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If The Pancreas Secretes Too Little Insulin It Results In

Psychology Chapter 2

Psychology Chapter 2

Sort Neurotransmitters and Functions Acetylcholine: Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in memory and controls muscle contractions Serotonin: Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and appetite GABA: Major inhibitory neurotransmitter; involved in learning, memory formation, and nervous system development Norepinephrine: Mainly excitatory; involved in arousal and mood Dopamine: Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure Endorphins: Inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain relief Continue reading >>

Psych Chap 1 And 2 Quizzes

Psych Chap 1 And 2 Quizzes

Sort Sasha sat in the preschool classroom and watched the children play, writing down how well they interacted with each other. The children could see that Sasha was watching them, so they made an attempt to be extra well-behaved for her. Sasha's research will be impacted by observer effect Mrs. O'Connor participated in a study in which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the group that received a sugar pill but she believed that the pill did indeed help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as placebo effect Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

Psychology: Chapter 3

Psychology: Chapter 3

Sort Cassie's mother suffered a stroke. Since then, she sometimes says strange things, such as, "I need to go to the store to buy some canaries," when she means to say that she needs groceries. Cassie's mother seems to be suffering from __________. Wernicke's aphasia Continue reading >>

Glands And Hormones

Glands And Hormones

Explain how the hormones released by glands interact with the nervous system and affect behavior. Some glands, such as salivary glands and sweat glands, secrete their chemicals directly onto the body’s tissues through tiny tubes, or ducts. This kind of gland affects the functioning of the body but doesn’t really affect behavior. Other glands, called endocrine glands, have no ducts and secrete their chemicals directly into the bloodstream. (See Figure 2.9.) The chemicals secreted by this type of gland are called hormones. As mentioned earlier in the chapter when talking about the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, these hormones flow into the bloodstream, which carries them to their target organs. The molecules of these hormones then fit into receptor sites on those organs to fulfill their function, affecting behavior as they do so. As compared to synaptic communication, endocrine communication is generally slower due to the time it takes hormones to travel to target organs; the behaviors and responses they affect may not occur until hours, weeks, or years later. Figure 2.9 The Endocrine Glands The hormones affect behavior and emotions by stimulating muscles, organs, or other glands of the body. Some theories of emotion state that the surge in certain hormones actually triggers the emotional reaction (Izard, 1988; Zajonc, 1980, 1984). (See Learning Objective 9.11.) Some of the hormones produced by endocrine glands also influence the activity of the brain, producing excitatory or inhibitory effects (Schwartz & Javitch, 2013). The pituitary gland is located in the brain itself, just below the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus controls the glandular system by influencing the pituitary. That is because the pituitary gland is the master gland, the one that Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Chapter 2 - Psych

Chapter 2 - Psych

Sort The job of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is to: a. provide feelings such as empathy and sympathy. b. get the body ready to deal with stress. c. stabilize emotions such as happiness and sadness. d. control voluntary muscles. Get the body ready to deal with stress The spinal cord's outer section is made up of _______ and the inner section is made up of _______. a. bone; synaptic vesicles b. somatic cells; dendrites c. bone; axons and nerves d. myelinated axons and nerves; the cell bodies of neurons Myelinated Axons and Nerves The Cell bodies of neurons Neuroplasticity is: a. the most advanced form of brain surgery. b. the process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicules. c. the brain's ability to change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience and trauma. d. the research and study of stem cells. The brain's ability to change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience and trauma A functional MRI (fMRI) and a PET scan both: a. provide detailed computerized interpretations of brain dysfunctions. b. create selective injuries that allow researchers to study brain function. c. provide a way to measure the functioning and activity of the brain. d. produce black and white scans of the brain's structures. Provide a way to measure the functioning and activity of the brain A(n) _____ is used to record the activity of the cortex just below the skull. a. positron emission tomography (PET) scan b. computed tomography (CT) scan c. electroencephalograph d. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan Electroencephalograph The part of the brain that controls life-sustaining functions, such as heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing, is the: a. medulla. b. cerebral cortex. c. cere Continue reading >>

Psychology Chapter 2

Psychology Chapter 2

Sort Thalamus a round structure in the center of the brain that acts as the brain's sensory switchboard, relaying incoming sensory information to the appropriate sensory areas in the cortex. (Except smell) Continue reading >>

Intro To Psychology - Chapter 2: The Biological Perspective

Intro To Psychology - Chapter 2: The Biological Perspective

Sort If you were suffering from neurological problems and your neurologist wanted to have a study done of your brain and its electrical functioning, which of the following techniques would involve placing metal or sponge-like electrodes directly onto your scalp? EEG You have a dream in which you wake up to find that people around you are using words that make no sense. What's more, your friends don't seem to understand when you speak. At one point in your dream, your mom tells you that you almost forgot your tree limb today. When you give her a puzzled look, she holds up your lunchbox and repeats, "You know, your tree limb." Your predicament in your dream is most like which of the following disorders? Wernicke's Aphasia Robert has had difficulty sleeping for the past 6 months and his body seemingly no longer differentiates between night and day. His doctor believes that the problem lies with Robert's endocrine system. What gland will Robert's physician focus on? Pineal Alexis and Theresa are synchronized swimmers for their college swim team. They often work long hours to ensure the movements in their routine are perfectly timed. What part of their rains must Alexis and Theresa rely most upon? Cerebellum Felicia is recovering from a brain injury. She is able to speak fluently but often uses incorrect words in a sentence. In one instance at a friend's birthday party, she said, "I would like something to drink. Can I have some battery?" Felicia's problem is known as... Wernicke's aphasia Although the brain works largely as a whole, which of the following is not a correct pairing of hemisphere and function? A. Left; control of right-handed motor functions B. Right; control of right-handed motor functions C. Right; recognition of faces D. Left; reading B. Right; control of r Continue reading >>

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