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Humulin N Long Acting

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

For people who need to take external or supplemental insulin (insulin your body did not produce but that was instead made by a pharmaceutical company), there are several different types and kinds of insulin. The insulin you take will depend on your personal needs. Different types of insulin work differently in different people. The University of California, San Francisco explains that insulin “was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin.” Here’s a chart of how the types of insulin work to replicate the normal pancreatic delivery of insulin and how they are typically used. Type of Insulin Brand (Generic) Onset Peak Duration Rapid-Acting Apidra (glulisine), Humalog (lispro), Novolog (aspart) 15 minutes 1 or 2 hours 2 to 4 hours Regular- or Short-Acting Humulin R, Novolin R (human recombinant) 30 minutes 2 to 3 hours 3 to 6 hours Intermediate-Acting Humulin N, Novolin N (insulin isophane)) 2 to 4 hours 4 to 12 hours 12 to 18 hours Long-Acting or Basal Insulin Lantus (glargine), Levemir (detemir), Basaglar (glargine) 2 to 4 hours lower peak 24 hours Ultra Long-Acting Toujeo (glargine), Tresiba (degludec) 6 hours small peak 36 hours Inhaled Insulin Afrezza (insulin human) 15 minutes 30 minutes 3 hours Rapid-acting insulin analogs (Insulin Aspart, insulin Lyspro, Insulin Glulisine): Usually taken as a bolus before a meal to cover the blood glucose elevation from eating or to correct for high blood glucose. This type of insulin is often used with longer-acting insulin, which is used to cover the body’s metabolic need for insulin. Short-acting synth Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

Different Types Of Insulin: What To Use And When?

Different Types Of Insulin: What To Use And When?

What’s the difference between the different types of insulin? Long-acting, short-acting, premixed, learn more about all three. You may have a lot of questions as you begin insulin therapy. What are the different types of insulin available? Which should I be using and when? Insulins differ based on 3 key factors: 1 how quickly they work when they peak how long they last (duration) This table compares these factors in the types of insulin available:2 Type Onset (How quickly it starts working) Onset (What it is most effective) Duration (How long it works) Timing of injection (When should it be given) Bolus insulins Rapid acting analogues Apidra/Humalog/NovoRapid 10-15 min 1-2 hours 3-5 hours Given with 1 or more meals per day. To be given 0-15 minutes before or after meals. Short-acting Humulin-R/Toronto 30 min 2-3 hours 6.5 hours Given with one or more meals per day. Should be injected 30-45 minutes before the start of the meal. Basal insulins Intermediate-acting Humulin-N/NPH 1-3 hours 5-8 hours Up to 18 hours Often started once daily at bedtime. May be given once or twice daily. Not given at any time specific to meals. Long-acting analogues Lantus Levemir 90 min Not applicable Lantus: Up to 24 hours Levemir: 16-24 hours Often started once daily at bedtime. Insulin detemir (Levemir) may be given once or twice daily. Not given at any time specific to meals. Premixed insulins Premixed regular insulin Humulin 30/70 and Novolin ge 30/70, 40/60, 50/50 Varies according to types of insulin Contains a fixed ratio of insulin (% of rapid-acting or short-acting insulin to % of intermediate-acting insulin): See above for information about peak actions based on insulin contained Given with one or more meals per day. Should be injected 30-45 minutes before the start of the meal. Pre Continue reading >>

Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin For Type 2 Diabetes

Considering insulin? What you should know. By the dLife Editors Many people with type 2 diabetes will eventually require insulin to keep their diabetes in control. In fact, most experts believe we wait too long in the progression of type 2 diabetes before starting people on insulin. Progressing to insulin does not mean you are failing, but just that your body needs a little more help to keep your blood sugar in range. How much insulin you need, and when you take it, depends on several factors: the type of insulin your doctor has prescribed, your nutrition and exercise habits, and other co-existing medical conditions, and medications you may be taking. Types of Insulin Insulin can be divided into three main categories. The first is long-acting, also known as basal or background insulin. It is usually given once (or sometimes twice) daily, and is intended to help control blood sugar over a twenty-four-hour period. The second category is shorter-acting insulins. These are used to help control blood sugar spikes after eating, and also to “correct” an unusually high blood sugar reading. Depending on the type, they start to work within fifteen to thirty minutes, and last for three to six hours. Many people with type 2 diabetes do well with just a long-acting insulin combined with oral medicines, while others will need to add a mealtime dose of shorter-acting insulin to control after-meal blood sugar spikes. The third category is made up of combinations of long- and shorter-acting insulin. These insulin mixtures are usually given twice daily. The long-acting insulins now approved for use in the United States are Lantus, Levemir, Toujeo, Tresiba, and Basaglar. Novolin N and Humulin N are older forms of insulin that are not as long-acting as the newer ones, and their activit Continue reading >>

Insulin Use And Exercise, Part 1: Faster And Intermediate-acting Insulins

Insulin Use And Exercise, Part 1: Faster And Intermediate-acting Insulins

When you don’t have diabetes and you start any activity, your body increases the release of glucose-raising hormones to prevent falls in your blood glucose levels. At the same time, your pancreas releases less insulin during exercise. But what about your patients who have diabetes? Sheri Colberg, Ph.D., FACSM, discusses how you can help your patients in this week’s feature Insulin Use and Exercise, Part 1: Faster and Intermediate-Acting Insulins By Sheri Colberg, Ph.D., FACSM At the start of any activity, your body increases the release of glucose-raising hormones to prevent falls in your blood glucose levels. At the same time, your pancreas releases less insulin (if you still make any) during exercise. But if you have to depend on insulin by injections or pump or if you use certain other medications, your body may not be able to respond normally. You can’t turn off insulin from an injection site, and exercise can sometimes speed up its absorption by increasing blood flow to your muscles and skin. As a result, instead of having less insulin circulating around your bloodstream during exercise, you may end up with more than normal, which can easily lower your blood sugars too much. Similarly, certain oral diabetic medicines can also augment the effects of insulin during exercise or cause greater release, also potentially resulting in hypoglycemia. Insulin Use: Effect on Spontaneity and More Have you ever felt like jumping on your bike and going for a ride without giving any thought to where you’re going or how long you’ll be gone? When you have diabetes and you use insulin, the problem with such spontaneity is that your insulin levels during an activity can greatly affect your blood sugar response to exercise (refer to figure 2.6 in chapter 2). To predict your r Continue reading >>

Humulin-n

Humulin-n

How does this medication work? What will it do for me? Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone made by the pancreas that helps our body use or store the glucose (sugar) it gets from food. For people with diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin to meet the body's requirements, or the body cannot properly use the insulin that is made. As a result, glucose cannot be used or stored properly and accumulates in the bloodstream. Insulin injected under the skin helps to lower blood glucose levels. There are many different types of insulin and they are absorbed at different rates and work for varying periods of time. NPH is an intermediate-acting insulin. It takes 1 to 3 hours to begin working after injection, reaches its maximum effect between 5 and 8 hours, and stops working after about 18 to 24 hours. Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are being given this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop using this medication without consulting your doctor. Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to use this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it. What form(s) does this medication come in? Vial Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, glycerol, m-cresol, phenol, protamine sulfate, and zinc. May contain dimethicone, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide. Cartridge/KwikPen Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, Continue reading >>

Humulin N

Humulin N

Generic Name: insulin isophane (IN soo lin EYE soe fane) Brand Names: HumuLIN N, HumuLIN N KwikPen, NovoLIN N, Relion NovoLIN N What is Humulin N? Humulin N (insulin isophane) is a man-made form of a hormone that is produced in the body. Insulin is a hormone that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Insulin isophane is an intermediate-acting insulin that starts to work within 2 to 4 hours after injection, peaks in 4 to 12 hours, and keeps working for 12 to 18 hours. Humulin N is used to improve blood sugar control in adults and children with diabetes mellitus. Humulin N may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Important information Do not use Humulin N if you are having an episode of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Never share an injection pen or syringe with another person, even if the needle has been changed. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is the most common side effect of Humulin N. Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, hunger, sweating, pale skin, irritability, dizziness, feeling shaky, or trouble concentrating. Watch for signs of low blood sugar. Carry a piece of non-dietetic hard candy or glucose tablets with you in case you have low blood sugar. Before taking this medicine You should not use Humulin N if you are allergic to insulin isophane, or if you are having an episode of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Do not give Humulin N to a child without a doctor's advice. To make sure Humulin N is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have: liver or kidney disease; or low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia). Tell your doctor if you also take pioglitazone or rosiglitazone (sometimes contained in combinations with glimepiride or metformin). Taking certain oral diabetes medicines while you are using Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin - Topic Overview

Types Of Insulin - Topic Overview

Insulin is used to treat people who have diabetes. Each type of insulin acts over a specific amount of time. The amount of time can be affected by exercise, diet, illness, some medicines, stress, the dose, how you take it, or where you inject it. Insulin strength is usually U-100 (or 100 units of insulin in one milliliter of fluid). Short-acting (regular) insulin is also available in U-500. This is five times more concentrated than U-100 regular insulin. Long-acting insulin (glargine) is also available in U-300. This is three times more concentrated than U-100 long-acting insulin. Be sure to check the concentration of your insulin so you take the right amount. Insulin is made by different companies. Make sure you use the same type of insulin consistently. Types of insulin Type Examples Appearance When it starts to work (onset) The time of greatest effect (peak) How long it lasts (duration) Rapid-acting Apidra (insulin glulisine) Clear 5-15 minutes 30-60 minutes 3-5 hours Humalog (insulin lispro) Clear 5-15 minutes 30-90 minutes 3-5 hours NovoLog (insulin aspart) Clear 5-15 minutes 40-50 minutes 3-5 hours Afrezza (insulin human, inhaled) Contained in a cartridge 10-15 minutes 30-90 minutes 2½-3 hours Short-acting Humulin R, Novolin R (insulin regular) Clear 30 minutes 1½-2 hours 6-8 hours Intermediate-acting Humulin N, Novolin N (insulin NPH) Cloudy 1-4 hours 4-12 hours 14-24 hours Long-acting Lantus (insulin glargine) Clear 1-2 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours Levemir (insulin detemir) Clear 2 hours Minimal peak Up to 24 hours Rapid-acting insulins work over a narrow, more predictable range of time. Because they work quickly, they are used most often at the start of a meal. Rapid-acting insulin acts most like insulin that is produced by the human pancreas. It quickly Continue reading >>

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

What you need to know If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. Rapid-acting insulin What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. Short-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. Intermediate-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about Continue reading >>

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

When you eat, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin moves sugar (glucose) from your blood to your cells for energy or storage. If you take insulin, you may need some at mealtime to help lower your blood sugar after you eat. But even between meals, you need insulin in small amounts to help keep blood sugar stable. This is where long-acting insulin comes in. If you have diabetes, either your pancreas can’t produce enough (or any) insulin, or your cells can’t use it efficiently. To control your blood sugar, you need to replace or supplement the normal function of your pancreas with regular insulin injections. Insulin comes in many types. Each type differs in three ways: onset: how quickly it starts working to lower your blood sugar peak: when its effects on your blood sugar are strongest duration: how long it lowers your blood sugar According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the five types of insulin are: Rapid-acting insulin: This type starts to work just 15 minutes after you take it. It peaks within 30 to 90 minutes, and its effects last for three to five hours. Short-acting insulin: This type takes about 30 to 60 minutes to become active in your bloodstream. It peaks in two to four hours, and its effects can last for five to eight hours. It is sometimes called regular-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting insulin: The intermediate type takes one to three hours to start working. It peaks in eight hours and works for 12 to 16 hours. Long-acting insulin: This type takes the longest amount of time to start working. The insulin can take up to 4 hours to get into your bloodstream. Pre-mixed: This is a combination of two different types of insulin: one that controls blood sugar at meals and another that controls blood sugar between meals. Lo Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Many forms of insulin treat diabetes. They're grouped by how fast they start to work and how long their effects last. The types of insulin include: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Pre-mixed What Type of Insulin Is Best for My Diabetes? Your doctor will work with you to prescribe the type of insulin that's best for you and your diabetes. Making that choice will depend on many things, including: How you respond to insulin. (How long it takes the body to absorb it and how long it remains active varies from person to person.) Lifestyle choices. The type of food you eat, how much alcohol you drink, or how much exercise you get will all affect how your body uses insulin. Your willingness to give yourself multiple injections per day Your age Your goals for managing your blood sugar Afrezza, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin, is FDA-approved for use before meals for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The drug peaks in your blood in about 15-20 minutes and it clears your body in 2-3 hours. It must be used along with long-acting insulin in people with type 1 diabetes. The chart below lists the types of injectable insulin with details about onset (the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins to lower blood sugar), peak (the time period when it best lowers blood sugar) and duration (how long insulin continues to work). These three things may vary. The final column offers some insight into the "coverage" provided by the different insulin types in relation to mealtime. Type of Insulin & Brand Names Onset Peak Duration Role in Blood Sugar Management Rapid-Acting Lispro (Humalog) 15-30 min. 30-90 min 3-5 hours Rapid-acting insulin covers insulin needs for meals eaten at the same time as the injection. This type of insulin is often used with Continue reading >>

Insulin: Types

Insulin: Types

Last week, we started to take a closer look at insulin, a hormone that helps to lower blood sugar levels and a hormone that everyone needs. Insulin works much like a key, unlocking receptors that are located on cells, allowing glucose to enter and be used for energy. When the pancreas works as it should, insulin helps to regulate, or balance out, blood sugar levels. If there is more sugar in the blood than the body currently needs, the sugar gets stored in the liver as glycogen (or, if glycogen stores are full, as fat). Then, when the body needs more sugar, say, for physical activity, the liver will release glucose to provide additional fuel for the body. Types of insulin If you have Type 1 diabetes, you very likely take two types of insulin: rapid-acting or short-acting, also known as mealtime or bolus insulin, and longer-acting, also known as basal insulin. People who have Type 2 diabetes may take just one type or both types. Rapid-acting insulin. This type of insulin starts to work about 15 minutes after you inject it. It will peak about 1 hour later, but it keeps working for 2 to 4 hours. Rapid-acting insulin is generally taken right before eating a meal to “cover” the carbohydrate consumed at that meal. Rapid-acting insulin is generally the only type of insulin used in an insulin pump (longer-acting insulins are never used in a pump). Examples: aspart (brand name NovoLog), lispro (Humalog), glulisine (Apidra) Short-acting insulin. Also a type of mealtime insulin, short-acting insulin is taken about 30 minutes before a meal. It starts to work about 30 minutes after injecting, peaks 2–5 hours later, and lasts up to 12 hours. With the newer rapid-acting insulins now available that offer more flexibility, short-acting insulin isn’t used as much as it used to be Continue reading >>

Intermediate-acting Insulins

Intermediate-acting Insulins

Rapid-Acting Analogues Short-Acting Insulins Intermediate-Acting Insulins Long-Acting Insulins Combination Insulins Onset: 1- 2 hours Peak: 4-12 hours Duration: 14 - 24 hours (up to 24 hours) Solution: Cloudy Comments: Human Insulin Isophane Suspension. Cloudy/ milky suspension of human insulin with protamine and zinc. Mixing NPH + Aspart (Novolog ®): Compatible - NovoLog should be drawn into the syringe first. The injection should be made immediately after mixing. NPH + Lispro (Humalog ®): Compatible - Humalog should be drawn into the syringe first. The injection should be made immediately after mixing. NPH +Regular insulin: Always draw the Regular (clear) insulin into the syringe first. Phosphate-buffered insulins ( NPH insulin) should NOT be mixed with lente insulins. Zinc phosphate may precipitate, and the longer-acting insulin will convert to a short-acting insulin to an unpredictable extent. Currently available NPH and short-acting insulin formulations when mixed may be used immediately or stored for future use. NPH HUMAN INSULIN Description Humulin N [Human insulin (rDNA origin) isophane suspension] is a crystalline suspension of human insulin with protamine and zinc providing an intermediate-acting insulin with a slower onset of action and a longer duration of activity (up to 24 hours) than that of Regular human insulin. The time course of action of any insulin may vary considerably in different individuals or at different times in the same individual. As with all insulin preparations, the duration of action of Humulin N is dependent on dose, site of injection, blood supply, temperature, and physical activity. Humulin N is a sterile suspension and is for subcutaneous injection only. It should not be used intravenously or intramuscularly. The concentration of H Continue reading >>

Is Newly Approved Tresiba The Best Long-acting Insulin?

Is Newly Approved Tresiba The Best Long-acting Insulin?

Comparing long-acting insulins? Newly approved Tresiba may come out ahead. With the exception of NPH insulin (the original long-acting insulin—examples include Humulin N and Novolin N), they are all going to cost you. So, if you are already paying big bucks for your long-acting insulin, here are some things to think about: What does a long-acting or basal insulin do for me? This is your baseline insulin, the insulin that is secreted to control your sugars when you are not eating (in the fasting state). Put another way, basal Insulin is used to suppress liver glucose production and help you maintain normal sugars even when you aren’t eating. What are my options? The old-school and well respected NPH insulin has been around forever and is considered intermediate acting. Levemir and Lantus were then joined this year by Toujeo and now Tresiba as the main players. Toujeo is basically Lantus (which was losing its patent) and may not gain any traction in the market. These insulins are typically administered once daily to provide basal insulin levels. Basaglar was just approved by the FDA and think of Basaglar as the Lantus “generic” or copycat–that will be available soon and let’s hope it’s cheaper than Lantus. What is Tresiba? Tresiba (insulin degludec) is the longest acting insulin available and there don’t appear to be any coming down the pipeline that give this duration of coverage. What makes Tresiba a hero is the long duration of action (>40 hours) with less fluctuation in blood levels of the drug. It’s given once a day. Is Tresiba the best long-acting insulin? This can only be answered on an individual basis and along with your provider. Lantus, Levemir and Tresiba may have some modest advantages over NPH (less symptomatic and nighttime hypoglycemia) i Continue reading >>

Insulin For Gestational Diabetes

Insulin For Gestational Diabetes

Discusses how insulin helps the body use glucose (blood sugar) in people with diabetes. Discusses short-acting and long-acting insulins. Covers side effects, including hypoglycemia. Offers links to info on preparing and giving insulin injections. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, a gland behind the stomach. The medicine form of insulin helps the body use glucose. Insulin cannot be taken as a pill, because stomach acid destroys insulin before it can enter the blood. Insulin is categorized according to how fast it starts to work and how long it continues to work. The types of insulin available include rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulin. See types of insulin for more information. Insulin is packaged in small glass bottles that are sealed with rubber lids. One bottle of U-100 insulin holds 1,000 units, which is many doses of insulin. It is also packaged in small cartridges used in pen-shaped devices ( insulin pens ) attached to disposable needles. Insulin bottles and cartridges are labeled with important information you should read, such as the expiration date. Insulin usually is given as a shot under the skin. It can also be given through an insulin pump or a jet injector, a device that sprays the medicine into the skin. Some insulins can be given in a vein, but this is only done in a hospital. Insulin reduces blood sugar levels by helping sugar (glucose) enter the cells to be used for energy. Sometimes women who have gestational diabetes need to take two types of insulin, usually a rapid- or short-acting and an intermediate-acting type. The short-acting insulin reduces blood sugar levels quickly and then wears off. The combination of a rapid- or short-acting and intermediate-acting insulin helps keep blood sugar levels in a target range both b Continue reading >>

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