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How Much Insulin Does A Cat Need

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition resulting in an excessive amount of glucose or sugar in the blood. It is literally starvation in the face of plenty, because the body cannot utilize the glucose in the blood stream. Glucose must attach to insulin, which then carries it into the cells to be used for energy. A deficiency in insulin, which is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, leads to too much glucose in the blood and not enough glucose inside the cells where it is needed. Diabetes mellitus affects an estimated one in four hundred cats, and is seen more frequently in middle to old-age cats and is more common in males than females. What are the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus? The clinical signs seen in diabetes are largely related to the elevated concentrations of blood glucose and to the inability of the body to use that glucose as an energy source due to the deficiency of insulin. The most common clinical signs seen in diabetic patients are an increase in water consumption and an increase in urination. Weight loss is also a common feature, and an increase in appetite may be noticed in some cats. Recognition of these signs is variable though, particularly because of the life-style of some cats. If a cat spends a lot of time outdoors, it may drink from ponds or pools of water outside rather than appearing to drink excessively from what is provided indoors. Cats that are fed canned or moist diets receive much of their water intake from their diet and increased water intake will be less easily recognized in these patients. How is diabetes mellitus diagnosed? The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is made based on clinical signs, persistently elevated blood glucose concentration and the presence of glucose in the urine. However, a diagnosis Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Insulin injections are the preferred method of managing diabetes in cats. Figure 1: To administer an injection, pull the loose skin between the shoulder blades with one hand. With the other hand, insert the needle directly into the indentation made by holding up the skin, draw back on the plunger slightly, and if no blood appears in the syringe, inject gently. Tips for Treatment 1. You can do it! Treating your cat may sound difficult, but for most owners it soon becomes routine. 2. Work very closely with your veterinarian to get the best results for your cat. 3. Once your cat has been diagnosed, it's best to start insulin therapy as soon as possible. 4. Home glucose monitoring can be very helpful. 5. Tracking your cat's water intake, activity level, appetite, and weight can be beneficial. 6. A low carbohydrate diet helps diabetic cats maintain proper glucose levels. 7. With careful treatment, your cat's diabetes may well go into remission. 8. If your cat shows signs of hypoglycemia (lethargy, weakness, tremors, seizures, vomiting) apply honey, a glucose solution, or dextrose gel to the gums and immediately contact a veterinarian. Possible Complications Insulin therapy lowers blood glucose, possibly to dangerously low levels. Signs of hypoglycemia include weakness, lethargy, vomiting, lack of coordination, seizures, and coma. Hypoglycemia can be fatal if left untreated, so any diabetic cat that shows any of these signs should be offered its regular food immediately. If the cat does not eat voluntarily, it should be given oral glucose in the form of honey, corn syrup, or proprietary dextrose gels (available at most pharmacies) and brought to a veterinarian immediately. It is important, however, that owners not attempt to force fingers, food, or fluids into the mouth of a Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

What Is Diabetes Mellitus? There are two forms of diabetes in cats: diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a very rare disorder that results in failure to regulate body water content. The more common type of diabetes is diabetes mellitus. This disease is seen by the doctors at the Animal Clinic at Thorndale on a fairly regular basis, usually in cats 5 years of age or older. We have even diagnosed this disease in a 2 year old, rather obese cat. While having a “chubby buddy” may seem cute, the overweight cat is at risk for many health problems, just as is the overweight human. That said, not all diabetic cats are obese. There is also an increased incidence in older cats. Diabetes mellitus can be difficult to regulate in our pets. Understanding the disease will help you learn how to help your cat. Simply put, diabetes mellitus a failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar.The pancreas is a small but vital organ that is located near the stomach. It has two significant populations of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone called insulin. Types of Diabetes in Cats In cats, two types of diabetes mellitus have been discovered. Both types are similar in that there is a failure to regulate blood sugar, but the basic mechanisms of disease differ somewhat between the two groups. Type I, or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta cells. This is the most common type of feline diabetes. As the name implies, cats with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar. Type II, or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, is different because some insulin-producing cells remain. H Continue reading >>

Insulin 101

Insulin 101

1. KNOW THE TYPE OF INSULIN & HAVE THE RIGHT SYRINGE First of all, you need to know what type of insulin your cat is receiving. Lantus (glargine) and Levemir (detemir) are increasingly common insulins prescribed by veterinarians with current knowledge of feline diabetes. Some vets will still try to prescribe Humulin N. Do NOT use this type of insulin as it has unpredicatable results in cats. PZI is still used some although it is being phased out. Vetsulin is not the best choice for your cat. You need to be aware of the type of insulin you are using and you need to know its concentration, listed in units (U). The concentration, in the United States, is most often U-40 but some insulins are manufactured in U-100 concentration. To give the proper dose, the syringes you use must match the concentration of the insulin. To be sure you get the right syringe, take your insulin (or the insulin box) into your pharmacist when you go to buy syringes and the pharmacist will make sure you get the right syringes. When you buy the next batch of syringes, take the syringe packaging with you to make sure you buy the right type. If for some reason you must use a U-40 syringe for a U-100 insulin, or vice versa, use our conversion chart. 2. FOOD Always make sure your cat eats around the time (up to one hour before injection) of the insulin administration. This will insure that the cat has food in her stomach (and rising blood glucose levels as a result) to counteract the action of the insulin. Also, it is often easier to give the injection while your cat is eating. If your cat is having trouble with vomiting, be very careful and watch for possible hypoglycemic episodes. If your cat is not eating, consider skipping the insulin. Remember, if your cat does not eat for 24 hours, you should take Continue reading >>

Guidelines To Bg Interpretation

Guidelines To Bg Interpretation

Due to the individual responses each pet has to insulin, differences in regulation levels being sought, and management style, it is important to review these guidelines with your vet and write down exactly what he/she wants you to do. Blood Glucose Goals for Diabetics Non-Diabetic Normal BG Cats Between 100 mg/dL and 300 mg/dL approximately 65-135 mg/dL Dogs without cataracts Between 100 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL approximately 70-150 mg/dL Dogs already blind from cataracts Between 100 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL approximately 70-150 mg/dL Timing is important: Always interpret your BG level in terms of where it occurs in the insulin and food cycle. You will need to have the results of at least one curve on the present insulin to know how your pet responds throughout the insulin and food cycle, and approximately when peak occurs. Until you know your pet's usual response at a given point in the cycle, you don't know if their BGs are expected to drop farther or if they are probably on the way up. The seriousness and degree of intervention needed can be very different for the same BG reading, based on whether BGs are usually falling or rising at the time of the BG test. Until you have enough experience with testing to be confident that your technique is consistent, your readings may vary due to procedural inconsistencies, rather than real changes in blood glucose levels. It is generally safer for your pet to have a somewhat higher BG than to run the risk of Hypoglycemia, though dogs risk developing cataracts and blindness at high BG levels (cats eyes are not affected this way). A single insulin dose may be reduced substantially or skipped entirely with minor repercussions (higher BG levels at next pre-shot). If ketones are present, especially if Ketoacidosis has developed, some insulin (a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats - Overview

By Ernest Ward, DVM & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Emergency Situations, Medical Conditions What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two different types of cells that have very different functions. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin, which regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in cats? The four main symptoms of diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Because of the nature of cats, these signs may go unnoticed, especially in the early stages of disease or if a cat spends a lot of time outdoors. Cats that are fed canned or semi-moist diets receive much of their water intake from their food, and increased water intake will be harder to recognize. Are there different types of diabetes mellitus in cats? Diabetes mellitus is usually classified into 2 types of disease: Type I diabetes mellitus results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta cells. This appears to be a rare type of diabetes in the cat. Type II diabetes mellitus is different because some insulin-producing cells remain, but the amount of insulin produced is insufficient, there is a delayed response in secreting it, or the tissues of the cat's body are re Continue reading >>

3 Steps To Administering Insulin For Cats

3 Steps To Administering Insulin For Cats

Practice makes perfect when it comes to getting comfortable giving your cat their daily insulin shot. Once you know the steps, you'll be a pro in no time. Learn how simple it is here. Feline diabetes is a commonly diagnosed disease in older cats, and so many pet parents will have to learn how to give insulin for cats. Type I diabetes, in which your cat’s body is not producing an adequate amount of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, needs to be treated with insulin injections. Here we’ll help you master the basic steps to giving your cat an insulin shot. With a little practice it will become second nature to you—and to your cat. Your veterinarian will be able to recommend an insulin brand and dosing regimen for your cat. You’ll want to administer the doses at regular intervals and also consult with your vet on an overall wellness strategy, including feeding times and types of food. Step 1. Properly store the insulin Insulin is a fragile hormone. Exposing it to direct sunlight or high temperatures can render it ineffective. Keep your unused bottles in the refrigerator, and avoid temperature fluctuations by storing it on the fridge door. If the insulin bottle looks frosted, discolored, or might have been exposed to heat, start with a new vial. Expired insulin should be discarded. It’s better to be safe and use a new dose if you have doubts. TIP: Bringing the insulin to room temperature before use will not harm the hormone and can feel more comfortable for your cat at the injection site. Step 2. Prepare the insulin injection Gently roll the vial between your hands to mix the hormone evenly. Be careful NOT to shake the insulin. Remove the needle safety cap and mark the correct dose on the needle by pulling back the plunger. With the vial upside down, insert th Continue reading >>

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

Renee Rucinsky, DVM, ABVP (Feline) (Chair) | Audrey Cook, BVM&:S, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVIM-SAIM, Diplomate ECVIM-CA | Steve Haley, DVM | Richard Nelson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM | Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM | Melanie Poundstone, DVM, ABVP - Download PDF - Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client. This document provides current recommendations for the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. Treatment of DM is a combination of art and science, due in part to the many factors that affect the diabetic state and the animal's response. Each animal needs individualized, frequent reassessment, and treatment may be modified based on response. In both dogs and cats, DM is caused by loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells. In the dog, beta cell loss tends to be rapid and progressive, and it is usually due to immune-mediated destruction, vacuolar degeneration, or pancreatitis.1 Intact females may be transiently diabetic due to the insulin-resistant effects of the diestrus phase. In the cat, loss or dysfunction of beta cells is the result of insulin resistance, islet amyloidosis, or chronic lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis.2 Risk factors for both dogs and cats include insulin resistance caused by obesity, other diseases (e.g., acromegaly in cats, hyperadrenocorticism in dogs), or medications (e.g., steroids, progestins). Genetics is a suspected risk factor, and certain breeds of dogs (Australian terriers, beagles, Samoyeds, keeshonden3) and cats (Burmese4) are more susceptible. Regardless of the underlying etiology, diabetic dogs and cats are hyperglycemic and glycosuric, which leads to the classic clinical signs of polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), polyphagia, and weight loss. Increased fat mobi Continue reading >>

Preventing And Handling Diabetic Emergencies

Preventing And Handling Diabetic Emergencies

Caring for a pet with diabetes can be daunting. Fortunately, the key to successful diabetes management is simple: a consistent, established daily routine. A healthy diet is essential, and feeding your pet the same amount of food at the same time every day will help make blood sugar easiest to control. Your pet will usually also need twice-daily insulin injections, which should be given at the same time every day. (The easiest way to do this is to coordinate shots with mealtimes.) Routine daily exercise and regular at-home monitoring of urine and/or blood sugar round out a plan for good diabetic regulation. Even if you are following a consistent routine, a diabetic pet may occasionally experience an emergency. A number of different things can cause an emergency, but the most common is hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. In this case, it is important that you be prepared in order to avoid a life-threatening situation. Hypoglycemia: Why It Happens Hypoglycemia most often results from accidental overdosage of insulin, but it can also occur if a pet is not eating well, misses a meal or vomits after eating, or if the type and amount of food he is being fed changes. Hypoglycemia may become a problem with very vigorous exercise; for this reason, regular daily controlled exercise is best. Hypoglycemia can also result if the body’s need for insulin changes. This scenario is particularly common in cats who often return to a non-diabetic state once an appropriate diet and insulin therapy start. Vet Tips Avoid “double-dosing” insulin. Only one person in a household should have the responsibility of giving insulin. A daily log should be kept of the time/amount of food and insulin that is given to avoid errors. Proper daily monitoring of blood and/or urine glucose can help identif Continue reading >>

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

W - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat - If You Would Like To See How Diabetes Effects My Body, Click Here. Controlling diabetes in your cat is considerably harder than doing so in us humans. Keeping your cat at a healthy weight is essential . Read a 2014 article about how really difficult it can be here. Never allow a glucose meter to be used on more than one pet . The meters are hard to disinfect(ref) Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Some Information About Your Cat’s Pancreas Your cat’s pancreas is a small, pinkish organ that is nestled in the folds of its small intestine. You can see it if you enlarge the fanciful image I put at the top of this page. Although it is quite small, the pancreas has two very important functions. One is to produce enzymes that allow your cat to digest food. The other is to produce a hormone (insulin) that regulates how your cat’s body utilizes sugar (glucose). Glucose is the main fuel of all animal cells. Most of it is manufactured in the pet’s liver or released from recent carbohydrate meals. The process by which the pancreas regulates your cat’s blood sugar level is actually much more complicated than my explanation and not yet fully understood. But my explanation should do for this article. Should you wish to know more, go here . Many types of cells form the pancreas. The ones that are important in understanding diabetes occur in small islands scattered throughout the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). These particular insulin-secreting cells are called ß (beta) cells. What Is Diabetes? There are several forms of diabetes. But Continue reading >>

The Danger Of Giving Diabetic Cats Too Much Insulin

The Danger Of Giving Diabetic Cats Too Much Insulin

If your cat is diagnosed with diabetes, you may soon find you're required to give the cat insulin injections once or twice a day, which can lead to an accidental overdose. Keep reading to learn what to do if your cat has received too much insulin. Insulin overdose can cause your cat to use too much of its body's blood sugar. This is a condition called hypoglycemia, and it can become fatal very quickly. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia Look for signs of disorientation, unusual hiding behavior and crying or yowling. Drooling and a ‘glassy-eyed' look are common. A cat with hypoglycemia might be lethargic. Be alert for other behaviors like walking in circles or poor coordination. Watch for a sudden extreme hunger or a total disinterest in food. Seizures or coma appear in extreme cases, and require immediate emergency treatment. Causes of Hypoglycemia Even when you're giving the dosage prescribed by your vet and following correct procedures, your cat can get too much insulin in its system. A cat's need for insulin can rapidly increase or decrease, requiring a change in dosage regimen. Some cats even go into a sudden remission, where the pancreas begins to secrete enough insulin, meaning the cat no longer needs insulin injections for a time. This is why your vet will arrange regular visits to check for changes in your cat's condition, and increase or lower dosages if necessary. Most of the time, when a cat has too much insulin in its body, it's because of a mistake or mishap related to giving injections. The most common mistake is an accidental double-dose. This usually occurs when two different people in the family each give the cat a regular insulin injection, or an incorrect measurement of a dose. If you give your cat its injection right before feeding time and it doesn't eat, o Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by failure of the pancreas to produce adequate amounts of insulin or of the body to respond to the insulin that is produced. Why is insulin so important? The role of insulin is much like that of a gatekeeper: It stands at the surface of body cells and opens the door, allowing glucose to leave the blood stream and pass inside the cells. Glucose, or blood sugar, is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed for life and it must work inside the cells. Without an adequate amount of insulin, glucose is unable to get into the cells. It accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events which can ultimately prove fatal. When insulin is deficient, the cells become starved for a source of energy. In response to this, the body starts breaking down stores of fat and protein to use as alternative energy sources. This causes the cat to eat more, but ultimately results in weight loss. The body tries to eliminate the excess glucose by excreting it in the urine. However, glucose attracts water, so the urine glucose that is excreted also contains large quantities of the body's fluids. This causes the cat to produce a large amount of urine. To avoid dehydration, the cat drinks more and more water. Not all of these signs are readily seen in every diabetic cat, but we expect that you will have seen at least two of them. How is diabetes mellitus diagnosed? Because the four classical signs of diabetes are also present in other feline diseases, clinical signs alone are not sufficient to make a diagnosis. We also look for a high level of glucose in the blood stream and the presence of glucose in the urine using laboratory tests. The normal blood glucose level for cats is 80 to 120 mg/dL, while diabetic Continue reading >>

I Have X% In 10th, Y% In 12th And Z% In Undergrad, What Should Be My Cat Score To Make It To An Iim?

I Have X% In 10th, Y% In 12th And Z% In Undergrad, What Should Be My Cat Score To Make It To An Iim?

(I have created a percentile calculator updated every year (updated to CAT 2015) that can be accessed publicly. You just need to enter your credentials and it will tell you the percentile you need to get a call : Percentile Calculator. An NA implies that it is not possible to get a call, unless you're in the top 50 of your stream.Please note that these will give you a ballpark estimate, as they are based on historical data. Just download the file using save as and enter your credentials to know what you need to score) Every institute has these shortlisting criteria for which they select candidates for interviews. Every institute has a minimum application score you must clear to make it to the interview shortlist. The institute that you graduate from also no bearing, except the scaling that the IIM's do with the CGPA. Most good institutes have their CGPA's unchanged, some are scaled down/up marginally. The application rating cutoff this year for candidates who were not stream toppers** was 0.72. The application rating consists of a scaled maximum of 0.3 from pre CAT (10th, 12th, Undergrad) and a scaled maximum of 0.7 from the CAT (refer to application rating). So your pre CAT application score would be 40.5 (exactly as much as mine) and your scaled contribution to the application rating would be 0.27, leaving 0.72-0.27 = 0.45 for the CAT to cover. (0.45/0.7)*450 = 289.3 ~ 290 to be on the safe side. This would come to be a percentile of 99.5 to get an interview call assuming you are a not a stream topper. **From this year, IIM A has tweaked their PI shortlisting to be more inclusive. As mentioned in their application rating, you can get a call if you are amongst the top 50 of your background. Here, the application rating cut-off isn't considered and you are given a direc Continue reading >>

Address: 2300 S. 48th St. Suite 3

Address: 2300 S. 48th St. Suite 3

Diabetes We have just diagnosed your cat with diabetes. We see a lot of cats with diabetes, and with proper care and treatment, most of them do very well and have decent quality life spans. Cause and Types: ·Every time your cat eats, they ingest glucose in various amounts. To be able to metabolize this glucose, their pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the cells to be able metabolize the glucose. ·Diabetes happens when they either are not producing enough insulin, or when their cells are insulin resistant, and require higher levels of insulin to be able to metabolize the glucose. ·When glucose cannot be adequately metabolized, it starts to build up in the blood stream, resulting in various problems. This is diabetes, also known as hyperglycemia. ·There are two types of diabetes, type I and type II. oType I diabetes is caused by failure of your cat's pancreas to produce enough insulin for the body's needs. There are several factors that can affect this. §Acute or chronic pancreatitis can damage the pancreas enough so that the pancreas can no longer secrete an adequate amount of insulin. §This can also be congenital, although congenital type I diabetes is fairly rare in cats. §Idiopathic is our third cause. Idiopathic is a medical term that means we have absolutely no idea what caused it. oType II diabetes is when the cells of the body become insulin resistant, and require higher and higher levels of insulin to be able to function. §This is most commonly caused by increased levels of fat. Fat cells produce hormones that can cause insulin resistance, and the more fat cells present, the higher likelihood that insulin resistance requiring treatment will occur. ·Regardless of the type and cause, in cats they are both treated the same way. For pe Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

Every veterinarian has their own method and map to treating diabetes in cats. It's usually a very bad idea to try to simultaneously follow the different directions of different veterinarians. If your cat is under the care of another veterinarian, please don't follow the plan on this page. Your cat will be much better off if you follow the guidelines of just one veterinarian. Overview Diabetes is a fairly common disease in obese cats that results when a cat is not able to produce adequate insulin and/or becomes resistant to the effects of insulin. Diabetes causes increased blood glucose (sugar), urine glucose, increased urine output and weight loss. If untreated, it will cause progressive weight loss and eventual death. It can lead to ketoacidosis; a severe, acute, life-threatening condition related to the buildup of ketones in the blood. Treatment of uncomplicated diabetes usually involves feeding a high protein diet and giving insulin. Some cats will respond to diet alone. Initial and Follow-up Testing There are a number of tests that are indicated for cats suspected of having diabetes. These include: • A full blood panel. This panel includes a measurement of blood glucose. It also helps determine if there are other diseases that may affect the health of the patient. The results of these tests help determine initial treatment as well as long term prognosis. • A urinalysis – will help determine: o Levels of glucose in the urine o If ketones are building up in the blood – if there are ketones, this is an indication of ketoacidosis and affects prognosis and treatment o If there is an infection. • Fructosamine – gives an indication of what the blood glucose has been over the past two to three weeks. It is used to confirm the presence of diabetes and to monitor Continue reading >>

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