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How Much Insulin Does A Cat Need

Giving Your Client's Cat Insulin For Treating Feline Diabetes

Giving Your Client's Cat Insulin For Treating Feline Diabetes

...managing and tracking the cat's progress Giving your client's cat insulin to treat feline diabetes can begin to get difficult as most of the work begins after leaving the practice... Using Insulin to treat diabetes in felines Once you have to give them insulin, if you have an owner who is not terribly confident that they are going to be able to pick up a hypoglycaemic event, then I will use Caninsulin (a mix of porcine insulin’s 40iu/ml) because it is shorter acting and does not build up over the 18 – 24 hour period like the Glargine does (and which often results result in a hypoglycaemic event, that can last for hours). Nevertheless, Marshall and Rand think it is a risk worth taking. The cats usually only end up needing 1 – 4 units of either kind of insulin twice a day – the Glargine especially seems to keep them stable at 2 units twice a day. Once you push up into the 3 or 4 units, you can bring them into remission, but it is often via a sudden hypoglycaemic event, which is unpleasant all round. And is, I guess, the reason that the Glargine insulin protocol recommends treating them in hospital. After giving the cat insulin, the process to stabilise Fluffy at home, usually starts at 1 or 2 units of either kind of insulin twice a day. You need to get the owners to bring the cat in after a couple of days to measure its blood glucose 3 hours after their insulin dose and breakfast. It does not matter about meal-feeding cats, as they do not get the post-prandial glucose spike (ref: The Cat as Model for Human Obesity and Diabetes; Hoenig) – because they are digesting protein and balancing out the glucose release after it has been deconstructed from protein in the liver. It is more natural for a cat to graze-feed anyway, so if that is what the cat wants to do, th Continue reading >>

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

W - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat - If You Would Like To See How Diabetes Effects My Body, Click Here. Controlling diabetes in your cat is considerably harder than doing so in us humans. Keeping your cat at a healthy weight is essential . Read a 2014 article about how really difficult it can be here. Never allow a glucose meter to be used on more than one pet . The meters are hard to disinfect(ref) Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Some Information About Your Cat’s Pancreas Your cat’s pancreas is a small, pinkish organ that is nestled in the folds of its small intestine. You can see it if you enlarge the fanciful image I put at the top of this page. Although it is quite small, the pancreas has two very important functions. One is to produce enzymes that allow your cat to digest food. The other is to produce a hormone (insulin) that regulates how your cat’s body utilizes sugar (glucose). Glucose is the main fuel of all animal cells. Most of it is manufactured in the pet’s liver or released from recent carbohydrate meals. The process by which the pancreas regulates your cat’s blood sugar level is actually much more complicated than my explanation and not yet fully understood. But my explanation should do for this article. Should you wish to know more, go here . Many types of cells form the pancreas. The ones that are important in understanding diabetes occur in small islands scattered throughout the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). These particular insulin-secreting cells are called ß (beta) cells. What Is Diabetes? There are several forms of diabetes. But Continue reading >>

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

Renee Rucinsky, DVM, ABVP (Feline) (Chair) | Audrey Cook, BVM&:S, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVIM-SAIM, Diplomate ECVIM-CA | Steve Haley, DVM | Richard Nelson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM | Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM | Melanie Poundstone, DVM, ABVP - Download PDF - Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client. This document provides current recommendations for the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. Treatment of DM is a combination of art and science, due in part to the many factors that affect the diabetic state and the animal's response. Each animal needs individualized, frequent reassessment, and treatment may be modified based on response. In both dogs and cats, DM is caused by loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells. In the dog, beta cell loss tends to be rapid and progressive, and it is usually due to immune-mediated destruction, vacuolar degeneration, or pancreatitis.1 Intact females may be transiently diabetic due to the insulin-resistant effects of the diestrus phase. In the cat, loss or dysfunction of beta cells is the result of insulin resistance, islet amyloidosis, or chronic lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis.2 Risk factors for both dogs and cats include insulin resistance caused by obesity, other diseases (e.g., acromegaly in cats, hyperadrenocorticism in dogs), or medications (e.g., steroids, progestins). Genetics is a suspected risk factor, and certain breeds of dogs (Australian terriers, beagles, Samoyeds, keeshonden3) and cats (Burmese4) are more susceptible. Regardless of the underlying etiology, diabetic dogs and cats are hyperglycemic and glycosuric, which leads to the classic clinical signs of polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), polyphagia, and weight loss. Increased fat mobi Continue reading >>

The Danger Of Giving Diabetic Cats Too Much Insulin

The Danger Of Giving Diabetic Cats Too Much Insulin

If your cat is diagnosed with diabetes, you may soon find you're required to give the cat insulin injections once or twice a day, which can lead to an accidental overdose. Keep reading to learn what to do if your cat has received too much insulin. Insulin overdose can cause your cat to use too much of its body's blood sugar. This is a condition called hypoglycemia, and it can become fatal very quickly. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia Look for signs of disorientation, unusual hiding behavior and crying or yowling. Drooling and a ‘glassy-eyed' look are common. A cat with hypoglycemia might be lethargic. Be alert for other behaviors like walking in circles or poor coordination. Watch for a sudden extreme hunger or a total disinterest in food. Seizures or coma appear in extreme cases, and require immediate emergency treatment. Causes of Hypoglycemia Even when you're giving the dosage prescribed by your vet and following correct procedures, your cat can get too much insulin in its system. A cat's need for insulin can rapidly increase or decrease, requiring a change in dosage regimen. Some cats even go into a sudden remission, where the pancreas begins to secrete enough insulin, meaning the cat no longer needs insulin injections for a time. This is why your vet will arrange regular visits to check for changes in your cat's condition, and increase or lower dosages if necessary. Most of the time, when a cat has too much insulin in its body, it's because of a mistake or mishap related to giving injections. The most common mistake is an accidental double-dose. This usually occurs when two different people in the family each give the cat a regular insulin injection, or an incorrect measurement of a dose. If you give your cat its injection right before feeding time and it doesn't eat, o Continue reading >>

Timing Is Everything | Pet Diabetes Care

Timing Is Everything | Pet Diabetes Care

A friend recently told me that she always comes up with the perfect comeback. Her problem is that she thinks of it 20 minutes too late. Yep, sometimes timing is everything. When it comes to diabetes care of our pets, timing can make the difference between a well regulated diabetic pet and a “mostly” regulated diabetic pet. Routines may not be exciting, but routines make for a well-regulated diabetic pet! After two plus decades practicing veterinary medicine, I sometimes think I have heard it all. Then a client comes along and proves me wrong. Recently one of my own veterinary clients told me he routinely gave his cat the insulin then waited an hour before feeding his pet. I don’t know where this client got this notion as I had told him what I tell all my clients, to feed and give insulin at the same time every 12 hours. Now, whether one waits to see if Fluffy is eating before giving the injection is another story. For folks who have a pet with a hearty appetite that couldn’t imagine missing a meal, they may give the injection as the pet dives into dinner. A feeding frenzy is definitely a distraction to the quick poke of an insulin needle. For folks who have a finicky eater, they might watch to make sure the pet truly eats before giving the injection. Nonetheless, I would feed the pet essentially at the same time as the injection rather than waiting any length of time. The insulin needs something to work with. If food is not given with the insulin the pet could become hypoglycemic. How about the timing of meals? Does it matter if a pet eats in between insulin injections? Yes. Just as giving insulin without food can cause a low blood glucose reading, giving food without insulin will cause an elevated blood glucose test result. If you give a snack in the middle of Continue reading >>

Guide To A Diabetic Cat – What You Need To Know To Effectively Care For Your Cat

Guide To A Diabetic Cat – What You Need To Know To Effectively Care For Your Cat

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known by the shortened name “diabetes”, sugar diabetes or "sugar", is one of the most frequent and important medical disorders of both humans and cats. As a pet owner with a newly diagnosed cat with diabetes, it is difficult to know what you need to do. We created this article to help you know step by step what you need to know and what you need to do. The 6 keys to treatment of diabetes in cats include: Change your cat's diet If your cat is overweight – help your cat lose weight! (this is critical) Give insulin every 12 hours Monitor for response to treatment Maintain a consistent diet, exercise and insulin treatment plan Monitor for complications of the disease We will help you understand more about diabetes, how and when to give insulin how to deal with complications. We also included answers to the most common questions diabetic cat owners have as they start their journey as a diabetic cat owner. What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that leads to chronic elevation of the blood glucose or sugar. Blood sugar is maintained by a group of hormones, the most important of which is insulin, which is manufactured by the pancreas, a small organ near the intestines. Insulin lowers the blood sugar after a meal, and deficiency of insulin, or an insensitivity of body cells to available insulin, leads to diabetes. With good care, your cat can have a very good life with diabetes. We will help tell you how. What Cats Get Diabetes? Diabetes mellitus usually affects middle-aged to older cats of either sex. The peak age seen in cats is 11 years. Juvenile-onset diabetes may occur in cats less than 1 year of age but is uncommon. Any breed can be affected but some breeds are at higher risk. Breeds at increased risk for diabetes mellitus include Burmese Continue reading >>

Guidelines To Bg Interpretation

Guidelines To Bg Interpretation

Due to the individual responses each pet has to insulin, differences in regulation levels being sought, and management style, it is important to review these guidelines with your vet and write down exactly what he/she wants you to do. Blood Glucose Goals for Diabetics Non-Diabetic Normal BG Cats Between 100 mg/dL and 300 mg/dL approximately 65-135 mg/dL Dogs without cataracts Between 100 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL approximately 70-150 mg/dL Dogs already blind from cataracts Between 100 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL approximately 70-150 mg/dL Timing is important: Always interpret your BG level in terms of where it occurs in the insulin and food cycle. You will need to have the results of at least one curve on the present insulin to know how your pet responds throughout the insulin and food cycle, and approximately when peak occurs. Until you know your pet's usual response at a given point in the cycle, you don't know if their BGs are expected to drop farther or if they are probably on the way up. The seriousness and degree of intervention needed can be very different for the same BG reading, based on whether BGs are usually falling or rising at the time of the BG test. Until you have enough experience with testing to be confident that your technique is consistent, your readings may vary due to procedural inconsistencies, rather than real changes in blood glucose levels. It is generally safer for your pet to have a somewhat higher BG than to run the risk of Hypoglycemia, though dogs risk developing cataracts and blindness at high BG levels (cats eyes are not affected this way). A single insulin dose may be reduced substantially or skipped entirely with minor repercussions (higher BG levels at next pre-shot). If ketones are present, especially if Ketoacidosis has developed, some insulin (a Continue reading >>

Insulin 101

Insulin 101

1. KNOW THE TYPE OF INSULIN & HAVE THE RIGHT SYRINGE First of all, you need to know what type of insulin your cat is receiving. Lantus (glargine) and Levemir (detemir) are increasingly common insulins prescribed by veterinarians with current knowledge of feline diabetes. Some vets will still try to prescribe Humulin N. Do NOT use this type of insulin as it has unpredicatable results in cats. PZI is still used some although it is being phased out. Vetsulin is not the best choice for your cat. You need to be aware of the type of insulin you are using and you need to know its concentration, listed in units (U). The concentration, in the United States, is most often U-40 but some insulins are manufactured in U-100 concentration. To give the proper dose, the syringes you use must match the concentration of the insulin. To be sure you get the right syringe, take your insulin (or the insulin box) into your pharmacist when you go to buy syringes and the pharmacist will make sure you get the right syringes. When you buy the next batch of syringes, take the syringe packaging with you to make sure you buy the right type. If for some reason you must use a U-40 syringe for a U-100 insulin, or vice versa, use our conversion chart. 2. FOOD Always make sure your cat eats around the time (up to one hour before injection) of the insulin administration. This will insure that the cat has food in her stomach (and rising blood glucose levels as a result) to counteract the action of the insulin. Also, it is often easier to give the injection while your cat is eating. If your cat is having trouble with vomiting, be very careful and watch for possible hypoglycemic episodes. If your cat is not eating, consider skipping the insulin. Remember, if your cat does not eat for 24 hours, you should take Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

There are two forms of diabetes in cats: diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a very rare disorder that results in failure to regulate body water content. Your cat has the more common type of diabetes, diabetes mellitus. This disease is seen on a fairly regular basis, usually in cats 5 years of age or older. Simply put, diabetes mellitus is a failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The pancreas is a small but vital organ that is located near the stomach. It has two significant populations of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone called insulin. Types of Diabetes In cats, two types of diabetes mellitus have been discovered. Both types are similar in that there is a failure to regulate blood sugar, but the basic mechanisms of disease differ somewhat between the two groups. 1. Type I, or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta cells. This is the most common type of feline diabetes. As the name implies, cats with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar. 2. Type II, or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, is different because some insulin-producing cells remain. However, the amount produced is insufficient, there is a delayed response in secreting it, and the tissues of the cat's body are relatively resistant to it. These cats may be treated with an oral drug that stimulates the remaining functional cells to produce or release insulin in an adequate amount to normalize blood sugar. Alternatively, they may be treated with insulin. Cats with NIDDM may ultimately progress to total beta cell destruction and then require insulin injections. What Insulin d Continue reading >>

Cat Insulin

Cat Insulin

Cat insulin is a frustrating topic. Cat diabetes has practically become an epidemic in the U.S. for many of the same reasons adult onset diabetes in people has risen dramatically - obesity and, in the case of cats, a diet that is too rich in carbohydrates. However, unlike human diabetes who have many different types of insulin to chose from, the selection of insulin for cats has a history of being mainly unsatisfactory. That's because most insulin is made for people and when insulin is made specifically for animals, it has traditionally been directed at dogs. When it comes to insulin, a cat's own natural insulin is most like beef insulin. Cats have also been successfully treated using beef-pork insulin because it is 10 percent pork and 90 percent beef. Unfortunately, I have seen such types of insulin that are most appropriate for cats come and go over the last 20 years. Just as a patient would get well-regulated on one type of insulin, it would be discontinued and we would have to start a different type. It has been a frustrating situation. That's not to say that you cannot treat your diabetic cat successfully with insulin. Currently, due to a lack of animal-source insulins, most cats are started on human recombinant insulin. Even in the field of human insulin where there have been dozens of different insulins available, so many have been discontinued - it's enough to make your head spin. At the moment, there is an insulin developed just for cats. It's called PROZINC. Will it still be around a year from now? Who knows. Is it the best insulin? No. Does it work well in all cats? No. For that reason, your veterinarian will discuss with you the available types of insulin if your cat is diagnosed with diabetes and he will, no doubt, have his own preference. ProZinc stands fo Continue reading >>

Calculation Of Initial Insulin Dosage For Diabetic Cats

Calculation Of Initial Insulin Dosage For Diabetic Cats

The dose of Caninsulin and the interval between injections has to be tailored to suit each individual diabetic cat. Hypoglycemia As hypoglycemia is a major concern and to be avoided at all costs The animal's body weight should be rounded down to the nearest whole kilogram The calculated dose of insulin rounded down to the nearest whole unit This helps to avoid overdosing particularly during initial stabilization. Insulin dosage for diabetic cats Starting dose: 0.25-0.5 IU/kg body weight twice daily. Pre-treatment blood glucose concentration is used as guidance for the calculation of initial insulin dose in cats. See table below: Baseline blood glucose concentration (mmol/L) Baseline blood glucose concentration (mg/dL) Initial Caninsulin dose (rounded down to the nearest whole unit) <20 mmol/L <360 mg/dL 0.25 U/kg body weight 1 unit >20 mmol/L >360 mg/dL 0.5 U/kg body weight* 2 units Remember to round the cat’s bodyweight down to the nearest whole kilogram and the calculated dose down to the nearest whole or half unit. *The maximal dose should ideally not exceed 2 IU per injection in the first 2-3 weeks of treatment. Avoid unduly high starting doses in cats, especially in overweight cats, where the ideal bodyweight should be used. Subsequent dose adjustments should be in increments of 1IU per injection. For more information see dose adjustment. Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Drug Name: Insulin Common Name: Vetsulin®, Humulin®, PZI Vet®, Novolin®, Iletin®, Velosulin® Drug Type: Synthetic hormone Used For: Diabetes mellitus Species: Dogs, Cats Administered: 40units/ml, 100units/ml, and 500units/ml Injectable How Dispensed: Prescription only FDA Approved: Yes General Description Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps convert your pet’s food into energy by allowing the uptake of sugar by cells. By allowing this uptake and use of sugar, insulin decreases the blood glucose concentrations in the body. When you pet does not produce insulin, sugar can’t enter cells, your pet’s body cannot create fat, sugar, or protein. This also results in a dangerously high blood glucose level. How It Works Insulin replaces the insulin that your pet’s body does not produce. The type of insulin you give to your pet is a synthetic hormone derived from pigs or cows. Storage Information Some forms of insulin need to be refrigerated, pay close attention to the manufacturer’s label. DO NOT FREEZE. Protect from heat and sunlight. Do not use if past the expiration date. Insulin must be given to your pet by an injection 1 to 2 times a day. Because it is a protein, the acids in the stomach would digest it if you were to administer it orally. The proper dose of insulin is determined by your veterinarian through a series of glucose level tests. It is best to give this drug to a pet with a full stomach. It is best to give insulin right after a meal. DO NOT SHAKE THE BOTTLE OF INSULIN Proper handling of insulin: Be sure you have the appropriate size syringe for the concentration of insulin you are using. Variations include: U-40, U-100, and U-500 syringes which go to their c Continue reading >>

Your Pet Has Just Been Diagnosed With Diabetes Mellitus!

Your Pet Has Just Been Diagnosed With Diabetes Mellitus!

This page is going to explain about the insulin your veterinarian has chosen and information that you need to immediately know! . This basic information sheet was created by Bonnie for the members of our email list. It has been added to the website to help those that do not belong to a pet diabetes email list but are searching for information. INSULINS NPH (Brand Names: Humulin N, Novolin, Reli-on or Protaphane) Starting Dosage: *Usually calculated at ¼ unit per pound and given twice a day *Larger dogs need closer to ½ unit per pound Example: 40 lb dog = 10 units given 2 times a day (12 hrs apart & after feeding) Storage: * Unopened vials should be kept in the refrigerator (always look at expiration date) * Opened vials maybe kept at room temperature out of sunlight (effectiveness varies but normally replace with fresh vial after 28 days) Syringes Recommended: *Ultra thin 31 gauge 1/2 cc 5/16” short needle *Can be purchased on-line without a prescription at VETSULIN In July of 2008 Vetsulin changed their recommended starting doses. It has been cut by half and the supplement dose has been eliminated. The following is the new recommended dosing. Starting dosage for dogs: *Vetsulin dosage varies based on the weight range of the pet and whether the pet receives one or two shots per day. Dog INITIAL RECOMMENDED VETSULIN DOSE IS 0.5 UNIT INSULIN PER KG OF BODY WEIGHT, There are 2.2 pounds per kg so this means one half unit of insulin for every 2.2 pounds of body weight. Divide your dog's weight in pounds by 2.2 to determine his weight in kg. example: Queenie weighed 22 lbs. or 10 kg (22 lbs. divided by 2.2 is 10 kg.) so her recommended starting dose would be 5 units Avoiding hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a major concern. To help avoid it: The dog's body weight should be ro Continue reading >>

Dosing Overview

Dosing Overview

Go to site For Pet Owners For cats, the initial recommended dose of Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) is 1 to 2 IU per injection. Cats should be started on twice-daily injections of Vetsulin at 12-hour intervals. Note that in cats, Vetsulin dosing is calculated on a per animal basis; in contrast, initial dosing for dogs is based on body weight. Vetsulin 10 mL vials and 2.7 mL cartridges should be shaken thoroughly until a homogeneous, uniformly milky suspension is obtained. Foam on the surface of the suspension formed during shaking should be allowed to disperse before the product is used and, if required, the product should be gently mixed to maintain a homogeneous, uniformly milky suspension before use. Clumps or white particles can form in insulin suspensions: do not use an insulin vial or cartridge if visible clumps or white particles persist after mixing thoroughly. Taking the proper steps to prepare VetPen is critically important and must be done before each injection. It is essential to ensure that the VetPen is ready to use, that a new needle is being used, the insulin is mixed properly, and VetPen and the needle are working properly. See VetPen Instructions for Use leaflet or administration video for information on preparing VetPen. Using a U-40 insulin syringe or VetPen, administer the injection subcutaneously, 3/4 to 2 in (2-5 cm) from the dorsal midline, varying from behind the scapulae to the mid-lumbar region and alternating sides. To help your clients prepare and administer Vetsulin to their cats, there are resources available that guide them step-by-step through the process: In cats, initially administer twice-daily doses 12 hours apart concurrently with or right after meals fed twice daily. (No change in feeding schedule is required for cats Continue reading >>

Address: 2300 S. 48th St. Suite 3

Address: 2300 S. 48th St. Suite 3

Diabetes We have just diagnosed your cat with diabetes. We see a lot of cats with diabetes, and with proper care and treatment, most of them do very well and have decent quality life spans. Cause and Types: ·Every time your cat eats, they ingest glucose in various amounts. To be able to metabolize this glucose, their pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the cells to be able metabolize the glucose. ·Diabetes happens when they either are not producing enough insulin, or when their cells are insulin resistant, and require higher levels of insulin to be able to metabolize the glucose. ·When glucose cannot be adequately metabolized, it starts to build up in the blood stream, resulting in various problems. This is diabetes, also known as hyperglycemia. ·There are two types of diabetes, type I and type II. oType I diabetes is caused by failure of your cat's pancreas to produce enough insulin for the body's needs. There are several factors that can affect this. §Acute or chronic pancreatitis can damage the pancreas enough so that the pancreas can no longer secrete an adequate amount of insulin. §This can also be congenital, although congenital type I diabetes is fairly rare in cats. §Idiopathic is our third cause. Idiopathic is a medical term that means we have absolutely no idea what caused it. oType II diabetes is when the cells of the body become insulin resistant, and require higher and higher levels of insulin to be able to function. §This is most commonly caused by increased levels of fat. Fat cells produce hormones that can cause insulin resistance, and the more fat cells present, the higher likelihood that insulin resistance requiring treatment will occur. ·Regardless of the type and cause, in cats they are both treated the same way. For pe Continue reading >>

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