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How Long Does It Take For A Shot Of Insulin To Work?

Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin

Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin

People with type 2 diabetes do not always have to take insulin right away; that is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. The longer someone has type 2 diabetes, the more likely they will require insulin. Just as in type 1 diabetes, insulin is a way to control your blood glucose level. With type 2 diabetes, though, dietary changes, increasing physical activity, and some oral medications are usually enough to bring your blood glucose to a normal level. To learn about how the hormone insulin works, we have an article that explains the role of insulin. There are several reasons people with type 2 diabetes may want to use insulin: It can quickly bring your blood glucose level down to a healthier range. If your blood glucose level is excessively high when you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the doctor may have you use insulin to lower your blood glucose level—in a way that’s much faster than diet and exercise. Insulin will give your body a respite; it (and especially the beta cells that produce insulin) has been working overtime to try to bring down your blood glucose level. In this scenario, you’d also watch what you eat and exercise, but having your blood glucose under better control may make it easier to adjust to those lifestyle changes. It has fewer side effects than some of the medications: Insulin is a synthetic version of a hormone our bodies produce. Therefore, it interacts with your body in a more natural way than medications do, leading to fewer side effects. The one side effect is hypoglycemia. It can be cheaper. Diabetes medications can be expensive, although there is an array of options that try to cater to people of all economic levels. However, insulin is generally cheaper than medications (on a monthly basis), especially if the doctor wants yo Continue reading >>

Wait Times: How Long Until Your Med Begins Working

Wait Times: How Long Until Your Med Begins Working

Photography by Mike Watson Images/Thinkstock There are many type 2 medications, and each drug class works in the body in a different way. Here’s a quick guide to help you understand how long each drug will generally take to work: These short-acting oral medications, taken with meals, block the breakdown of complex sugars into simple sugars in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. “Simple sugars are more easily absorbed and cause the blood sugar to ultimately go up,” Sam Ellis, PharmD, BCPS, CDE, associate professor in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy at the University of Colorado says. These drugs are minimally absorbed into the blood, so a certain blood level concentration is not necessary for them to work. You will see the effect immediately with the first dose. “You take it before a meal, and with that meal you see the effect,” says George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE, President of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. While researchers aren’t exactly sure how these oral medications work, it’s likely that the meds block some absorption of glucose in the GI tract. “You’ll see most of the effect in the first week with these drugs,” says Ellis. alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin These drugs work to block the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of a specific gut hormone that helps the body produce more insulin when blood glucose is high and reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver. Take a DPP-4 inhibitor (they come in pill form) and it’ll work pretty fast—you’ll see the full effect in about a week. “It’s blocking that enzyme after the first dose a little bit, but by the time you get out to dose five, you’re blocking the majority of that enzyme,” Ellis says. albiglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide, exe Continue reading >>

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Injecting Insulin…

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Injecting Insulin…

But Didn’t Know to Ask Just take your shot. What could be easier, right? Well, you’d be surprised how many errors are made by “veteran” insulin users. It turns out there’s nothing basic about the basics of insulin injections. However, you can improve your technique. This article takes a look at the nitty-gritty details behind successful insulin delivery, why they matter, and how to avoid common pitfalls. The gear Realistically, there are two delivery systems when it comes to injecting insulin: syringes and pens. Yes, there are pumps, but that’s a whole other subject. And yes, there are jet injectors, but they are not widely used. Syringes. The first-ever human insulin shot was delivered by syringe in 1922, and here in the United States, more than half of all insulin is still delivered via syringe. Syringes used to be made of glass, had to be sterilized between uses, and had long, thick, steel surgical needles that could be resharpened on a kitchen whetstone. (No kidding.) But syringes have come a long way since then. Syringes are now disposable, the barrels are made of plastic, and the needles are thin, high-tech, multi-beveled, and coated with lubricants to make them enter the skin smoothly. (Bevels are the slanted surfaces on a needle that create a sharp point.) In the old days, the needle and the syringe were separate components. Nowadays most insulin syringes come with the needle attached. People who use syringes almost always purchase insulin in vials. Vials are glass bottles that generally hold 1,000 units of insulin. Pens. Insulin pens date from the mid-1980s, and while syringes still predominate in the United States, much of the rest of the world has traded in syringes for insulin pens. Pens currently come in two varieties: disposable, prefilled pens Continue reading >>

How Many Hours Do You Wait?

How Many Hours Do You Wait?

After you bolus or inject your fast acting insulin (regardless if it is for correction or food) how long do you wait to test and inject again if needed. I know that the recommended amount of time by most doctors is to test/correct two hours post meal/last correction but that just can't be true for everyone. I know we are all different and that must be just some kind of starting point. I have been experiencing a lot of super scary low blood sugars, and I really believe that that it is because testing two h ours after a meal/correction is too frequent. Does anyone else wait longer than two hours or maybe even not as long? I wish I had a good answer for you. I wear a cgms, so I watch it to see if I'm trending lo or hi after a bolus. If I'm correcting a hi, I typically "check" in after an hour to see if my bg is dropping. D.D. Family T1 since 1966, pumper since '03, transplant '08 Where to start. Through testing, you will find out when the fast acting insulin will peak for you. For most, it peaks at 2 hours (hence the 2 hour testing point). But I don't know of anyone who will recommend adding insulin at the 2 hour mark because for almost everyone, the insulin will still be working for at least an hour. In my case, I would continue to have IOB (insulin on board) until the 3 hour mark and then I could safely re-inject or re-bolus and not be stacking. I only knew that for me humalog was spent at the 3 hour mark by testing. So, to my mind, the reason for your scary lows is that you are stacking - correcting when you still have working insulin in your system. If you can afford the test strips, take a correction bolus when you need it and then test every half hour until your bg stabilizes. This is what I did to discover my active insulin time. And for me it was consistently 3 ho Continue reading >>

How To Use Long-acting Insulin: Types, Frequency, Peak Times, And Duration

How To Use Long-acting Insulin: Types, Frequency, Peak Times, And Duration

Long-acting insulin can help to stabilize blood sugar levels throughout the day, with only one or two shots. Fast-acting insulin replaces the surge of insulin that a healthy pancreas would release at mealtime. In contrast, long-acting insulin mimics the low-level flow of insulin normally released between meals and overnight. In this way, long-acting insulin works to establish a healthy baseline blood sugar level for the body to work around. Contents of this article: Using long-acting insulin Long-acting insulin cannot be delivered in pill form because it would be broken down in the stomach. Instead, it must be injected into the fatty tissue under the skin. From here, it can be gradually released into the bloodstream. Delivery methods According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, there are a few ways to deliver long-acting insulin. These include: Needle and syringe: a dose of insulin is drawn from a vial into a syringe. Different types of insulin must not be mixed in the same syringe. Pen: this can be loaded with a cartridge containing a premeasured dose, or prefilled with insulin and discarded after use. Injection port: a short tube is inserted into the tissue beneath the skin. Insulin can be delivered using either a syringe or a pen. This only requires the skin to be punctured when the tube needs to be replaced. Injection sites Long-acting insulin can be injected into the abdomen, upper arms, or thighs. Abdomen injections deliver insulin into the blood most quickly. The process takes a little more time from the upper arms, and it is even slower from the thighs. It is important to stay consistent with the general injection area, but the exact injection site should be rotated frequently. Repeat injections at the same spot on the skin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment In Dogs

By Ernest Ward, DVM & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Emergency Situations, Medical Conditions This handout provides detailed information on insulin administration. For more information about diabetes mellitus, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - General Information", and "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? In dogs, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar. This is Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (also called Type 1 Diabetes). This type of diabetes usually results from destruction of most or all of the beta-cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar levels. What do I need to know about insulin treatment for diabetes mellitus? In diabetic dogs, the main treatment for regulating blood glucose is giving insulin by injection. Dogs with diabetes mellitus typically require two daily insulin injections as well as a dietary change. Although the dog can go a day or so without insulin and not have a crisis, this should not be a regular occurrence; treatment should be looked upon as part of the dog's daily routine. This means that you, as the dog's owner, must make both a financial commitment and a personal commitment to treat your dog. If are out of town or go on vacation, your dog must receive proper treatment in your absence. Initially, your dog may be hospitalized for a few days to deal with any immediate crisis and to begin the insulin regulation process. For instance, if your dog is so sick that he has quit eating and drinking for several days, he may be experiencing “diabetic ketoacidosis,” which may require a several days of intensive care. On Continue reading >>

Insulin Injection

Insulin Injection

Insulin injection is used to control blood sugar in people who have type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not make insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the blood sugar is too high because the body does not produce or use insulin normally) that cannot be controlled with oral medications alone. Insulin injection is in a class of medications called hormones. Insulin injection is used to take the place of insulin that is normally produced by the body. It works by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar. All of the types of insulin that are available work in this way. The types of insulin differ only in how quickly they begin to work and how long they continue to control blood sugar. Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Using medication(s), making lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, quitting smoking), and regularly checking your blood sugar may help to manage your diabetes and improve your health. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage (numb, cold legs or feet; decreased sexual ability in men and women), eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes. Insulin comes as a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to be injected subcutaneousl Continue reading >>

Insulin Therapy

Insulin Therapy

Why do I need to take insulin? When you digest food, your body changes most of the food you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells of your body and be used as energy. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly, so the glucose builds up in your blood instead of moving into the cells. Too much glucose in the blood can lead to serious health problems. All people who have type 1 diabetes and some people who have type 2 diabetes need to take insulin to help control their blood sugar levels. The goal of taking insulin is to keep your blood sugar level in a normal range as much as possible so you’ll stay healthy. Insulin can’t be taken by mouth. It is usually taken with injections (shots). It can also be taken with an insulin pen or an insulin pump. How often will I need to take insulin? You and your doctor will develop a schedule that is right for you. Most people who have diabetes and take insulin need at least 2 insulin shots a day for good blood sugar control. Some people need 3 or 4 shots a day. Do I need to monitor my blood sugar level? Yes. Monitoring and controlling your blood sugar is key to preventing the complications of diabetes. If you don’t already monitor your blood sugar level, you will need to learn how. Checking your blood sugar involves pricking your finger to get a small drop of blood that you put on a test strip. You can read the results yourself or insert the strip into a machine called an electronic glucose meter. The results will tell you whether or not your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Your doctor will give you additional information about monitoring your blood sugar. When should I take insulin? You and your doctor should discuss when and how you Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: How Long Does It Take For Insulin To Work?

Type 2 Diabetes: How Long Does It Take For Insulin To Work?

If you have been living with type 2 diabetes for a while, then you may be on a medication regimen that includes insulin. You’ve probably noticed that your type 2 diabetes is a bit different from other people’s. Every person’s body is different, and this is just one reason why the response to insulin treatments can vary from person to person. Read on to ease your confusion about insulin and learn how it supports blood sugar management on the individual level. How insulin works in the body Insulin is produced naturally in the body by the pancreas. The pancreas contains millions of beta cells, and these cells are responsible for making insulin. Whenever you eat food with carbohydrates, your beta cells release insulin so that other cells in the body can use the blood glucose it gets from food for energy. In a sense, insulin acts as a key, letting glucose into the cells. How insulin works without diabetes Under normal circumstances, the body produces insulin after digestion. The presence of insulin triggers cells to take in the glucose and use it as energy. The ability of your cells to respond to insulin is called insulin sensitivity. What happens to insulin when you have diabetes? If you have type 2 diabetes, your body either can’t produce any or enough insulin, or is resistant to its presence. That means glucose is not able to get into your body’s cells effectively. The inability for the cells to absorb the glucose in the blood causes elevated blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels will be high after meals, and even between meals, since the liver makes glucose when we are between meals or sleeping. People who have type 2 diabetes often take diabetes pills or insulin shots to improve their blood sugar levels. Characteristics of insulin Insulin exists in suspension Continue reading >>

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about 12 hours or longer, so it can be used overnight. It begins to work within one to four hours, Continue reading >>

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

What you need to know If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. Rapid-acting insulin What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. Short-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. Intermediate-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about Continue reading >>

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

A good way to improve your glucose levels is to track the peaks and drops in your glucose , so you can figure out why they happened and how to correct them. Once you identify glucose patterns (they ARE there!), you also want to understand when each of your insulins is active and when they typically stop lowering your glucose. This helps you adjust your doses or food intake to stop unwanted ups and downs in your readings. The table below shows the start, peak, and end times for various insulins with some explanations and typical uses for each. When Does My Insulin Peak and How Long Does It Last? designed to peak, covers meals and lowers high BGs Humalog , Novolog and Apidra insulins currently give the best coverage for meals and help keep the glucose lower afterward. Their glucose lowering activity starts to work about 20 minutes after they are taken, with a gradual rise in activity over the next 1.75 to 2.25 hours. Their activity gradually falls over the next 3 hours with about 5 to 6 hours of activity being common with these insulins.Although insulin action times are often quoted as 3-5 hours, the actual duration of insulin action is typically 5 hours or more. See our article Duration of Insulin Action for more information on this important topic. In general, "rapid" insulins are still too slow for many common meals where the glucose peaks within an hour and digestion is complete within 2-3 hours. The best kept secret on stopping post meal spiking is to eake the injection or bolus earlier before the meal and to eat slower low glycemic carbs. Regular insulin still carries its original name of "fast insulin" but its slower action often works better for people who take Symlin or for those who have gastroparesis (delayed digestion). It is also a great choice for those who Continue reading >>

Insulin Actions And Durations

Insulin Actions And Durations

Tweet The action of insulin measures how soon after injecting insulin will start to work. The duration of insulin is how long after injecting the dose of insulin will remain working for. Insulin actions are quite an important concept, particularly for insulin dependent diabetics. In an ideal treatment, the speed at which your insulin starts to work would perfectly match the rate at which your blood sugar raises after each different meal. In general, the rapidity of the insulin you take should roughly match the speed at which your blood sugar raises after eating. However, even with advances in insulin production, you may find that the speed in which your insulin acts is no match for the raise in blood sugar. This can often be the case, particularly if you eat foods with a relatively high glycemic index. Table of insulin actions The table gives a guide as to quickly the insulins start to act, between which times they peak and how long their activity lasts for. The speed at which insulin acts may vary in different people and where you inject can have a significant effect too, so the table should only be used as a rough guide to understand how insulin action times can vary. Insulin actions, onset, peak activity and durations Insulin Onset begins Peak activity occurs Duration after injecting Analogue rapid Within 15 mins 15 mins to 1 hour 3 to 4 hours Human short Within 30 mins 1 to 3 hours 6 to 8 hours Animal short Within 1 hour 2 to 5 hours 6 to 8 hours Human intermediate Within 2 hours 2 to 12 hours 18 to 24 hours Animal intermediate Within 2 hours 6 to 12 hours 18 to 24 hours Analogue long Within 1 hour No peak as such 18 to 24 hours Analogue ultra-long Within 1 hour No peak as such More than 42 hours Animal long* 4 to 6 hours 10 to 20 hours 28 to 36 hours * Refers to Hy Continue reading >>

Fast-acting Insulin

Fast-acting Insulin

Even when you think you’re doing everything right with your diabetes care regimen, it can sometimes seem like your blood glucose levels are hard to control. One potential source of difficulty that you may not have thought of is how you time your injections or boluses of rapid-acting insulin with respect to meals. Since the first rapid-acting insulin, insulin lispro (brand name Humalog), came on the market in 1996, most diabetes experts have recommended taking it within 15 minutes of starting a meal (any time between 15 minutes before starting to eat to 15 minutes after starting to eat). This advice is based on the belief that rapid-acting insulin is absorbed quickly and begins lowering blood glucose quickly. However, several years of experience and observation suggest that this advice may not be ideal for everyone who uses rapid-acting insulin. As a result, the advice on when to take it needs updating. Insulin basics The goal of insulin therapy is to match the way that insulin is normally secreted in people without diabetes. Basal insulin. Small amounts of insulin are released by the pancreas 24 hours a day. On average, adults secrete about one unit of insulin per hour regardless of food intake. Bolus insulin. In response to food, larger amounts of insulin are secreted and released in two-phase boluses. The first phase starts within minutes of the first bite of food and lasts about 15 minutes. The second phase of insulin release is more gradual and occurs over the next hour and a half to three hours. The amount of insulin that is released matches the rise in blood glucose from the food that is eaten. In people with normal insulin secretion, insulin production and release is a finely tuned feedback system that maintains blood glucose between about 70 mg/dl and 140 mg/d Continue reading >>

When Does Insulin Start Working? Many Factors Affect Absorption

When Does Insulin Start Working? Many Factors Affect Absorption

A major challenge in diabetes therapy is to match the insulin with food and exercise. Changes in the amount of time that it takes for insulin to be absorbed into the bloodstream can be a critical factor in obtaining diabetes control. Both the amount of insulin and its timing are critical, and both of these can be influenced by a wide range of variables. Here is a list of factors which every person taking insulin should be aware of. Type of Insulin The type of insulin is the most obvious change that influences insulin absorption. Regular insulin is absorbed faster than NPH or Lente insulin, which are absorbed faster than Ultralente insulin. Mixing insulin can sometimes change their absorption kinetics. Regular and NPH insulin can be mixed in virtually any proportion with little or no effect on their action. The insulin of the Lente series, Lente and Ultralente insulin, are very high in zinc and can slow the absorption of regular insulin by about fifteen minutes. Species of Insulin The species of insulin can also be important. For many patients human insulin works faster than pork or beef insulin and may not last as long. For Regular insulin, this is often an advantage, as we want this insulin to work fast. But for NPH insulin, it may mean that the insulin will not last through the night, especially if you are taking only a single shot of insulin each morning. Site of Injection The site of injection can be critical. It can take up to 50% longer for insulin to be absorbed from the leg than from the abdomen (or stomach area). Not only does the time for absorption of insulin vary with the site, but so does the total amount absorbed. Regular insulin peaks in the bloodstream about 90-120 minutes after it is injected into the thigh. Because of the subcutaneous enzymes, only abo Continue reading >>

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