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How The Insulin Is Made?

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

How Insulin Is Made - Material, Manufacture, History, Used, Parts, Components, Structure, Steps, Product

Background Insulin is a hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and is required for the body to function normally. Insulin is produced by cells in the pancreas, called the islets of Langerhans. These cells continuously release a small amount of insulin into the body, but they release surges of the hormone in response to a rise in the blood glucose level. Certain cells in the body change the food ingested into energy, or blood glucose, that cells can use. Every time a person eats, the blood glucose rises. Raised blood glucose triggers the cells in the islets of Langerhans to release the necessary amount of insulin. Insulin allows the blood glucose to be transported from the blood into the cells. Cells have an outer wall, called a membrane, that controls what enters and exits the cell. Researchers do not yet know exactly how insulin works, but they do know insulin binds to receptors on the cell's membrane. This activates a set of transport molecules so that glucose and proteins can enter the cell. The cells can then use the glucose as energy to carry out its functions. Once transported into the cell, the blood glucose level is returned to normal within hours. Without insulin, the blood glucose builds up in the blood and the cells are starved of their energy source. Some of the symptoms that may occur include fatigue, constant infections, blurred eye sight, numbness, tingling in the hands or legs, increased thirst, and slowed healing of bruises or cuts. The cells will begin to use fat, the energy source stored for emergencies. When this happens for too long a time the body produces ketones, chemicals produced by the liver. Ketones can poison and kill cells if they build up in the body over an extended period of time. This can lead to serious illne Continue reading >>

Discovery Of Insulin

Discovery Of Insulin

The discovery of insulin was one of the most dramatic and important milestones in medicine - a Nobel Prize-winning moment in science. Witnesses to the first people ever to be treated with insulin saw "one of the genuine miracles of modern medicine," says the author of a book charting its discovery.1 Starved and sometimes comatose patients with diabetes would return to life after receiving insulin. But how and when was the discovery made, and who made it? How and when was insulin discovered? The discovery of insulin did not come out of the blue; it was made on the back of a growing understanding of diabetes mellitus during the nineteenth century. Diabetes itself had been understood by its symptoms as far back as the 1600s - when it was described as the "pissing evile" - and the urination and thirst associated with it had been recognized thousands of years before. A feared and usually deadly disease, doctors in the nineteenth century knew that sugar worsened diabetes and that limited help could be given by dietary restriction of sugar. But if that helped, it also caused death from starvation. Scientists observed the damaged pancreases of people who died with diabetes. In 1869, a German medical student found clusters of cells in the pancreas that would go on to be named after him. Paul Langerhans had discovered the beta cells that produce insulin. Other work in animals then showed that carbohydrate metabolism was impossible once the pancreas was removed - the amount of sugar in the blood and urine rose sharply, and death from diabetes soon followed. In 1889, Oscar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering removed a dog's pancreas to study its effects on digestion. They found sugar in the dog's urine after flies were noticed feeding off it. In humans, doctors would once have diagnose Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is A Life-threatening Disease.

Diabetes Is A Life-threatening Disease.

Whatis Biology Good For? Controlling Diabetes: Recombinant Human Insulin (This assignment is optional and is due Friday, February 7, 2003 by noon. Read this essay and answer the questions at the bottom for 3 extra credit points. It is not necessary to visit the links in the text unless you are interested in more information.) What is Diabetes?Diabetes is a disease where the body is either unable to make the protein insulin, or is able to make insulin, but is unable to use insulin. This results in an inability to metabolize (break down) blood glucose and an inability to store glycogen (the storage form of glucose) in the liver. If left untreated, high glucose levels may damage a person's eyes, kidneys, nerves, or heart. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to diabetic acidosis, in which toxic chemicals called ketones build up in the blood. Patients have sweet-smelling breath, and may suffer confusion, unconsciousness, and death. Diabetes is common. At least one in every 16 people has diabetes; and more than 10 million individuals with diabetes around the world rely on insulin to control their diabetes. What normally happens when a person (without diabetes) eats food? 1. Some of the food breaks down into sugars; one of these sugars is glucose, the body's main fuel. 2. Sugar enters the bloodstream, and the level of blood sugar begins to rise. 3. When the body senses an increase in blood sugar, it sends a signal to the pancreas. 4. The pancreas makes insulin and sends it into the bloodstream. 5. Insulin lowers the level of blood sugar by allowing sugar to pass from the bloodstream into the cells. 6. The level of sugar in the bloodstream falls as the sugar passes into the cells. 7. The body's cells use the sugar for fuel (ATP production). You feel energetic. When a person has diab Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin, hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu, who was working independently and called the substance “pancrein.” After Banting and Best isolated insulin, they began work to obtain a purified extract, which they accomplished with the help of Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod and Canadian chemist James B. Collip. Banting and Macleod shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin. Proinsulin is relatively inactive, and under normal conditions only a small amount of it is secreted. In the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells the proinsulin molecule is cleaved in two places, yielding the A and B chains of insulin and an intervening, biologically inactive C peptide. The A and B chains become linked together by two sulfur-sulfur (disulfide) bonds. Proinsulin, insulin, and C peptide are stored in granules in the beta cells, from which they are released into the capillaries of the islets in response to appropriate stimuli. These capillaries empty into the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestines, and pancrea Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

Ask The Diabetes Team

Ask The Diabetes Team

Question: From the United Kingdom: How is artificial insulin made? Answer: What a great question! I'm not sure how much detail you're interested in, but here is the short answer. Insulin is created in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of E. coli bacteria (not the same type that causes diarrhea and kidney problems that you may be familiar with) that has been genetically altered by the addition of the gene for human insulin production. The bacteria produces the insulin which is then chemically harvested from the medium in which the bacteria is grown, purified and prepared for human use. Here is the long answer if you are interested: [Note: the following is adapted from Overview of Biotechnology at the End of the 20th Century. Please see that reference for even more details.] Modern biotechnology began when recombinant human insulin was first marketed in the United States in 1982. The effort leading up to this landmark event began in the early 1970's when research scientists developed protocols to construct vectors, by cutting out and pasting pieces of DNA together to create a new piece of DNA (recombinant DNA), that could be inserted into the bacterium, Escherichia coli (transformation). If one of the pieces of the new DNA included a gene which produced a protein enzyme that broke down a particular antibiotic, the bacterium would be resistant to that antibiotic and could grow in a medium containing it. To the piece of DNA that conferred resistance of Escherichia coli to a particular antibiotic was added the human gene for the making of insulin. If this recombinant DNA containing the human insulin gene was used to transform Escherichia coli,and the bacteria were plated on an agar plate containing the antibiotic, the bacteria that grew contained not only the Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

Eli Lilly and Company News of this miracle drug spread like wildfire, and diabetics rushed to be treated, clinging to hopes of relief. Insulin continued to become purified, and long lasting types were created to reduce the number of daily injections. Biosynthetic Insulin, introduced in 1983, eliminates the need for animal pancreases (Yuwiler 69-70). Synthesized insulin eliminates potential allergic reactions. Most insulins today are chemically identical to natural human insulin (Davidson). Though insulin is the most common option, new treatments include drugs that stimulate beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin, decrease glucose production in the liver, or make muscles more responsive to insulin (Davidson). However, none of these advancements would be possible without insulin. Continue reading >>

Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)

Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)

Image: Africa Studio via Shutterstock.com The American Juvenile Diabetes Association estimates that about 3 million Americans suffer from type 1 diabetes. So perhaps, you, like me, know somebody who needs insulin in order to survive. Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. I first learned about diabetes in grade school when a friend was diagnosed. His pancreas stopped producing the insulin his body needed, and he began drinking lots of water and feeling very sick. I went to the hospital with his family and learned how to give insulin injections and understand blood sugar measurements. One thing I didn’t learn at the time is the amazing biotechnology story behind the tiny bottles of life-saving insulin that showed up in his refrigerator. Insulin was first produced in the 1920s by scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best. Banting and Best had discovered that insulin was the hormone that diabetics lacked, and they figured out a way to harvest insulin from animal pancreases. In what is commonly described as one of medicine’s “most dramatic moments,” scientists went into a diabetic children’s ward, injecting the comatose and dying children with this insulin. By the time they reached the far end of the ward, children on the near end were already waking up. The refining process for insulin was perfected, and up until the 1980s, people around the world relied on insulin from pigs and cows to lift the death sentence of diabetes. But porcine and bovine insulin, although similar to the human variety, were not exactly the same. Although most people have no problem using insulin from these animals, some reacted poorly to it. The chemical structure of human insulin Continue reading >>

First Successful Laboratory Production Of Human Insulin Announced

First Successful Laboratory Production Of Human Insulin Announced

South San Francisco, Calif. -- September 6, 1978 -- Genentech, Inc. and City of Hope National Medical Center, a private research institution and hospital in Duarte, California today announced the successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology. Insulin is a protein hormone produced in the pancreas and used in the metabolism of sugar and other carbohydrates. The synthesis of human insulin was done using a process similar to the fermentation process used to make antibiotics. The achievement may be the most significant advance in the treatment of diabetes since the development of animal insulin for human use in the 1920's. The insulin synthesis is the first laboratory production DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is the technique of combining the genes of different organisms to form a hybrid molecule. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the substances genes are composed of, contains the chemical record in which genetic information is encoded. Scientists at Genentech and City of Hope inserted synthetic genes carrying the genetic code for human insulin, along with the necessary control mechanism, into an E. coli bacterial strain which is a laboratory derivative of a common bacteria found in the human intestine. Once inside the bacteria, the genes were "switched-on" by the bacteria to translate the code into either "A" or "B" protein chains found in insulin. The separate chains were then joined to construct complete insulin molecules. The development of genetically engineered human insulin was funded by Genentech. However, the work was a cooperative effort between Genentech and City of Hope. The synthesis of human insulin gene was accomplished by four scientists at City of Hope Medical Center led by Roberto Crea, Ph.D., and Keichi Itakura, Ph.D. Scien Continue reading >>

Insulin Can Now Be Made Cheaply From Flowers

Insulin Can Now Be Made Cheaply From Flowers

In 1922, Canadian scientists isolated insulin for the first time. Now, over 80 years later, our neighbors to the north are helping diabetics again by devising the cheapest way yet to produce insulin. This advance could significantly reduce the expense of treating the disease, which currently costs the US $132 billion dollars a year. To create the cheap "prairie insulin," scientists at the University of Calgary genetically engineered the human gene for insulin into the common plant safflower. Once the gene activates, the flower begins producing insulin faster than traditional methods that utilize pigs, cows, yeast, or bacteria. Play Video Play Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% Remaining Time -0:00 This is a modal window. Foreground --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Opaque Background --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Window --- White Black Red Green Blue Yellow Magenta Cyan --- Opaque Semi-Transparent Transparent Font Size 50% 75% 100% 125% 150% 175% 200% 300% 400% Text Edge Style None Raised Depressed Uniform Dropshadow Font Family Default Monospace Serif Proportional Serif Monospace Sans-Serif Proportional Sans-Serif Casual Script Small Caps Defaults Done This is the first instance of a plant producing the insulin, and it does so prolifically, to the tune of 2.2 pounds of insulin per acre of flowers. At that rate, 25 square miles of safflower could produce enough insulin for the world's entire diabetic population. Continue reading >>

Why Is Insulin So Expensive In The U.s.?

Why Is Insulin So Expensive In The U.s.?

Dr. Jeremy Greene sees a lot of patients with diabetes that's out of control. In fact, he says, sometimes their blood sugar is "so high that you can't even record the number on their glucometer." Greene, a professor of medicine and history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, started asking patients at his clinic in Baltimore why they had so much trouble keeping their blood sugar stable. He was shocked by their answer: the high cost of insulin. Greene decided to call some local pharmacies, to ask about low-cost options. He was told no such options existed. "Only then did I realize there is no such thing as generic insulin in the United States in the year 2015," he says. Greene wondered why that was the case. Why was a medicine more than 90 years old so expensive? He started looking into the history of insulin, and has published a paper about his findings in this week's issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. The story of insulin, it turns out, starts back in the late 1800s. That's when scientists discovered a link between diabetes and damaged cells in the pancreas — cells that produce insulin. In the early 1920s, researchers in Toronto extracted insulin from cattle pancreases and gave it to people who had diabetes, as part of a clinical trial. The first patient was a 14-year-old boy, who made a dramatic recovery. Most others recovered as well. Soon, insulin from pigs and cattle was being produced and sold on a massive scale around the world. But for some, the early forms of the medicine weren't ideal. Many people required multiple injections every day, and some developed minor allergic reactions. Over the next few decades, scientists figured out how to produce higher-quality insulin, Greene says. They made the drug purer, so recipients had fewer bad reaction Continue reading >>

The History Of Insulin

The History Of Insulin

Since insulin was discovered in 1921, it has become one of the most thoroughly studied molecules in scientific history. Diabetes has been recognized as a distinct medical condition for at least 3,500 years, but its cause was a mystery until early this century. In the early 1920s, researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to "control" diabetes was through a diet low in carbohydrate and sugar, and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live - but only for about a year. Exactly what was wrong, or missing, in the sugar metabolism pathway of people with diabetes was unknown until a group of Canadian researchers purified insulin in 1921 and proved that diabetes is a disease of insulin deficiency. As with most major scientific discoveries, the groundwork for the discovery of insulin, had been laid by several others before the Canadian researchers isolated it. In 1889, two European researchers, Minkowski and von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, they developed all the symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterwards. Minkowski and von Mering proposed that the pancreas was crucial for sugar metabolism. Later experimenters narrowed the search to the Islets of Langerhans-clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas. In 1910, Sharpey-Shafer of Edinburgh suggested a single chemical was missing from the pancreas in diabetic people. He proposed calling this chemical "insulin," and later the successful Canadian researchers took him up on the suggestion. Meanwhile, an American scientist E. L. Scott was partially successful in extracting ins Continue reading >>

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin The nature and purpose of synthesising human insulin. Since Banting and Best discovered the hormone, insulin in 1921.(1) diabetic patients, whose elevated sugar levels (see fig. 1) are due to impaired insulin production, have been treated with insulin derived from the pancreas glands of abattoir animals. The hormone, produced and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas' islets of Langerhans,(2) regulates the use and storage of food, particularly carbohydrates. Fig. 1 Fluctuations in diabetic person's blood glucose levels, compared with healthy individuals. Source: Hillson,R. - Diabetes: A beyond basics guide, pg.16. Although bovine and porcine insulin are similar to human insulin, their composition is slightly different. Consequently, a number of patients' immune systems produce antibodies against it, neutralising its actions and resulting in inflammatory responses at injection sites. Added to these adverse effects of bovine and porcine insulin, were fears of long term complications ensuing from the regular injection of a foreign substance,(3) as well as a projected decline in the production of animal derived insulin.(4) These factors led researchers to consider synthesising Humulin by inserting the insulin gene into a suitable vector, the E. coli bacterial cell, to produce an insulin that is chemically identical to its naturally produced counterpart. This has been achieved using Recombinant DNA technology. This method (see fig. 2) is a more reliable and sustainable(5) method than extracting and purifying the abattoir by-product. Fig. 2 An overview of the recombination process. Source: Novo - Nordisk promotional brochure,pg 6. Understanding the genetics involved. The structure of insulin. Chemically, insuli Continue reading >>

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering involves the extraction of a gene from one living organism and inserting it into another organism, so that the receiving organism can express the product of the gene. A basic technique used is the genetic engineering of bacteria. It can be broken into the following key stages: Selection of characteristics. Identifying the gene from amongst all the others in the DNA of the donor organism. Isolation of the gene. Obtaining a copy of the required gene from the DNA of the donor organism and placing it in a vector. (A vector in biology refers to an organism that acts as a vehicle to transfer genetic material from a donor organism to a target cell in a recipient organism.) Insertion Use the vector to introduce the gene into the host cell. Replication Allow the host cell to multiply to make multiple clones of the genes. Example of Genetically Engineered Bacteria – Production of Human Insulin An example of genetically engineered bacteria is in the production of human insulin. Insulin is a protein hormone produced in the pancreas which has an important function in the regulation of blood sugar levels. Insulin facilitates the transport of glucose into cells. A deficiency in insulin is one of the causes of the disease diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes in which the sugar levels in the blood become raised resulting in harmful consequences. At least 3% of the world’s population is affected by diabetes mellitus and sufferers of the disease require insulin injections to manage the disease. Pure Mouse Isotype Controls - IgG subclasses, IgA, IgM, IgE. Ad ICL - A trusted producer of high quality antibodies since 1977. icllab.com Learn more Before genetic engineering, insulin used for treatment was sourced from the pancreas of slaughtered pigs and cattle. This sour Continue reading >>

The Pros & Cons Of The Use Of Gmo Insulin

The Pros & Cons Of The Use Of Gmo Insulin

GMO insulin is also known as synthetic insulin, or human insulin. It is produced with genetically modified bacteria, instead of the traditional method that produces what is known as pork insulin. In this method, sometimes called natural insulin, the pancreas of a cow or pig is used to produce insulin. Video of the Day What Is GMO Insulin? Until the early 1980s, pharmaceutical insulin was extracted from the pancreas of cows or pigs, according to the International Diabetes Federation. Since that time, the process of attaching the human gene for insulin production to the DNA of the bacteria E. coli has been developed. Insulin produced from this newer method is known as GMO insulin, and genetically modified bacteria have become the most common source of pharmaceutical insulin. In addition to bacteria, baker’s yeast is also a common template onto which the human insulin-producing gene can be attached. Benefits of GMO Insulin Because bacteria and yeasts reproduce more rapidly and with fewer resources than complex mammals, they can be grown at a lower cost than sources of pork or beef insulin. Their faster rate also negates the wait associated with the maturation of animal sources, and the space needed to support these specialized bacteria colonies is significantly smaller than that needed to raise livestock. The International Diabetes Federation considers the supply of insulin produced from bacteria to be unlimited, since it does not depend on the quantity and availability of bovine or porcine pancreases. The insulin produced this way is also identical to insulin produced naturally by the human pancreas. The Disadvantages of GMO Insulin The Society for Diabetic Rights states that a significant number of diabetics have experienced bad reactions to GMO insulin, and that some Continue reading >>

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