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Insulin And Stress Response

5 Tips For Balancing Insulin And Cortisol

5 Tips For Balancing Insulin And Cortisol

in Alternative Health, Information 0 Comments Although estrogen, progesterone, and leptin are the more popular hormones, insulin and cortisol are major players, too. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, and helps manage sugar levels, while cortisol is a steroid hormone (also known as the stress hormone) that primarily manages metabolism, the immune system, and stress responses. When these two important hormones get out of whack, energy levels, eating patterns, and sleep quality may be affected. Thankfully, there are five easy ways to ensure that these hormones are operating in perfect harmony. 11 Signs That Your Hormones May Be Out Of Balance 1. Sleep Did you know that sleep deprivation increases the risk of diabetes? This is due, in part, to the fact that lack of sleep affects the body’s ability to respond to insulin, therefore leading to an increase in sugar and cholesterol in the blood, in turn increasing the risk of diabetes and other diseases. Sleep deprivation may also kick the stress response into high gear, flooding the body with norepinephrine and cortisol, which contribute to insulin resistance as well. To prevent this dangerous domino effect, be sure that you are getting enough quality sleep. Ensure that your sleep environment is as dark and quiet as possible, and make an effort to catch at least seven to eight hours of z’s per night. To reduce stress before bedtime, it’s helpful to eliminate screen time, as well, staying away from the news, work emails, and other things that kick our stress response into high gear. For those who experience chronic insomnia, falling asleep to relaxing music or guided hypnosis may do the trick. 2. High-Quality Protein Another easy way to balance your hormones is to consume a decent amount of high-quality protein. When we Continue reading >>

The Stress Response To Trauma And Surgery

The Stress Response To Trauma And Surgery

Br J Anaesth 2000; 85: 109–17 The stress response is the name given to the hormonal and metabolic changes which follow injury or trauma. This is part of the systemic reaction to injury which encompasses a wide range of endocrinological, immunological and haematological effects (Table 1). The responses to surgery have been of interest to scientists for many years. In 1932, Cuthbertson described in detail the metabolic responses of four patients with lower limb injuries.10 He documented and quantified the time course of the changes. The terms ‘ebb’ and ‘flow’ were introduced to describe an initial decrease and subsequent increase in metabolic activity. The description of the ‘ebb’ phase was based partly on work in experimental animals and the estimations of increases in metabolic rate in the ‘flow’ phase were exaggerated. These descriptions have been perpetuated and are still quoted, but have been redefined29 and are perhaps not critical to an understanding of the actual changes which occur. After the early work on the stress response to accidental injury, attention turned to surgical trauma, and responses to most types of surgery were reported. Following on from this, the ability of anaesthetic agents and neural blockade to modify the endocrine and metabolic responses has been studied enthusiastically. Although it seems that the stress response developed to allow injured animals to survive by catabolizing their own stored body fuels, it has been argued that the response is unnecessary in current surgical practice. Strenuous efforts have been made to inhibit the stress responses to surgery and evaluate the outcome. In particular, the potential benefits of regional anaesthesia on surgical outcome are still under scrutiny. Over the past 10 yr, the role of Continue reading >>

How Stress Can Make You Fat

How Stress Can Make You Fat

O.K., we acknowledge the title is a bit over the top, but didn’t it get your attention? No, stress alone won’t pack on the pounds, but there’s still truth in them thar’ hills. We thought we’d dig up some of the dirt on stress – fat and otherwise. The fact is we think stress gets short shrift when it comes to the realm of health and wellness. As you know, we spend a lot of time talking about how our eating and exercising impacts our biochemistry. Stress absolutely, positively plays into this same picture. A great diet and diligent exercise routine are never wasted effort, but chronic high stress can put a serious damper on the benefits you should be getting from your healthy endeavors. Let’s examine stress as saboteur. First off, we all know that a moderate amount of stress is good – natural even. (Grok didn’t live in Pleasantville after all.) In the face of danger, the physiological “fight or flight” stress response was crucial to our favorite caveman’s self-preservation. Ah, the flooding of adrenaline (a.k.a. epinephrine) and norepinephrine, the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone, the emergency shut off of the immune system. We notice the sweating, muscle tension and the heightened sense of smell and hearing, the sudden increase in heart rate (getting uncomfortable yet?). All these helped our ur-selves either attack that Sabertooth tiger or run like heck—to get away from the snarling beast. Flip to modern day when the “predator” is more likely a passive-aggressive co-worker, catty neighbor, daily traffic jam, or looming pile of bills in the corner, and suddenly the fight or flight instinct isn’t as relevant or particularly helpful. (But there’s always the “vacation from your problems” ala What About Bob?…) Stress today is mor Continue reading >>

Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, And Unfolded Protein Response

Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, And Unfolded Protein Response

Go to: Abstract We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. Burn injury induces ER/SR stress and the UPR in muscle. Western blot analysis of muscle from normal, unburned patients, and burned patients taken at various time points postburn (0–10, 11–49, and 50–250 days postburn, respectively). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and actin served as control loading proteins (A). Quantitative analysis of proteomic alterations in muscle. Expression of proteins involved in ER/SR stress, the UPR, inflammation, and insulin signalin Continue reading >>

Insulin Response To A Short Stress Period.

Insulin Response To A Short Stress Period.

Abstract In 24 healthy volunteers (seven women, 17 men; mean age 23 +/- 5 years), we studied the insulin response to a short stress period of 30 min, induced by cognitive conflict under social pressure. Insulin, growth hormone (GH), blood glucose and blood pressure (BP) determinations were performed before and after the stress period. There was a significant increase in insulin levels following the stress period (p = 0.02, paired t-test). A multiple stepwise regression analysis, with insulin difference as the dependent variable and initial GH and blood sugar levels, their increments and body mass index as predictors, showed that insulin variation was independent of any of the predictors. We discuss the influence of autonomic innervation on insulin secretion and the possible change in insulin sensitivity during stress. Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar & Stress

Blood Sugar & Stress

When stressed, the body prepares itself. Insulin levels fall, glucagon and epinephrine levels rise, and more glucose is available in the blood stream. What happens to my blood sugar levels when I’m stressed? During stressful situations, epinephrine (adrenaline), glucagon, growth hormone and cortisol play a role in blood sugar levels. Stressful situations include infections, serious illness or significant emotion stress. When stressed, the body prepares itself by ensuring that enough sugar or energy is readily available. Insulin levels fall, glucagon and epinephrine (adrenaline) levels rise and more glucose is released from the liver. At the same time, growth hormone and cortisol levels rise, which causes body tissues (muscle and fat) to be less sensitive to insulin. As a result, more glucose is available in the blood stream. When you have type 2 diabetes, low blood sugars from too much medication or insulin are a common cause of stress. The hormonal response to a low blood sugar includes a rapid release of epinephrine and glucagon, followed by a slower release of cortisol and growth hormone. These hormonal responses to the low blood sugar may last for 6-8 hours – during that time the blood sugar may be difficult to control. The phenomena of a low blood sugar followed by a high blood sugar is called a “rebound” or “Somogyi” reaction. When you have type 2 diabetes, stress may make your blood sugar go up and become more difficult to control – and you may need to take higher doses of your diabetes medications or insulin. During times of stress, individuals with diabetes, may have more difficulty controlling their blood sugars. Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. To find out how much you have learned ab Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Stress

Diabetes And Stress

Stress, whether physical stress or mental stress, has been proven to instigate changes in blood sugar levels, which for people with diabetes can be problematic. While stress can affect diabetes control, both directly and indirectly, it can also be caused by various diabetic factors such as being diagnosed with diabetes, adjusting to a diabetes treatment regimen, or dealing with psychosocial pressures of the disease. What is stress? Simply out, stress is a state of emotional strain or tension that occurs when we feel that we can't cope with pressure. When we become stressed, the body quickly responds by releasing hormones that give cells access to stored energy - fat and glucose - to help the body get away from danger. This instinctive physiological response to perceived threats is known as the "fight-freeze, or flight" response. Over time, both physical and mental stress can wear us down mentally and lead to depression and other mental health issues. What can cause stress? We live in a very stressful society which is constantly putting us under pressure. This pressure can sometimes be too much to handle, leading us to feel "stressed out". This everyday feeling can be caused by simple things such as: Work pressure Marriage and relationships Parenting/children Health problems such as diabetes (see below) Financial insecurity Traffic Diabetes causing stress? Being told you have diabetes, or any serious chronic condition for that matter, can also cause a lot of stress and pressure. This can make it harder to control blood sugar levels which, in most cases, only adds to the frustration and stress. How does stress affect my diabetes? It is widely recognised that people with diabetes are who regularly stressed are more likely to have poor blood glucose control. One of the reas Continue reading >>

How Stress Hormones Raise Blood Sugar

How Stress Hormones Raise Blood Sugar

In this excerpt from “Think Like a Pancreas”, certified diabetes educator Gary Scheiner describes why this happens and what to do about it. (excerpted from Think Like A Pancreas: A Practical Guide to Managing Diabetes With Insulin by Gary Scheiner MS, CDE, DaCapo Press, 2011) Last weekend I decided to stay up late and watch a scary movie. It had something to do with super-gross vampires who get their jollies by eating the flesh of unsuspecting hotel guests. Anyway, after the final gut-wrenching, heart-pumping scene, I decided to check my blood sugar. I’ll be darned – it had risen about 200 mg/dL (11 mmol) during the movie. With blood that sweet, I felt like the grand prize for any vampires that might happen to be lurking in my neighborhood. As you may be aware, the liver serves as a storehouse for glucose, keeping it in a concentrated form called glycogen. The liver breaks down small amounts of glycogen all the time, releasing glucose into the bloodstream to nourish the brain, nerves, heart and other “always active” organs. The liver’s release of glucose depends largely on the presence of certain hormones. Of all the hormones in the body, only insulin causes the liver to take sugar out of the bloodstream and store it in the form of glycogen. All the other hormones—including stress hormones, sex hormones, growth hormones and glucagon—cause the liver to secrete glucose back into the bloodstream. Growth hormone is produced in a 24-hour cycle and is responsible for the blood sugar rise that we sometimes see during the night or in the early morning. The other “stress” hormones, particularly epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol, are produced when our body needs a rapid influx of sugar for energy purposes. The glucose rise I experienced during the scary Continue reading >>

Where It Comes From €” How To Deal With It

Where It Comes From €” How To Deal With It

Stress is a major contributor to diabetes, but most people don’t understand what stress is or what to do about it. Here’s how stress works, and some things you can do about it. Say you’re walking down the street, and you bump into a hungry, man-eating lion. (Don’t you hate it when that happens?) You would sense a dangerous threat, and your body would automatically respond. Your adrenal glands would pump out a number of hormones. Chief among these is cortisol, which tells your liver and other cells to pour all their stored sugar (glucose) into your bloodstream. They do this so that your leg and arm muscles can use the glucose as fuel for running away, fighting, or maybe climbing a tree or a fire escape. At the same time, your other cells would become “insulin-resistant.” Insulin’s job is to get glucose into our cells to be used as fuel. In a crisis situation, most of your cells resist insulin, so the muscles involved in fighting or fleeing will have more energy. This reaction is called “stress.” In nature, the stress response is vital to survival. The antelope senses the lion (a threat) and runs. It either gets away or the lion eats it. In running, the antelope uses up the extra sugar and restores its hormonal balance. The whole thing is over in ten minutes, and the antelope can rest. But in our society, threat isn’t usually physical. When you’re threatened with job loss or eviction or the breakup of your marriage or a child’s drug problem or the thousands of other potential threats in modern society, you can’t fight, and you can’t run. You just sit there and worry. And the stress isn’t over in ten minutes either; modern stresses often act on us 24/7, week after week. Over time, insulin resistance builds up. It is a major cause of type 2 dia Continue reading >>

Acute Psychological Stress Affects Glucose Concentrations In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Following Food Intake But Not In The Fasting State

Acute Psychological Stress Affects Glucose Concentrations In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Following Food Intake But Not In The Fasting State

OBJECTIVE—To compare the effect of acute psychosocial stress on glucose concentrations in the fasting state and following food intake in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In study 1, 20 patients were exposed to moderate psychosocial stress by means of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in the fasting state. In study 2, the TSST was applied to 20 additional patients 75 min after intake of a standard meal. Glucose concentrations (by continuous glucose monitoring system), blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored on the control day and on the stress testing day. RESULTS—In both studies, blood pressure increased in response to TSST from 122/77 ± 14/9 mmHg at baseline to a maximum of 152/93 ± 21/13 mmHg (P < 0.001), and heart rate increased from 80 ± 11 to 99 ± 19 bpm (P < 0.001). In the fasting state (study 1), glucose concentrations remained unchanged during the control day as well as during the stress testing day. In study 2, glucose concentrations were similar on both days before and up to 75 min after the intake of the standard meal. However, a significant delay (of 45 min) in the decrease of glucose concentrations was induced by psychological stress. A two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference of glucose concentrations over time (F = 646.65/P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS—In the postprandial period, acute psychological stress induced a significantly delayed decrease of glucose concentrations, whereas in the fasting state, no effect on poststress glucose concentrations was observed. Patients with type 1 diabetes often complain of unexplained glucose excursions. Among other factors, variability in the absorption of insulin preparations and psychological stress may be of importance (2,3). Chronic psychological s Continue reading >>

Cortisol — Its Role In Stress, Inflammation, And Indications For Diet Therapy

Cortisol — Its Role In Stress, Inflammation, And Indications For Diet Therapy

Today’s Dietitian Vol. 11 No. 11 P. 38 Cortisol, a glucocorticoid (steroid hormone), is produced from cholesterol in the two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney. It is normally released in response to events and circumstances such as waking up in the morning, exercising, and acute stress. Cortisol’s far-reaching, systemic effects play many roles in the body’s effort to carry out its processes and maintain homeostasis. Of interest to the dietetics community, cortisol also plays an important role in human nutrition. It regulates energy by selecting the right type and amount of substrate (carbohydrate, fat, or protein) the body needs to meet the physiological demands placed on it. When chronically elevated, cortisol can have deleterious effects on weight, immune function, and chronic disease risk. Cortisol (along with its partner epinephrine) is best known for its involvement in the “fight-or-flight” response and temporary increase in energy production, at the expense of processes that are not required for immediate survival. The resulting biochemical and hormonal imbalances (ideally) resolve due to a hormonally driven negative feedback loop. The following is a typical example of how the stress response operates as its intended survival mechanism: 1. An individual is faced with a stressor. 2. A complex hormonal cascade ensues, and the adrenals secrete cortisol. 3. Cortisol prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response by flooding it with glucose, supplying an immediate energy source to large muscles. 4. Cortisol inhibits insulin production in an attempt to prevent glucose from being stored, favoring its immediate use. 5. Cortisol narrows the arteries while the epinephrine increases heart rate, both of which force blood to pump harder and faster. 6. Th Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Cortisol, Stress & Insulin

The Connection Between Cortisol, Stress & Insulin

Overview Insulin acts on individual cells to allow cells to absorb glucose. Insulin resistance occurs when insulin is present at normal or high levels in the bloodstream, but does not allow cells to accept glucose. The result is high glucose as well as high insulin levels in the bloodstream. Obesity itself can trigger insulin resistance. Risk Factors of Insulin Resistance, Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: Physically inactive Giving birth to a baby more than nine pounds or being diagnosed with gestational diabetes High blood pressure HDL (good cholesterol) below 35 mg/dL Triglycerides level above 250mg/dL Normal Blood Sugar Model In a normal body with regular, healthy food intake, food is converted to blood sugar. This sugar is used to run cells and body systems. Excess sugar is stored for later energy needs. Insulin Resistance Model Insulin is the “transportation” molecule that moves sugar into your cells. When you constantly over eat, your body produces too much insulin and your will eventually become insulin resistant. Insulin resistant cells struggle to get needed energy from the blood stream. Blood sugar levels rise, and the body is forced to store the excess blood sugar as fat. Continue reading >>

Stress And Type 1 Diabetes

Stress And Type 1 Diabetes

Stress can be a challenge to deal with, and when you have type 1 diabetes, coping with it is even more important because of the serious effect it can have on your health. Stress is your physical and emotional reaction to difficult situations. Stress-inducing situations can include positive events, such as the birth of a baby, and negative ones, like divorce. In most people, stress can cause symptoms like headaches, upset stomach, fatigue, and anxiety. And in people with type 1 diabetes, stress can also have yet another unwanted effect: elevated blood sugar. The blood sugar of type 1 diabetics can increase when they’re stressed because of the production of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol. In most people, these hormones help improve the body’s stress response by prompting the liver to release more glucose, or blood sugar, for additional energy. For diabetics, however, this extra glucose can result in a dangerously high blood sugar level. There are no hard and fast rules on how much to increase your insulin when you’re stressed, so the best thing to do is keep a closer eye on yourself. When you’re in a stressful situation, check your blood sugar levels more frequently. You may even want to write down your stress level on a scale of 1 to 10, along with your glucose level, every time you test. This can help you gauge what effect, if any, stress has on your blood sugar. Stress Relief Strategies The best way to avoid stress-induced blood sugar problems is, of course, to prevent the stress in the first place. Try reducing your exposure to controllable stressors, like traffic jams, by avoiding them whenever you can. If you feel overwhelmed by your personal responsibilities, it might be wise to reduce the time you spend on volunteer work or other non-essential Continue reading >>

Pardon Our Interruption...

Pardon Our Interruption...

As you were browsing psycnet.apa.org something about your browser made us think you were a bot. There are a few reasons this might happen: You're a power user moving through this website with super-human speed. You've disabled JavaScript in your web browser. A third-party browser plugin, such as Ghostery or NoScript, is preventing JavaScript from running. Additional information is available in this support article. To request an unblock, please fill out the form below and we will review it as soon as possible. You reached this page when attempting to access from 35.202.118.1 on 2018-01-11 15:43:12 UTC. Trace: e4828322-0dce-4aa6-9a51-8a65c01a46f1 via 0894b646-a920-4bbe-adae-63c4b22043a0 Continue reading >>

A Closer Look At Cortisol – Hormonal Obesity Xxxx

A Closer Look At Cortisol – Hormonal Obesity Xxxx

I can make you fat. Actually, I can make anybody fat. How? It is very simple. I prescribe prednisone, a synthetic version of the human hormone cortisol. Prednisone is used to treat many different types of inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, glomerulonephritis and myasthenia gravis. Cortisol makes you fat. Not coincidentally, both insulin and cortisol play a key role in carbohydrate metabolism. Cortisol Cortisol is the so-called stress hormone. It mediates the ‘flight or fight response’ with help from the sympathetic nervous system. Cortisol is part of a class of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids (glucose + cortex + steroid) produced in the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is produced in response to stress. In Paleolithic times, this was often a physical stress, such a being chased by a predator. The release of cortisol was essential in preparing our bodies for action – to fight or flee. Cortisol increases alertness and decreases the need for sleep. Glucose availability is substantially enhanced. This provides energy for muscles that are needed to avoid being eaten. Non-essential metabolic activities are curtailed. All available energy is directed towards surviving the coming stressful period. Growth, digestion and other long-term issues are temporarily restricted. Proteins are broken down and converted to glucose (gluconeogenesis). In the fasted state, cortisol has several mechanisms to increase glucose in the body. The blood glucose raising effect of synthetic cortisol prednisone has been known for at least 40 years. These include: Stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis Inhibition of glucose uptake in peripheral tissues Stimulation of fat and amino acid breakdown (helps provide substra Continue reading >>

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