on regular blood glucose testing Adjust to achieve appropriate glucose control Blood sugar patterns (>3 days) Look for consistent pattern in blood sugars for >3 days For the same time each day: Compare blood glucose level For each time of day: Calculate blood glucose range Calculate median blood glucose Consider eating and activity patterns during day Blood glucose adjustments Adjust only 1 insulin dose at a time Correct hypoglycemia first Correct highest blood sugars next If all blood sugars are high (within 2.75 mmol/L [50 mg/dL]): Correct morning fasting blood glucose first Change insulin doses in small increments: Type 1 diabetes (1-2 unit change); type 2 diabetes (2-3 unit change) Many sliding scales exist to determine exact insulin dose based on frequent blood glucose monitoring Commonly written for q4hr blood glucose test Sliding scale coverage usually begins after blood glucose >11 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) If coverage is needed q4hr x 24 hr, then base insulin dose is adjusted first; sliding scale doses may be adjusted upwards as well Continue reading >>

Reduce Insulin By 1 Unit.

Reduce Insulin By 1 Unit.

In Flexible insulin therapy (FIT), each mealtime insulin dose has two components: A ‘food dose’ that covers the carbohydrate content of that meal, and a ‘correction dose’ that takes into account your pre-meal blood glucose level and any exercise that you plan to do after the meal. That's what makes this type of insulin therapy flexible. It allows you to change the insulin dose to fit your lifestyle. Calculating a mealtime dose takes a little practice, but it is not that hard. In fact, some of the newer insulin pumps have a built-in calculator that does this for you. Let's look at the steps in detail. Step 1 : Cover the Carbohydrates In order to cover the total carbohydrate servings in a meal you need to know your carb-to-insulin ratio. This ratio may be 15 to 1 (written as 15:1) for someone who is very sensitive to insulin. The ratio might only be 5:1 for someone who is less sensitive to insulin. A ratio of 10:1 means that for every 10 grams of carbohydrate they eat, a person needs to inject 1 unit of rapid- or short-acting insulin. Your diabetes educator can help you find the carb-to-insulin ratio that is right for you. Step 2: Add or Subtract a Correction Dose of Insulin based on your Blood Glucose Level To complete this step, you must know your Insulin Sensitivity Factor (ISF). This is sometimes called a ‘correction factor’. Your insulin sensitivity factor is simply a measure of the impact that insulin has on your particular body. Put a bit more technically, it’s the amount by which your blood glucose is reduced by one unit of rapid, or short-acting insulin in a period of two to four hours. Your doctor can tell you what your insulin sensitivity factor is. For most people with diabetes, it is typically between 1.5 and 3.0 mmol/L per unit of insulin. To c Continue reading >>

School Medical Management Plan For Student With Diabetes

School Medical Management Plan For Student With Diabetes

Name: ______________________________________________________________ Address: _____________________________________________________________ Phone: __________________________ Fax:_______________________________ Answering Service: ________________ Student Name: ________________________________ DOB:____________ Grade:___________ Physical Condition: FORMCHECKBOX Diabetes type 1 FORMCHECKBOX Diabetes type 2 Date of diagnosis:_____________ Mother/Guardian: ________________Telephone: Home_____________ Work/Cell________________ Father/Guardian: ________________Telephone: Home ____________ Work/Cell_______________ Other Emergency Contact: Name: ____________Relationship: ___________Telephone____________ Times to check blood glucose: Before Breakfast Before PE Symptoms of hyperglycemia Before Lunch Before dismissal Symptoms of hypoglycemia Other __________________________________________ Student’s self-care blood glucose monitoring skills: Independently checks own blood glucose May check blood glucose with supervision Requires school nurse or trained diabetes personnel to check blood glucose Exception: may need help if blood glucose is low · If child’s blood glucose is low ________ mg/dL, see low blood sugar quick reference. · If child’s blood glucose is high _______ mg/dl, before eating or if sick or vomiting, CHECK URINE FOR KETONES. Never send a child home for high blood glucose unless ketones are moderate or large or child is vomiting or feels ill. See high blood sugar quick reference. · Testing should be done in the classroom. If this is not possible, the student must be accompanied by a responsible person to the location designated by the school. *There is no need to check blood glucose after snack or meal unless the child feels like he/she is h Continue reading >>

A Review Of Insulin-dosing Formulas For Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (csii) For Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

A Review Of Insulin-dosing Formulas For Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (csii) For Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an intensive therapy typically reserved for motivated patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who have frequent hypoglycemia, a significant dawn phenomenon (excess hepatic glucose production and non-hepatic insulin resistance in the morning period) or widely fluctuating blood glucose when using multiple daily injections (MDIs) [1•]. If properly managed, CSII may provide patients with improved glucose control compared with MDI therapy [2, 3] and a lower incidence of severe hypoglycemia [4]. As noted in a recent review, the total number of insulin pump users worldwide is unknown but believed to vary greatly across countries [5]. Estimates suggest that there may be as many as 350,000–515,000 insulin pump users in the USA [1•, 6]. A large registry-based study of the more experienced endocrinology centers in the USA indicated that as many as 50 % of their patients with T1D used a pump [7]. Among European nations, in a 2010 report, the proportion of patients with T1D using CSII varies substantially, from ∼1 % in Russia and Portugal to about 20 % in Norway, Austria, the Netherlands, and Switzerland [8]. A 2011 publication estimated that about 10 % of Australian patients were using CSII, with an increasing number of patients initiating CSII sooner after diagnosis than in previous years [9]. Among Asian nations, the proportion of patients with T1D who are using CSII in Japan is estimated to be 7 % (author communication with Medtronic Japan). Precise insulin dosing during CSII is necessary to enable patients with diabetes to adhere to current treatment guidelines [10, 11]. Unfortunately, precise dosing is complicated by the need to calculate two to five different basal rates for a 24-h period to match varying insulin n Continue reading >>

Calculation Sheet For Rapid-acting Insulin With Ketone Bolus Correction

Calculation Sheet For Rapid-acting Insulin With Ketone Bolus Correction

Food Grams of Carbs Total Food Grams of Carbs Total Date _____________ Time ______________ am / pm 1. Calculate Carbohydrate Bolus: ____________ ÷ _______________ = ________________ Carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrate Bolus to Eat RATIO (Round to nearest tenth) 2. Calculate Correction Bolus: __________ - ___________ = _________ ÷_____________= __________ Blood CORRECTION Amount to CORRECTION Correction Glucose TARGET Correct FACTOR Bolus (Round to nearest tenth) 3. Calculate Total Insulin Bolus: ___________ + __________ +___________ = _________ ____________ Carbohydrate Correction Ketone Bolus Total *Rounded Total Bolus Bolus (Use Ketone Insulin Bolus Bolus Chart) Date _____________ Time _______________ am / pm 1. Calculate Carbohydrate Bolus: ____________ ÷ _______________ = ________________ Carbohydrates CARBOHYDRATE Carbohydrate Bolus to Eat RATIO (Round to nearest tenth) 2. Calculate Correction Bolus: __________ - ___________ = _________ ÷_____________= __________ Blood CORRECTION Amount to CORRECTION Correction Glucose TARGET Correct FACTOR Bolus (Round to nearest tenth) 3. Calculate Total Insulin Bolus: ___________ + __________ +___________ = _________ ____________ Carbohydrate Correction Ketone Bolus Total *Rounded Total Bolus Bolus (Use Ketone Insulin Bolus Bolus Chart) “NO CORRECTION RULES†DO NOT CALCULATE CORRECTION BOLUS:  If your blood glucose is less than your CORRECTION TARGET.  If it has been less than three hours since your last carbohydrate bolus or correction bolus.  If you have treated a low blood glucose in the past three hours.  If it has been less than one hour since vigorous exercise. * Use this chart for “Rounded Total Insulin Bolus†CARBOHYDRATE RATIO How many grams of carbohydrate Continue reading >>

Glycemic Control In Hospitalized Patients Not In Intensive Care: Beyond Sliding-scale Insulin

Glycemic Control In Hospitalized Patients Not In Intensive Care: Beyond Sliding-scale Insulin

Glycemic control in hospitalized patients who are not in intensive care remains unsatisfactory. Despite persistent expert recommendations urging its abandonment, the use of sliding-scale insulin remains pervasive in U.S. hospitals. Evidence for the effectiveness of sliding-scale insulin is lacking after more than 40 years of use. New physiologic subcutaneous insulin protocols use basal, nutritional, and correctional insulin. The initial total daily dose of subcutaneous insulin is calculated using a factor of 0.3 to 0.6 units per kg body weight, with one half given as long-acting insulin (the basal insulin dose), and the other one half divided daily over three meals as short-acting insulin doses (nutritional insulin doses). A correctional insulin dose provides a final insulin adjustment based on the preprandial glucose value. This correctional dose resembles a sliding scale, but is only a small fine-tuning of therapy, as opposed to traditional sliding-scale insulin alone. Insulin sensitivity, nutritional intake, and total daily dosing review can alter the physiologic insulin-dosing schedule. Prospective trials have demonstrated reductions in hyperglycemic measurements, hypoglycemia, and adjusted hospital length of stay when physiologic subcutaneous insulin protocols are used. Transitions in care require special considerations and attention to glycemic control medications. Changing the sliding-scale insulin culture requires a multidisciplinary effort to improve patient safety and outcomes. In the United States, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is now 10.8 percent of adults 20 years and older, and 23.1 percent of adults 60 years and older.1 An estimated one in five U.S. health care dollars is spent caring for someone with diabetes.2 Over the past 10 years, the Agency fo Continue reading >>

Understanding Advanced Carbohydrate Counting — A Useful Tool For Some Patients To Improve Blood Glucose Control

Understanding Advanced Carbohydrate Counting — A Useful Tool For Some Patients To Improve Blood Glucose Control

Today’s Dietitian Vol. 15 No. 12 P. 40 Suggested CDR Learning Codes: 2070, 3020, 5190, 5460; Level 3 Take this course and earn 2 CEUs on our Continuing Education Learning Library Click here for patient handout Carbohydrate, whether from sugars or starches, has the greatest impact on postprandial blood sugar levels compared with protein and fat. For this reason, carbohydrate counting has become a mainstay in diabetes management and education. Patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes benefit from carbohydrate counting in terms of improvements in average glucose levels,1,2 quality of life,2,3 and treatment satisfaction.3 Basic carbohydrate counting is used to keep blood glucose levels consistent, while advanced carbohydrate counting helps with calculating insulin dose. Both basic and advanced carbohydrate counting give people with diabetes the freedom to choose the foods they enjoy while keeping their postprandial blood glucose under control. This continuing education course introduces advanced carbohydrate counting as a tool for improving blood glucose management, evaluates basic and advanced carbohydrate counting, describes good candidates for advanced carbohydrate counting, and discusses strategies for counseling patients as well as precautions when using advanced carbohydrate counting. Basic Carb Counting Basic carbohydrate counting is a structured approach that emphasizes consistency in the timing and amount of carbohydrate consumed. Dietitians teach patients about the relationship among food, diabetes medications, physical activity, and blood glucose levels.4 Basic carbohydrate counting assigns a fixed amount of carbohydrate to be consumed at each meal and, if desired, snacks. Among the skills RDs teach patients are how to identify carbohydrate foods, recognize serving s Continue reading >>

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