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How Will You Treat A Child With Type 1 Diabetes?

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Until recently, the common type of diabetes in children and teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. Now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well. Children have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if they are overweight or have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or are not active. Children who are African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander also have a higher risk. To lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in children Have them maintain a healthy weight Be sure they are physically active Have them eat smaller portions of healthy foods Limit time with the TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet and exercise. If not, patients will need to take oral diabetes medicines or insulin. A blood test called the A1C can check on how you are managing your diabetes. Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetes In Children

Treatment Of Diabetes In Children

Go to: 2. Pathology Under non-pathological conditions, an increase in blood glucose triggers a secretion of insulin from the β cells of the pancreas. The hormone glucagon is secreted by the α cells of the pancreas, which activates gluconeogenesis, thereby preventing hypoglycemia during times when no food is being digested. T2D mellitus develops when there is a discrepancy in glucose metabolism and storage. The pathology behind T2D involves a decrease in peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin as well as decreased insulin secretion from the β cells. When the tissues become less sensitive to insulin, the β cells start to increase insulin secretion. When the β cells start to overcompensate in this manner, it leads to overburdening of work on the β cells. Overworked β cells start to reduce their functions, which leads to an eventual decrease in insulin secretion. This leads to the phenomenon of glucose intolerance, which impairs the secretion of glucagon. When glucagon no longer fulfills its regular function, the glycemic state of a patient becomes exacerbated and leads to an aggravation of diabetic pathology (5,6). Childhood obesity and increased body fat are correlated with insulin resistance. The mechanism behind the way obesity affects T2D is well known. Obesity rates have increased considerably over the past 40 years. In 1980, the childhood obesity rates were 6.5%, which increased to 16.9% in 2008 (7). The percentage of overweight and obese children and adolescents, aged 2–19 years, is ~33%. Overweight or obese children are more at risk for developing T2D as well as other diseases including cardiovascular disease. Due to the fact that overweight or obese children are more at risk for other diseases and complications, it is imperative to prevent a serious dise Continue reading >>

Care Of Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Care Of Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

A statement of the American Diabetes Association ADA, American Diabetes Association AER, albumin excretion rate CVD, cardiovascular disease DCCT, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis EDIC, Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications EMA, endomysial autoantibody MDI, multiple daily insulin injection NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP-Peds, National Cholesterol Education Program for Pediatrics SMBG, self-monitoring of blood glucose tTG, tissue transglutaminase During recent years, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has published detailed guidelines and recommendations for the management of diabetes in the form of technical reviews, position statements, and consensus statements. Recommendations regarding children and adolescents have generally been included as only a minor portion of these documents. For example, the most recent ADA position statement on “Standards of Medical Care for Patients With Diabetes Mellitus” (last revised October 2003) included “special considerations” for children and adolescents (1). Other position statements included age-specific recommendations for screening for nephropathy (2) and retinopathy (3) in children with diabetes. In addition, the ADA has published guidelines pertaining to certain aspects of diabetes that apply exclusively to children and adolescents, including care of children with diabetes at school (4) and camp (5) and a consensus statement on type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents (6). The purpose of this document is to provide a single resource on current standards of care pertaining specifically to children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. It is not meant to be an exhaustive compendium on all aspects of the management of pediatric diabetes. Howeve Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

The most common type of diabetes in children is type 1 diabetes. In fact, according to the American Diabetes Association, type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in the U.S. Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Juvenile diabetes Brittle diabetes Sugar diabetes There are two forms of type 1 diabetes: Idiopathic type 1. This refers to rare forms of the disease with no known cause. Immune-mediated diabetes. An autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Immune-mediated diabetes is the most common form of type 1 diabetes and is generally referred to as type 1 diabetes. What causes type 1 diabetes? The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed that people inherit a tendency to develop diabetes, and that some outside trigger may be involved. Type 1 diabetes is the result of the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide fuel. This is the result of an autoimmune process in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood, depriving the cells of nutrition. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood sugar levels. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes often appears suddenly. In children, type 1 diabetes symptoms may resemble flu symptoms. The following are the most common symptoms for type 1 diabetes. However, each child may experience sympto Continue reading >>

Parents On Trial For Refusing To Give Insulin To A Child With Type 1 Diabetes

Parents On Trial For Refusing To Give Insulin To A Child With Type 1 Diabetes

Parents on Trial for Refusing to Give Insulin to a Child with Type 1 Diabetes Alex Raditas death is why we have to fight myths about Type 1 diabetes. This week, Emil and Rodica Radita are on trial in Calgary for the first-degree murder of their 15-year-old child, Alexandru (Alex), who had Type 1 diabetes. Prosecutors allege that the Raditas withheld insulin and starved the child until he was 37 pounds, according to a CBC report . By the end of his life, Alex was wearing a diaper and his body was covered with sores. The Raditas were trying to cure his Type 1 diabetes through prayer, and had attempted to wean him off insulin. This wasnt the first time they had attempted this, as Alex was taken away from them in 2003 for the very same act of neglect and placed in a foster home, where he thrived. He was returned to his family a year later, and they then moved from the province of British Columbia to province of Alberta. Once in Alberta, they never saw a doctor; social workers, apparently, didnt pick up their trail. The Raditas arent the only ones to have killed their child through diabetes ignorance. In 2015, an Australian 7-year-old died after his parents opted for slapping therapy instead of insulin. And in 2013, a U.S. court upheld the conviction of a Wisconsin couple who tried to pray away their 11-year-old daughters undiagnosed Type 1 diabetes rather than seek medical help. Im sure that there are many more children who have died from untreated Type 1 diabetes in similar ways, only the cause of death was less obvious or the diabetes was undiagnosed. Like many, I want to condemn the Raditas and turn the page, but I cant, not fully. Thats because in some ways I was once like them. I didnt withhold insulin, but I did withhold vaccines until my child was five. My reasoning Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Hypoglycemia In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose (blood sugar), is a common complication that can occur with diabetes. The challenge for parents of children with type 1 diabetes is to know how to detect the symptoms of hypoglycemia and effectively treat it. This article addresses both those considerations. But first, it's important to have a solid understanding of hypoglycemia. EndocrineWeb has a comprehensive article series on this complication—and we invite you to read them to learn more. Below is a selection of hypoglycemia resources to get you started: Detecting Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia occurs when your child's blood glucose levels fall below his or her target range. Target ranges are determined by your child's doctor and are unique to each child. For instance, your child may feel fine with a blood glucose reading of 70, but another child could show hypoglycemia symptoms with a reading slightly above 70.1 Knowing your child's target range and ensuring his or her blood glucose level stays within it is the main objective. If hypoglycemia isn't detected early on, it can cause serious problems, such as seizure or loss of consciousness. So what can you do to prevent your child's hypoglycemia from becoming a potentially serious problem? First and foremost, you should understand the symptoms. These include: Sweating Hunger Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Shakiness Headache Fatigue Pale skin Irritability Make sure that you, your family, and your child can identify the most common hypoglycemia symptoms. Treating Hypoglycemia You should talk with your doctor for specific recommendations on how to treat your child if he or she experiences an episode of hypoglycemia. But, generally, if your child has a low blood glucose meter reading and is showing hypoglycemia symptoms, the goal i Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis There are several blood tests for type 1 diabetes in children: Random blood sugar test. This is the primary screening test for type 1 diabetes. A blood sample is taken at a random time. Regardless of when your child last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher suggests diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after your child fasts overnight. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 1 diabetes. Additional tests Your doctor will likely recommend additional tests to confirm the type of diabetes that your child has. It's important to distinguish between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes because treatment strategies differ. These additional tests include: Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes Urine tests to check for the presence of ketones, which also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2 After the diagnosis Your child will need regular follow-up appointments to ensure good diabetes management and to check his or her A1C levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends an A1C of 7.5 or lower for all children. Your doctor also will periodically use blood and urine tests to check your child's: Cholesterol levels Thyroid function Kidney function In addition, your doctor will regularly: Assess your child's blood pressure and growth Check the sites Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is a disease that affects how your child's body makes insulin and uses glucose (sugar). Normally, when the blood sugar level increases, the pancreas makes more insulin. Insulin helps move sugar out of the blood so it can be used for energy. Type 1 diabetes develops because the immune system destroys cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The pancreas cannot make enough insulin, so the blood sugar level continues to rise. A family history of type 1 diabetes may increase your child's risk for diabetes. What are the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes? More thirst than usual Frequent urination or unexplained bedwetting Feeling hungry most of the time Weight loss without trying How is type 1 diabetes diagnosed? An A1c test shows the average amount of sugar in your child's blood over the past 2 to 3 months. Your child's healthcare provider will tell you the level that is right for your child. The goal is usually below 7.5%. Your provider can help you make changes if your child's A1c is too high. A fasting plasma glucose test is when your child's blood sugar level is tested after he or she has fasted for 8 hours. Fasted means he or she has not eaten anything or had anything to drink except water. A 2-hour plasma glucose test starts with a blood sugar level check after your child has not eaten for 8 hours. Your child is then given a glucose drink. Your child's blood sugar level is checked after 2 hours. A random glucose test may be done any time of day, no matter how long it has been since your child ate. An antibody test may show that your child's immune system is attacking his or her pancreas. How is type 1 diabetes treated? Type 1 diabetes cannot be cured, but it can be controlled. The goal is to keep your Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: A Guide For Families

Type 1 Diabetes: A Guide For Families

What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by a lack of insulin. Insulin is needed to allow sugar to move from the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy. Nutrients in food are changed into a sugar called glucose. People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin, and without insulin, glucose is "stuck" in the bloodstream, leading to a high level of glucose in the blood. Type 1 diabetes affects about 1 in 400 children, adolescents, and young adults under 20 years of age. Currently, once diagnosed, type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease that cannot be cured. However, the administration of insulin is a very effective treatment for type 1 diabetes. What Causes Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin is produced in special cells (called beta cells) in the pancreas, which is an organ located in the belly. In children with type 1 diabetes, the immune system "misbehaves." Normally, the immune system produces special proteins called antibodies that defend the body against infections, but in type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks its own beta cells by producing antibodies against them. This ongoing attack results in over 90% destruction of beta cells, which may occur quickly or over a period of years, and ultimately leads to an inability to produce adequate levels of insulin. Symptoms The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are largely due to the lack of energy caused by an inability to use the nutrients eaten and by the high sugar levels in the bloodstream pulling water from the body into the bloodstream and spilling into the urine, causing dehydration (lack of fluids). These symptoms include: Hunger, at times extreme, and associated with weight loss Increased thirst and increased urination – the la Continue reading >>

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

en espaolEl tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1 If your child or teen has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes , the next step is to create a diabetes management plan to help him or her manage the condition and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans for type 1 diabetes are based on each child's needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team . Treatment approaches differ in, among other things, the types of insulin given and the schedules for giving insulin given each day. The advantages and disadvantages of a plan should be considered for each child. The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. The hormone insulin allows the glucose to get into the cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body can no longer make insulin, so the glucose can't get into the body's cells. This makes the blood glucose level rise. Treatment goals for kids with diabetes are to control the condition in a way that minimizes symptoms; prevents short- and long-term health problems; and helps them to have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parents and kids should aim for the goal of keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. In general, kids with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet, paying special attention to the amount of carbohydrates in each meal and the diabetes meal plan check blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan helps kids stay healthy, but treating diabetes isn't the same as curing it. Right now, there's no cure for diabetes, so kids with type 1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives. But with proper care, they should look and feel h Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Management

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Management

Approach Considerations All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. The following are also required in treatment: Strategies to help patients and their parents achieve the best possible glycemic management are crucial. A 2-year randomized clinical trial found that a practical, low-intensity behavioral intervention delivered during routine care improved glycemic outcomes. [45] A well-organized diabetes care team can provide all necessary instruction and support in an outpatient setting. The only immediate requirement is to train the child or family to check blood glucose levels, to administer insulin injections, and to recognize and treat hypoglycemia. The patient and/or family should have 24-hour access to advice and know how to contact the team. Children should wear some form of medical identification, such as a medic alert bracelet or necklace. [5, 46] Awareness of hypoglycemia becomes impaired over time, and severe hypoglycemia can occur without warning. Hypoglycemia is more likely to affect people who maintain low blood sugar levels and who already suffer frequent hypoglycemic attacks. Overzealous or inadequate treatment of hypoglycemia can lead to serious consequences. Failure to regularly examine for diabetic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially renal and ophthalmic ones, can be detrimental. Inpatient care Where a diabetes care team is available, admission is usually required only for children with DKA. In addition, children with significant dehydration, persistent vomiting, metabolic derangement, or serious intercurrent illness require inpatient management and intravenous rehydration. Diabetes in pregnancy Pregnancies should be planned and carefully managed to achieve healthy outcomes for mother and infant. P Continue reading >>

How Is Diabetes Treated In Children?

How Is Diabetes Treated In Children?

Download PDF (713 K) On this page Is your child packing on the pounds? Becoming a couch potato? Then he or she may be at risk for getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes once occurred mainly in adults who are overweight and over 40, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Today, it is increasingly diagnosed in youths age 10 to 19. Why is this happening? Because just like adults, kids are heavier now. An estimated 1 in 6 children and teens is obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Along with a family history of diabetes, being overweight and inactive are the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes, says Ilan Irony, M.D., an endocrinologist at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The two main types of diabetes—type 1 and type 2—are treatable, says Irony. “In addition to changes in diet and a healthier lifestyle, treatments can help control blood sugar and prevent or delay long-term complications of diabetes.” FDA-approved treatments for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are all about keeping the blood sugar (glucose) levels in a normal range. But there is no one treatment that works for everybody, says Irony. And treatments may need to be changed if side effects of a particular medication are not tolerated. Also, additional medications may need to be added as diabetes gets worse over time. Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is most often diagnosed in children starting at age 12 or 13, says Irony. “In children, the disease tends to get worse in puberty when the body produces hormones that make insulin less effective,” he says. Insulin is the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. “The first line of treatment is a healthy diet and other lifestyle changes,” says Irony. “If a child is ov Continue reading >>

What It’s Really Like To Have A Child With Type 1 Diabetes

What It’s Really Like To Have A Child With Type 1 Diabetes

I have two daughters with Type 1 diabetes, and in my experience there’s a disconnect between what people think it’s like to have Type 1 diabetes and what it actually is like. Many people are not aware of all the variables that come into play to control blood sugars. Some people think you take your medicine and you get a steady blood glucose of 120. In reality, you have to guess what the dose of your insulin is based on your guess of what the carbs in the food are based on what your guess is of the portion of food that will be eaten. Plus, you must take into account your guess of the amount of fat and protein in the food, and whether one has just exercised or is about to exercise (and how much exertion that exercise will involve). If you are about to go to sleep that must be taken into account, or if you’re going to be somewhere difficult to treat a low (such as a child on a school bus) keep that in mind as well. And don’t forget to pray that your pump infusion set is working and that your insulin didn’t fry in the heat. Now push go on your pump, or poke your arm with a needle and, voilà, you’re done! A diabetes disconnect also results from confusing headlines, such as Cure for Type 1 Discovered (it’s in mice) or New Drug for Diabetes (it’s for Type 2). Many book titles are misleading as well, often using language like ‘Reversing Diabetes’ or ‘Preventing Diabetes’ while meaning Type 2 diabetes and not Type 1. Even medical journals often don’t distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in their titles. Recently, I saw a friend whom I hadn’t seen for a long time. When I pulled out my daughters’ meters and lancets to check blood sugars, she said “I didn’t think you still had to do that.” This is not the first time I’ve heard someon Continue reading >>

Signs Of Diabetes In Children

Signs Of Diabetes In Children

What to look for: Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children One of the early signs of diabetes in children is increased urination and thirst. When blood-sugar is high it triggers a reaction in the body that pulls fluid from tissues. This will leave your son or daughter constantly thirsty, resulting in a need for more bathroom breaks throughout the day. Below are some other warning signs that you should be aware of. Fatigue: If your child is constantly tired it may be a sign that his or her body is having trouble turning sugar in the bloodstream into energy. Changes in vision: High blood sugar levels can lead to blurred vision or other eyesight problems. Fruity smelling breath: If your kid’s breath smells fruity, it could be a result of excess sugar in the blood. Extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss: When your son or daughter’s muscles and organs aren’t receiving enough energy, it can trigger extreme hunger. And sudden weight loss—especially if he or she is eating more—should not be ignored. Unusual behavior: If your child seems more moody or restless than normal—and it’s in conjunction with the symptoms above—it could be cause for concern. Other symptoms of diabetes in children Be on the lookout if your child is lethargic, shows heavy breathing, or experiences nausea and vomiting. When it goes untreated, type 1 diabetes can be life-threatening. If you’re concerned that your son or daughter is showing signs of childhood diabetes it’s important that you schedule a doctor’s appointment as soon as possible. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… Polyuria occurs when your body urinates more frequently—and often in larger amounts—than normal… The reality is that signs o Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

KidsHealth / For Kids / Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? Kids who have type 1 diabetes can help themselves stay healthy by taking these four very important steps: eating a healthy diet and following a meal plan being active by playing and getting exercise Doing all four can get a little confusing because there's a lot to remember. What comes in handy when you can't keep everything straight in your head? A plan, where everything is written down for you. That's why kids and adults with diabetes each get their own diabetes treatment plan. This plan will help you and your parents know what to do so you stay healthy, active, and feeling good. You, your parents, and members of your diabetes health care team will work together to make a treatment plan that's right for you. Doing what your plan tells you to do will keep you healthy now and help you avoid health problems later. Taking insulin shots is an important way that people with diabetes control the amount of glucose (sugar) in their blood. The body gets glucose (say: GLOO-kose) from the food we eat. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to all the cells in the body. Like batteries in a flashlight, glucose provides energy for the body's cells to work. But people who have type 1 diabetes can't make a hormone called insulin. Without insulin, glucose can't get into the cells, so it stays in the blood leading to high blood glucose levels. And when you have high blood glucose levels, you might feel sick. Insulin is the only medicine that can get blood sugar levels back to a healthier range in people with type 1 diabetes. In a person who does not have diabetes, the pancreas (say: PAN-kree-us) produces the right amount of insulin to keep blood sugar levels where they should be. But in someone with type 1 diabetes, the pa Continue reading >>

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