diabetestalk.net

How Many Lives Has Insulin Saved

Insulin 90 Years On – But Rate Of Diabetes Still Soaring

Insulin 90 Years On – But Rate Of Diabetes Still Soaring

Exactly 90 years ago today a 14-year-old Canadian boy, Leonard Thompson (pictured right), became the first person with diabetes to be successfully treated with insulin. Without this medical breakthrough, a million people in the UK who are kept alive with daily insulin injections would not be here. Prior to insulin treatment a diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes was an invariable death sentence, with patients usually surviving for only a few months, and often just weeks or days. Since the historic treatment – arguably one of the greatest medical advances of the twentieth century – millions of people worldwide have used insulin, usually in the form of injections, to regulate their blood glucose levels and stay alive. Banting discovers insulin In 1922 Dr. Frederick Banting (pictured below) discovered insulin and its positive effect on the body, originally using dogs in medical trials. Leonard Thompson, a 14-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes two years previously, was the first person for whom insulin came to be a life-saving drug. Although his first experience of insulin was not successful, once the hormone extract had been improved, Leonard received a suitable dose in an injection on 23 January 1922. Thanks to insulin injections he went from a 65 pound boy close to death through malnourishment – the only treatment at this time for diabetes was a starvation diet – to live into adulthood. Following the successful delivery of purified insulin, for the first time in history there was clear, unambiguous evidence that scientists were able to replace the natural insulin that is not produced in people with Type 1 diabetes. The condition develops if the body is unable to produce any insulin and is therefore life threatening without the treatment first used b Continue reading >>

Medical Benefits

Medical Benefits

Animal Research has brought about many medical benefits. This page discusses a handful of examples where animal testing has been instrumental in the development of a medical treatment. “Americans are living longer, healthier lives and we owe much of that success to biomedical research,” said Robert Palazzo, Ph.D, President of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Below is just a small selection of the major medical breakthroughs made possible by animal research. These treatments have been used to save or improve the lives of many millions of people worldwide. For more referenced case histories of past and current treatments developed using animals download the booklet “Medical Advances and Animal Research”, produced by UAR. To find more examples of how animal studies have contributed to medical breakthroughs, please see our Research Index, which lists all our posts categorised by either the species involved, or the disease addressed. Penicillin Blood transfusion Tuberculosis Macular degeneration Asthma Meningitis Kidney Transplants Breast cancer Parkinson’s disease Insulin What’s next? 1. Penicillin In 1928, Alexander Fleming noticed that staphylococcus bacilli would not grow on a culture medium accidentally contaminated with a mold, Pencillim notatum. But test tube experiments failed to show the antibiotic properties he expected. Ten years later, Oxford chemists Ernest Chain and Howard Florey were working on antibacterial substances. Penicillin wasn’t a top priority. But when Chain injected two mice with it, they remained healthy. Delighted by this apparent lack of toxicity, Florey then decided to give his full attention to penicillin. The animal experiment Only by 1940 was enough penicillin available for testing. Eight mic Continue reading >>

'i Was Treated By Insulin Pioneer'

'i Was Treated By Insulin Pioneer'

Insulin has saved the lives of countless people with Type 1 diabetes. In 1921, when the hormone was first discovered by a young Canadian surgeon named Frederick Banting, most children diagnosed with diabetes were expected to die within a year. Ninety years on and Banting's breakthrough is being hailed a one of the twentieth century's most important medical advances. Insulin in all its forms continues to ease and prolong the lives of diabetics by keeping blood glucose levels under control. Sheila Thorn was lucky enough to be treated by Banting in Toronto in 1930 when she was diagnosed as diabetic at just a few months old. The insulin he prescribed for Sheila has kept her alive for 80 years, making her probably the longest surviving insulin-dependent diabetic in the world. I've seen a lot of changes in the way people use insulin and these days I use an insulin pump to control my own condition. Sheila Thorn Lucky "I've got a picture of me in mother's arms when we were in Canada. When I was a baby, insulin still wasn't widely available. "I was lucky enough to be treated by the pioneers of insulin and that's why I'm still here." Now living in East Sussex, Sheila remembers being on a very strict diet growing up and her mother injecting her two or three times a day. "Since then, I've seen a lot of changes in the way people use insulin and these days I use an insulin pump to control my own condition. It makes a world of difference." Millions of people like Sheila have used various types of synthetically produced insulin to replace the natural insulin that is not produced in people with Type 1 diabetes. In Toronto in 1921, a severely diabetic dog was the key to Banting's discovery. Assisted by Charles Best, he kept the dog alive for 70 days by injecting it with a canine pancreas Continue reading >>

Frederick Banting: Insulin And G Suit

Frederick Banting: Insulin And G Suit

During the 20 century, Frederick Banting’s different creations had a lasting legacy on Canada and the world. He impacted the lives of many Canadians, past and present. He made very significant inventions that affected the quality of life for Canadians and people around the world. Frederick Banting deserves the title as one of the greatest Canadians because he discovered the pancreatic hormone called insulin which ‘paved the way for future diabetic research in Canada (DocShare).’ This helped him achieve the Nobel Prize of Medicine in 1923. This discovery made a major influence on Canada and the rest of the world because it provided a treatment for all the patients with diabetes. Frederick Banting was the creator of the first G-suit used by pilots and astronauts. ‘The invention of G-suit saved many pilots lives and allowed more complex flight man-oeuvres’-(DocShare). Banting was also a war hero. He was enlisted in the Canadian Army Medical Service where he was quickly promoted to the rank of captain. In early 1900s, Frederick Banting was one of the greatest Canadians who had a large impact on Canadian society. He had motivated many lives with his numerous contributions to humanity. Frederick Banting discovered insulin, created an understanding for the creation of the G-Suit, was awarded a Nobel Prize, played an important role in the war and thus deserves the title as one of the greatest Canadian. “No single event in the history of medicine had changed the lives of so many people, so suddenly”– Stephen Hume, Biographer of Banting.This quote explains the power of insulin and how it positively affected the lives of many diabetic patients. Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes was a dreaded disease that most certainly resulted in shorter lives, loss of lim Continue reading >>

Ask Google For A Frederick Banting Doodle

Ask Google For A Frederick Banting Doodle

There are more than a 366 million people with diabetes in the world. Of those, almost 100 million depend on insulin to live. November 14 is the birthday of Sir Frederick Banting (shown above), one of the main discoverers of insulin. His discovery was so significant that this date has been designated as World Diabetes Day by the United Nations. Help us request that Google create a doodle to honor the birthday of this great man, to whom people who inject insulin owe so much, by completing and sharing the petition below. I petition Google to create a doodle to honor November 14, 2012 as the 121st birthday of one of medical history’s true heroes: Sir Frederick Banting. He and Charles Best discovered insulin and gave the gift of life to millions of people who had previously been condemned to death. 5,055 people have signed this petition so far. Continue reading >>

Canadians, Frederick Banting And J.j.r. Macleod Discover Insulin, Saving The Lives Of Many Diabetics

Canadians, Frederick Banting And J.j.r. Macleod Discover Insulin, Saving The Lives Of Many Diabetics

Insulin is a peptide hormone used to treat diabetes for patients that would otherwise die. Before its discovery, people with diabetes had had a very short life span. It was first discovered by Frederick Banting and J.J.R Macleod in 1922. The discovery meant that Diabetes sufferers could now take a daily treatment that would help them lead a normal life. Banting was working with J.J.R. Macleod and Charles Best in the University of Toronto in Canada. Both Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their work, while Best was excluded, a decision the Nobel Peace Prize committee subsequently regretted. Continue reading >>

The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment That Saves Lives: The Story Of Insulin

The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment That Saves Lives: The Story Of Insulin

Now, 90 years after it was first used to treat diabetes, insulin keeps nearly a million people in the UK alive, and no product has ever been subject to such prolonged and intensive post-marketing development. Indeed, insulin pioneers, Banting and Best, would be hard-pressed to recognise the life-saving therapy with which they revived a wardful of dying children with diabetes in 1922. Simon Heller, professor of clinical diabetes and director of R&D at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, explains that the past 30 years have seen the introduction of human insulin, pens, pumps and analogue insulins, all of which have had a huge impact on the lives of people with diabetes. But he regrets the shortfalls in education and training about insulin use, which continue to prevent many patients from getting the best from their treatment. “Insulin is one of the most powerful drugs that people can use. It saves lives but it can also kill, and it has major limitations if it isn’t used properly. Patients get shown how to use it in outpatients, but it’s a complicated business to match your insulin dose to your carbohydrate intake and exercise, and to do that every day for the rest of your life. So high quality, peer reviewed, structured training shouldn’t be an optional extra, it should be a right for everyone who is prescribed insulin,” says Professor Heller. Insulin, fame and fortune Banting and Best will be forever linked to the introduction of insulin treatment, but other key players struggled for recognition in the decades following the breakthrough.1 Canadian surgeon Frederick Banting approached John Macleod, professor of physiology at Toronto University, in 1921 for laboratory space to experiment with new techniques to extract islet cells from the pancreas.2 Th Continue reading >>

Frederick Banting And The Relatively Recent Discovery That Has Saved Hundreds Of Millions Of Lives

Frederick Banting And The Relatively Recent Discovery That Has Saved Hundreds Of Millions Of Lives

According to the World Health Organization, about 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. Because diabetes treatments are so common today, it can be easy to forget that the disease can be fatal. In fact, it is approximately the seventh leading cause of death worldwide. Luckily, many people diagnosed with diabetes today enjoy healthy, otherwise normal, lives thanks to advances in treatment, and most notably insulin. However, this development is relatively recent, and only 100 years ago to receive a diabetes diagnosis was to be condemned to a life of near starvation and early death. Known to the ancients, diabetes is one of the first diseases ever classified. Both the Vedic-period Indians and the Egyptians knew it, with the former recognizing it by the fact that the urine of its sufferers was so sweet it would attract ants. Early on, a diabetes mellitus diagnosis was a death sentence. By the end of the 1st millennium, its symptoms were well known: excessive, sweet-tasting (yes, tasting) urine, excessive thirst, abnormal appetite and sometimes, even, gangrene. Early treatments included a mixture of fenungreek, lupine, trigonnella and zedoary seed, a combination that is sometimes still used today to reduce the excretion of sugar. By the dawn of the 20th century, leading diabetes specialists were advocating what some called a starvation diet, “not as a cure, but for relief of symptoms and maximum extension of life.” Hardly a solution, other researchers began exploring healthier treatments for patients. One of these was Frederick Banting, a Canadian doctor. In 1920, he had the idea that a product could be extracted from the pancreas that could be used to reverse the effects of diabetes. Banting didn’t pull this idea out of thin air. Thirty years before, in 1889, two Continue reading >>

Diabetesvoiceapril 2012 €¢ Volume 57 €¢ Issue 1 37

Diabetesvoiceapril 2012 €¢ Volume 57 €¢ Issue 1 37

Insulin for life – building capacity, saving lives Ron Raab The cost of insulin to a person with diabetes varies greatly between countries. This is a critical problem, particularly in those low- and middle-income countries where the full, unsubsidized price of insulin is high and must be paid by a person with diabetes and his or her family for many years. In many such countries, the annual cost of insulin for a per- son with diabetes is higher than 50% of the average annual income. For people with diabetes in the poorest countries of the world, the inability to afford this essential medication is a major cause of death.1 Helping to fill the gap, meeting essential needs In many developing countries, children with diabetes die soon after diagnosis, or have poor control and develop early and devastating complications. In some countries, there are few if any long-term survivors of type 1 diabetes. It is mainly children and young adults who die as a consequence of high concentrations of glucose in their blood, often the result of an incorrect or late diagnosis or a lack of expert care. Insulin for Life, a non-profit organization founded in Australia in 1986, attempts to fill the gaps for at least some of the people in urgent need by providing life-saving medications such as insulin, meters, test strips and other diabetes supplies. Insulin is a life-sustaining medication, desig- nated an essential drug by the world health organization. although it should be univer- sally available to everyone who requires it for survival, in many countries access to insulin is not secure – resulting in life-threatening complications for large numbers of children and adults with diabetes worldwide. Indeed, most people in most countries of the world who need life-saving insulin ca Continue reading >>

Diabetes Patients Struggle To Obtain Life-saving Insulin In War-torn Syria

Diabetes Patients Struggle To Obtain Life-saving Insulin In War-torn Syria

In the second installment of our series on chronic illnesses in Syria, we explore the diabetes crisis across the war-torn country and the constant struggle to obtain the insulin needed to treat the disease. BEIRUT – Dr. Hosam Kara, a physician in Idlib, has been treating Hasan Ali for nearly a year, since the 22-year-old began to feel intense pain when urinating. Initially, Ali believed he had kidney stones, but his lab results showed that he had a chronic disease that meant a lifetime of treatments, monitoring and struggle. Ali has type 2 diabetes, a heavy burden for someone living in an area where chronic illnesses fall through the cracks of a healthcare system overstretched by a constant stream of war wounds and a dwindling number of medical professionals. Dr. Kara is an internal physician by training, but since the start of the Syrian conflict in 2011, his work with patients like Ali has been largely overshadowed by treating those with war injuries. Yet, diabetes has been one of the most prevalent illnesses in Syria both before and during the conflict. At least one in 10 Syrians live with diabetes, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). If left untreated, diabetes can cause complications that are just as deadly as bombs and bullets. “Patients with chronic or internal illnesses are neglected here. The [medical] centers and donors put a higher priority on war trauma patients,” Dr. Kara said. Diabetes is a noncommunicable disease where the body either does not produce enough insulin, or cannot effectively use the insulin it does produce. Insulin is a blood sugar regulating hormone, and without it, blood sugar, or glucose, levels rise in the body, leading to severe complications if left untreated. Before the war, some 200 clinics specialized in the dise Continue reading >>

How Does Blood Glucose Control With Insulin Save Lives In Intensive Care?

How Does Blood Glucose Control With Insulin Save Lives In Intensive Care?

Go to: Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in the critically ill One hundred fifty years ago, Reyboso observed glucosuria, a condition induced by ether anesthesia, in which glucose is discharged in the urine, and in 1877 Claude Bernard described hyperglycemia during hemorrhagic shock (11). Today, it is well known that any type of acute illness or injury results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia, a constellation termed “diabetes of injury” (12, 13). Illness or trauma increases hepatic glucose production with ongoing gluconeogenesis despite hyperglycemia and abundantly released insulin. Hepatic insulin resistance is further characterized by elevated circulating levels of IGF–binding protein–1 (IGFBP-1) (14, 15). Also, in skeletal muscle and heart, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired (16, 17). Overall, glucose uptake in critically ill patients, however, is increased but takes place mainly in the tissues that are not dependent on insulin for glucose uptake, such as, among others, the nervous system and the blood cells (13, 18). The most severe cases of stress-induced hyperglycemia (13) and highest levels of circulating IGFBP-1 (14, 15) are observed in patients with the highest risk of death. Orchestrated “counterregulatory” hormonal responses, cytokine release, and signals from the nervous system, all affecting glucose metabolic pathways, bring about the diabetes of injury. The hormones involved include catecholamines, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone (GH). Proinflammatory cytokines affect glucose homeostasis indirectly, by stimulating counterregulatory hormone secretion, and directly, by altering insulin receptor signaling (Figure 1) (13, 19, 20). Although insulin receptor signaling is still incompletely understood, Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

An estimated 347 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes1,or nearly five per cent of the population, with approximately 3.4 million dying as a consequence per year2. Currently eighty per cent of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries3, driving the need for cheaper, easier treatments. The World Health Organisation predicts that diabetes will be the 7th largest cause of death in 20304. Symptoms include raging thirst, rapid weight loss, tiredness and passing large quantities of sugary urine. Diabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke - 50% of people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (primarily heart disease and stroke), compared to 30% across the world population5 6. Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Treatment of diabetes involves lowering blood glucose and the levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. People with type 1 diabetes require insulin; people with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medication, but may also require insulin. Discovery of insulin Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Animal Models Current treatments Current research References Discovery of insulin The discovery, isolation and purification of insulin in the 1920s was a significant medical advance, preventing premature deaths in many sufferers. In 1889 Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski showed that removing the pancreas from a dog produced diabetes7. This was the first demonstration that there was an anti-diabetic factor produced by the pancreas which enabled the body to use sugars in the blood properly. Continue reading >>

Insulin - A Life-saving Discovery

Insulin - A Life-saving Discovery

In the early 20th century, people who had diabetes would usually die within a few years following their diagnosis. Dr. Frederick Banting - a young Canadian physician with not much of a medical practice and hardly any experience at all - wanted to change that pattern. Worried about his own future, and his lack of patients, Banting had an idea during the middle of the night. While he was working-up a lecture he'd been asked to give, the twenty-eight-year-old doctor wrote these misspelled words on a piece of paper: Diabetus. Ligate pancreatic ducts of dog. Keep dogs alive till acini degenerate leaving Islets. Try to isolate the internal secretion of these to relieve glucosurea. (Banting's note, written on 31 October 1920, quoted by Stephen Eaton Hume in Frederick Banting: Hero, Healer, Artist at page 8.) Banting's intuition would soon lead to a monumental medical breakthrough. Expanding on the work of earlier scientists, the young doctor believed he might have discovered a way which could also treat - not just diagnose - the "sugar disease." He shared his thoughts with Dr. John J.R. Macleod (then head of physiology at the University of Toronto). On the 8th of March, 1921, Banting asked Macleod for lab space to further research his idea. What prior research had led Banting to his breakthrough? We learn the answer to that question from "A Science Odyssey," at PBS: Late in the nineteenth century, scientists had realized there was a connection between the pancreas and diabetes. The connection was further narrowed down to the islets of Langerhans, a part of the pancreas. From 1910 to 1920, Oscar Minkowski and others tried unsuccessfully to find and extract the active ingredient from the islets of Langerhans. While reading a paper on the subject in 1920, Banting had an inspirati Continue reading >>

Celebrating A Milestone: Fda's Approval Of First Genetically-engineered Product

Celebrating A Milestone: Fda's Approval Of First Genetically-engineered Product

This article originally appeared in the "History Corner" column of the September-October 2007 issue of Update magazine, the bimonthly publication of the Food and Drug Law Institute. Suzanne White Junod, Ph.D. This year marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of FDA's approval of the world's first recombinant DNA drug product—human insulin (Eli Lilly & Co.'s Humulin). In 1921, Frederick Banting and Charles Best extracted the hormone insulin, which controls blood sugar levels, from the pancreas' of dogs, and in 1922 administered the extract to a 14-year-old boy suffering from type I diabetes mellitus, saving his life and proving insulin's efficacy in treating human diabetes. Following their discovery, virtually all insulin for human use was harvested from slaughterhouse animals, usually porcine or bovine. In the 25 years since FDA's approval of Humulin, however, r-DNA human insulin has proven indistinguishable from pancreatic human insulin, has been proven both safe and efficacious for millions of patients, and, as a result, has almost completely displaced animal source insulins. FDA regulatory scientists worked with Lilly scientists in solving novel challenges related to the production of human insulin in bacteria and played a key role in insuring the safety and efficacy of the first medical product of gene-splicing technology approved for use in humans. Recombinant DNA methodology was just one of many remarkable scientific advances made possible as a result of James Watson and Francis Crick's original discovery of the double helix structure of human DNA, announced in 1953. 1 Precise knowledge of genetic structures has moved many scientific fields forward, including criminology and, more recently, pharmacogenetics and toxicogenetics, which are at the heart of discussions an Continue reading >>

Th Discovery Of Insulin

Th Discovery Of Insulin

Transcript of Th Discovery of Insulin The Discovery of Insulin Introduction Frederick Banting was a Canadian medical scientist who made one of the most important discoveries in medical history. Frederick was born in Ontario, near Alliston on November 14th, 1891, and was born as the youngest of five children in the Banting family. He spent his childhood in Allistion, and was educated at public elementary and high schools. Banting studied medicine during his time at the University of Toronto, and was able to join the Canadian Army as a medic in World War I. Once the war was over, Frederick worked in Sick Kids Hospital in Toronto. His interest in diabetes was sparked by a medical article, which was about the pancreas. This article connected the hormonal protein released by the Islets of Langerhans, called Insulin, and the digestive enzymes created in the pancreas. These enzymes were observed to destroy the important hormone that regulates the metobalism of sugar, causing the disease that was known as "Diabetes". Attempts had been previously made by scientists studying Diabetes to feed patients parts of fresh pancreas to supply the missing Insulin. However, the experiments always resulted in failure, as the pancreatic enzymes destroyed the Islet's protein. This puzzled Banting. How could the Insulin be safely isolated before it was destroyed? He continued to research the topic until he came across another article, this time by a scientist named Moses Barron. In his arcticle, Barron said that if the pancreatic ducts are tied, then the enzymes cannnot reach the intestines, and the Islet's Insulin can be protected. This gave Banting the idea that if the ducts were tied long enough, and the amount of enzymes in the pancreas drop, then Insulin could be safely extracted. Banting Continue reading >>

More in insulin