Survey Of The American Association Of Diabetes Educators And The American Diabetes Association
Clinical and cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous infusion for diabetes: updating review A technology assessment report commissioned by the HTA Programme on behalf of NICE. HTA reference 06/61. This TAR updates the previous review, published as HTA 2004; vol 8: no 43. Some of the information used comes from unpublished studies which are currently (5th August 2007) â€œacademic in confidenceâ€. The relevant sections had been underlined and highlighted. Authors; Ewen Cummins Pam Royle Ailsa Snaith Alexandra Greene Lynn Robertson Linda McIntyre Norman Waugh Address for correspondence: Professor Norman Waugh Dept of Public Health Medical School Buildings Foresterhill Aberdeen AB25 2ZD [email protected] Competing interests â€“ none. The Aberdeen HTA group The Aberdeen Health Technology Assessment Group is part of the Institute of Applied Health Sciences (IAHS), which is part of the College of Medicine and Life Sciences of the University of Aberdeen. The Institute of Applied Health Sciences is made up of discrete but methodologically related research groups. The HTA Group is drawn mainly from the Health Services Research Unit, Public Health, and the Health Economics Research Unit. The HTA Group carries out independent health technology assessments (TARs) for the UK HTA Programme, which commissions TARs for NICE and other bodies, such as the National Screening Committee. In addition, a joint venture between the Health Services Research Unit at Aberdeen and the Medical Care Research Unit at Sheffield University informs the Review Body for Interventional Procedures Programme within NICE (ReBIP) ReBIP undertakes systematic reviews and establishes UK registries, where appropriate, to collect and analyse data on the efficacy and safety of selected procedures, Continue reading >>
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People Keep Saying That Too Much Sugar Does Not Cause Diabetes (even The Ada). But Isn't It True That Too Much Sugar Can Lead To An Overworked Pancreas Overtime, Which Then Cannot Produce Enough Insulin, Which Causes Diabetes?
Ever hear the phrase “correlations does not equal causation?” There are a number of factors that govern why some people become diabetic and some don’t but that doesn’t mean that there are not high correlations between sugar consumption and diabetes. First, here’s what the American Diabetes Association says in their 2017 standards of care: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and processed “low-fat”or “nonfat” food products with high amounts of refined grains and added sugars should be strongly discouraged. “No other food types yielded significant individual associations with diabetes prevalence after controlling for obesity and other confounders. The impact of sugar on diabetes was independent of sedentary behavior and alcohol use, and the effect was modified but not confounded by obesity or overweight. Duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner, while declines in sugar exposure correlated with significant subsequent declines in diabetes rates independently of other socioeconomic, dietary and obesity prevalence changes. “ This study shows that regular consumption of sugar sweetened beverages is associated with type 2 diabetes in African American Women. This study finds that habitual consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, independently of adiposity. Beta cell fatigue where a type 2 diabetic stops producing insulin usually only happens in very long term type 2 diabetics. I’ve been diabetic for over 20 years and I can tell you that my pancreas is still producing high levels of insulin. If I had to pick one root cause of diabetes it’s over production of insulin in the body. One huge culprit in these high leve Continue reading >>
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How Insulin And Glucagon Work
Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>
- How insulin and glucagon work to regulate blood sugar levels
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- Effects of Insulin Plus Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP-1RAs) in Treating Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Sort The primary function of hormones is to alter cell activity by altering plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential, stimulating synthesis of enzymes or regulating molecules, activating or deactivating enzymes, inducing secretory activity, or stimulating mitosis. True Continue reading >>
Diabetes Training Pre-post Test Key
To achieve 80% score and passage of this exam, the learner may answer no more than 15 questions incorrectly. If the learner misses all questions in one category, that section of training should be reviewed. Diabetes in Ohio Schools 1. Ohio law ensures a student with diabetes receives appropriate care at school including: a. Providing care according to prescribers orders b. Administering diabetes medication c. Provides training to employees who volunteer to provide diabetes care d. All of the above 2. The trained employee is immune from liability. a. True b. False 3. A student with diabetes must go to an area designated by the school to attend to his/her diabetes care needs. a. True b. False Diabetes Medical Management Plan 4. Another term for the Diabetes Medical Management Plan (DMMP) is medical orders. 5. The following people are responsible for developing and signing the DMMP except: a. The parent b. The prescriber c. The school nurse d. The studentâ€™s personal health care team 6. DMMP should include: a. Emergency contact information b. Blood glucose and ketone monitoring c. Insulin or medication administration d. All of the above 2 Diabetes Basics 7. â€œblood sugarâ€=blood glucose. 8. This type of diabetes is caused when insulin producing cells are destroyed. It is the most common type of diabetes in children. a. Type 1 b. Type 2 9. This type of diabetes is when the body does not use insulin properly or does not make enough insulin. Usually starts in adulthood. a. Type 1 b. Type 2 10. Diabetes management includes: a. monitoring glucose levels b. insulin/medication c. physical activity d. food and beverage intake e. all of the above Universal Precautions 11. The single most important way to prevent the spread of infectious disease is handwashing. 12. Use Continue reading >>
How Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured?
Curing Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is easy. In fact, it is so easy to correct that I cannot understand why it is a problem. I guess it is easier to take a pill than put in the effort needed to cure yourself. For the past three years, I have been preaching the cure, hoping someone would hear. To cure yourself of type 2 diabetes, all you have to do is give up flour and sugar. Read all labels and if flour and/or sugar is listed, don’t use it. I am making an assumption that you have not allowed your diabetes to go on so long that it has destroyed some of your vital tissue. If it has gone that far, it may be too late and you will have to take medication for the rest of your life. Three months after I gave up flour and sugar, I lost weight, I no longer had to take high blood pressure medication, my triglycerides went from 330 to optimal, my cholesterol became optimal, my A1C went to 5.7, I no longer had type 2 diabetes and I was no longer insulin resistant. It has been three years and my health continues to improve. During these three years, I continued to improve my diet. Currently, I try to maintain 70% of my food intake is from vegetables and fruit. 15% of my diet is from protein, and 15% from fat. I no longer use liquid oils, I use saturated fat. Mostly from coconut oil and bacon grease. I avoid all man-made or man-altered carbohydrates. Exercise is also important. I am retired, so, I do not have a problem with getting an hour of exercise each day. I do Calisthenics and some jogging. Three years ago, I was having problems with arthritis. Each day, just sitting was a problem. To avoid knee pain when sitting at the kitchen table, I would position my butt over the chair and let my body fall into the chair. It also hurt my knees to get into the car and then it hu Continue reading >>
Johnson & Johnson, Viacyte Testing Possible Diabetes Cure
Johnson & Johnson, continuing its long quest for a Type 1 diabetes cure, is joining forces with biotech company ViaCyte to speed development of the first stem cell treatment that could fix the life-threatening hormonal disorder. They've already begun testing it in a small number of diabetic patients. If it works as well in patients as it has in animals, it would amount to a cure, ending the need for frequent insulin injections and blood sugar testing. ViaCyte and Johnson & Johnson's Janssen BetaLogics group said Thursday they've agreed to combine their knowledge and hundreds of patents on their research under ViaCyte, a longtime J&J partner focused on regenerative medicine. The therapy involves inducing embryonic stem cells in a lab dish to turn into insulin-producing cells, then putting them inside a small capsule that is implanted under the skin. The capsule protects the cells from the immune system, which otherwise would attack them as invaders — a roadblock that has stymied other research projects. Advertisement Researchers at universities and other drug companies also are working toward a diabetes cure, using various strategies. But according to ViaCyte and others, this treatment is the first tested in patients. If the project succeeds, the product could be available in several years for Type 1 diabetes patients and down the road could also treat insulin-using Type 2 diabetics. "This one is potentially the real deal," said Dr. Tom Donner, director of the diabetes center at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "It's like making a new pancreas that makes all the hormones" needed to control blood sugar. Donner, who is not involved in the research, said if the device gives patients normal insulin levels, "it's going to prevent millions of diabetics from getti Continue reading >>
Your Wellness Roadmap: The Hidden Risk: Diabetes
This publication includes information about type 2 diabetes and who is likely to develop it, a worksheet to help estimate risk for type 2 diabetes, information about artificial sweeteners and recipes. Objectives of Lesson 2 Complete this lesson and you will be able to explain what type 2 diabetes is; list the symptoms of diabetes; estimate your personal risk of having type 2 diabetes and not knowing it; describe the different types of artificial sweeteners; decide whether you want to use artificial sweeteners. Introduction Lesson 2 looks at non-insulin-dependent diabetes, which is called type 2 diabetes. As we age, more of us will develop this disease. About 7 million people have been told they have type 2 diabetes, but experts think only half of the actual cases are identified. This means another 7 million adults are walking around with type 2 and don’t realize it. If this disease is not treated, it causes serious damage to the body. Lesson 2 describes the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and who is likely to develop it. See if you are at risk. If so, visit your doctor for a checkup. Prompt treatment can make a difference. Recipe Notes The recipes in this lesson use an artificial sweetener or a sugar substitute and support the following healthful eating rule: Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars. Some people use sugar substitutes to help them control their calorie intake. Others find these substitutes too sweet. After you have tried artificial sweeteners, you may find that foods sweetened with plain sugar taste too bland. Some sweeteners can be used in baked products, others cannot. They are a common ingredient in certain manufactured food products. Be sure to compare the number of calories in a serving of a product made with sugar substitutes t Continue reading >>
The Liver And Blood Glucose Levels
Tweet Glucose is the key source of energy for the human body. Supply of this vital nutrient is carried through the bloodstream to many of the body’s cells. The liver produces, stores and releases glucose depending on the body’s need for glucose, a monosaccharide. This is primarily indicated by the hormones insulin - the main regulator of sugar in the blood - and glucagon. In fact, the liver acts as the body’s glucose reservoir and helps to keep your circulating blood sugar levels and other body fuels steady and constant. How the liver regulates blood glucose During absorption and digestion, the carbohydrates in the food you eat are reduced to their simplest form, glucose. Excess glucose is then removed from the blood, with the majority of it being converted into glycogen, the storage form of glucose, by the liver’s hepatic cells via a process called glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis When blood glucose concentration declines, the liver initiates glycogenolysis. The hepatic cells reconvert their glycogen stores into glucose, and continually release them into the blood until levels approach normal range. However, when blood glucose levels fall during a long fast, the body’s glycogen stores dwindle and additional sources of blood sugar are required. To help make up this shortfall, the liver, along with the kidneys, uses amino acids, lactic acid and glycerol to produce glucose. This process is known as gluconeogenesis. The liver may also convert other sugars such as sucrose, fructose, and galactose into glucose if your body’s glucose needs not being met by your diet. Ketones Ketones are alternative fuels that are produced by the liver from fats when sugar is in short supply. When your body’s glycogen storage runs low, the body starts conserving the sugar supplies fo Continue reading >>
A&p 2402 Chpt 16 Quiz
1. Which of the following is not a property of endocrine glands? Which of the following is not a property of endocrine glands? They have ducts. They drain lymphatically. They produce hormones. They drain vascularly. 3. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________. A) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release B) embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional C) it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location D) it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release A) it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release 7. Which of the following hormone pairs are antagonists that regulate blood calcium ion levels? A) parathyroid hormone/calcitonin B) thyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone C) FSH/LH D) insulin/glucagon A) parathyroid hormone/calcitonin, pg. 611 in text 8. In _________ diabetes, target cells do not respond normally to insulin. In ________ diabetes, no insulin is produced. In _________________ diabetes, glucose levels remain higher than normal. In type 2 diabetes, target cells do not respond normally to insulin. In type 1 diabetes, no insulin is produced. In both type 1 & 2 diabetes, glucose levels remain higher than normal. 12. Part A When blood glucose levels are high The liver releases glucagon. The pancreas releases glucagon. The liver releases insulin. The pancreas releases insulin. The pancreas releases glucose 13. Part B A liver cell responds to insulin by Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon. Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose. Rel Continue reading >>
What Is The Natural Way For A Type 2 Diabetes Person To Produce Insulin?
Type 2 diabetes is also known as MOD ie maturity onset diabetes which comes with aging factor. Why? because 1. insulin production reduces in the body with age, 2. the gates of sugars in the body cells which insulin molecule opens becomes less sensitive to insulin and it is known as insulin resistance. hence sugar flows in blood but the body feels weak 3. the sedentary lifestyle sets in perfectly by then 4. enough processed food habit is already developed 5. the good habits of physical exercise is already gone 6. many bad habits of smoking, drinking, fried foods etc already come and good habit of outings and eating raw foods are already gone 7. enough stress by then in life which raises blood sugar to tackle situations. Hence you need reversals. Reversals can be made willingly by choice in natural ways. 1. So do exercise daily for one hour (not drama of exercise). 2. Eat the low calorific foods, salad, more vegetables and fruits, 3. reduce quantity of food by 10–20% of your normal. 4. Reduce stress by taking less stress on your head, finding achievable goals in life only, 5. yoga, body stretching, 6. meditation, 7. participating in more social activities then clinging to your computer or mobiles etc. 8. Quit bad habits if any like smoking or too much drinking. And if all above is not working take the medicines regularly in addition to all natural ways enumerated above. The medicines may be allopathic, Ayurvedic or from any others system. The yard stick is regular blood sugar check ups at least once in 6 months if not raised and every three months, if raised. I refrain from mentioning that by eating this or that your sugar level will reduce significantly etc. People have varied impressions on foods and trial and errors are your best judges. Eating is just one part rest Continue reading >>
Shared Flashcard Set
Details Title Chapter 17 Questions Description Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured Total Cards 86 Subject Health Care Level Undergraduate 1 Created 03/12/2014 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Health Care Flashcards Cards Term Common signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include all of the following EXCEPT: A. warm, dry skin B. rapid, thready pulse C. cool, clammy skin D. acetone breath odor Definition C. cool, clammy skin Term Diabetes is MOST accurately defined as a/an: A. abnormally high blood glucose level B. disorder of carbohydrates metabolism C. lack of insulin production in the pancreas D. mass excretion of glucose by the kidneys Definition B. disorder of carbohydrates metabolism Term A 28-year old female patient is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only. her roomate states that she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further tells you that the patient has been urinating excessively and has progressively worsened over the last 24 to 36 hours. On the basis of this patient's clinical presentation, you should suspect that she: A.has a urinary tract infection B. has low blood glucose level C. has overdosed on her insulin D. is signically hyperglycemic Definition D. is signically hyperglycemic Term The signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of: A. prolonged and severe dehydration B. fat metabolism within cells C. increased blood glucose levels D. decreased blood glucose levels Definition D. decreased blood glucose levels Term Kussmaul respirations are an indication that the body is: A. trying to generate energy by breathing deeply B. attempting to eliminate acids from the blood C. compensating for Continue reading >>
By The End Of The Course, The Student Will Know: A. The Definition And Types Of Diabetes B. Who Is Susceptible To Contract Diabetes C. The Scope Of Impact And Management Of Diabetes
Florida Heart CPR* Diabetes Update 1 hour Almost every one of us knows someone who has diabetes. An estimated 16 million people in the United States have diabetes mellitus--a serious, lifelong condition. About half of these people do not know they have diabetes and are not under care for the disorder. Each year, about 650,000 people are diagnosed with diabetes. Although diabetes occurs most often in older adults, it is one of the most common chronic disorders in children in the United States. About 127,000 children and teenagers age 19 and younger have diabetes. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism--the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down by the digestive juices into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. After digestion, the glucose passes into our bloodstream where it is available for body cells to use for growth and energy. For the glucose to get into the cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. When we eat, the pancreas is supposed to automatically produce the right amount of insulin to move the glucose from our blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the body cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose. The three main types of diabetes are: Â· Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes Â· Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or Type II diabetes Â· Gestational diabetes. Continue reading >>
What Is Diabetes?
Most likely, you knew very little about diabetes before you learned that you had it. After your diagnosis, your next few doctor visits were probably a crash course in diabetes: learning how to check your blood glucose level, inject insulin or follow a schedule for taking pills, adjust your eating habits, etc. Your doctor may also have mentioned what diabetes is and what causes it in this blitz of information, but with so much to learn at once, you may not remember what he said — or remember him saying anything at all on these topics. It can be difficult to take in so much new information at one time, especially when you are just learning diabetes terminology and adjusting to the idea of having diabetes; many people find they miss a lot of the background information about the underlying causes of their diabetes. However, understanding how and why diabetes develops can help you to be an active member of your diabetes-care team. The two main types Diabetes mellitus, usually referred to as just diabetes, is characterized by a high blood glucose level. There are several different types of diabetes, each with a unique underlying cause. The most common forms are Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Both are considered chronic diseases, meaning that once diagnosed, they don’t go away. Blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be diabetes are now called prediabetes. For descriptions of other types of diabetes and related conditions, see “Types of Diabetes.” Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes, and Type 2 diabetes was called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The American Diabetes Association now favors the terms Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, which are defined based on the underlying cause of the Continue reading >>
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Are The Large Producers Of Insulin Actively Suppressing Research In A Cure For Diabetes?
Whether you are the parent of a child who has been recently diagnosed with type 1 or you’ve been prescribed insulin for the first time, the transition to injecting can feel overwhelming. Most experts agree that using an insulin pen can take some of the stress out of injecting. Discreet and convenient, they are one of the easiest ways to incorporate injections into your routine. Here’s the A-Z on these clever devices and why they are a great diabetes management tool. There is not cure of diabetes. There is only prevention. Easy, don't eat anything with sugar, cereals and fruits. Have a diet with green vegetables, low-fat meat or substitutes, nuts and pure water. No pharmaceutical company needs to prevent finding the cure if the human likes carbohydrate. Every industrialised and home made products with sugar, cereals and fruit is making people pre and diabetic. Period. There is no way to stay eating the same and staying healthy, no matter how much exercise you make. I believe so. They make billions of dollars a year from diabetic medications, so why would pharmaceutical companies want to give that up? It's all about money, they don't care about you getting well. I realize this sounds like a rant, but I am sick and tired of this illness and I want a cure, not just “ managing” symptoms. And please don't give me advice about diet and exercise, because I've heard it all before, and frankly I don't want to hear it again!! Also, please stop generalizing that T2 diabetics are obese, lazy, self indulgent slobs because it's simply not true. Just stop it! Ask New Question Continue reading >>