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How Is Insulin Used In The Body

Insulin And Insulin Resistance

Insulin And Insulin Resistance

Go to: Abstract As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the compl Continue reading >>

Insulin Injection

Insulin Injection

Insulin injection is used to control blood sugar in people who have type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not make insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or in people who have type 2 diabetes (condition in which the blood sugar is too high because the body does not produce or use insulin normally) that cannot be controlled with oral medications alone. Insulin injection is in a class of medications called hormones. Insulin injection is used to take the place of insulin that is normally produced by the body. It works by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar. All of the types of insulin that are available work in this way. The types of insulin differ only in how quickly they begin to work and how long they continue to control blood sugar. Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Using medication(s), making lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, quitting smoking), and regularly checking your blood sugar may help to manage your diabetes and improve your health. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage (numb, cold legs or feet; decreased sexual ability in men and women), eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes. Insulin comes as a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to be injected subcutaneousl Continue reading >>

The Facts About Insulin For Diabetes

The Facts About Insulin For Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone that your pancreas makes to allow cells to use glucose. When your body isn't making or using insulin correctly, you can take man-made insulin to help control your blood sugar. Many types can be used to treat diabetes. They're usually described by how they affect your body. Rapid-acting insulin starts to work within a few minutes and lasts for a couple of hours. Regular- or short-acting insulin takes about 30 minutes to work fully and lasts for 3 to 6 hours. Intermediate-acting insulin takes 2 to 4 hours to work fully. Its effects can last for up to 18 hours. Long-acting insulin can work for an entire day. Your doctor may prescribe more than one type. You might need to take insulin more than once daily, to space your doses throughout the day, and possibly to also take other medicines. How Do I Take It? Many people get insulin into their blood using a needle and syringe, a cartridge system, or pre-filled pen systems. The place on the body where you give yourself the shot may matter. You'll absorb insulin the most consistently when you inject it into your belly. The next best places to inject it are your arms, thighs, and buttocks. Make it a habit to inject insulin at the same general area of your body, but change up the exact injection spot. This helps lessen scarring under the skin. Inhaled insulin, insulin pumps, and a quick-acting insulin device are also available. When Do I Take It? It will depend on the type of insulin you use. You want to time your shot so that the glucose from your food gets into your system at about the same time that the insulin starts to work. This will help your body use the glucose and avoid low blood sugar reactions. For example, if you use a rapid-acting insulin, you'd likely take it 10 minutes before or even with your m Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

What is diabetes? Diabetes is disease that causes the body to either not produce insulin or not react properly to the insulin. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is when the body simply does not produce insulin. This type develops in teens and is less common than Type 2. When you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system turns on the pancreas, causing it not to produce insulin. This causes blood sugar levels to get too high. People with Type 1 take insulin injections to help regulate their blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is when the cells in the body do not react properly with the insulin being produced. The signal to the GLUT4 is never sent from the receptors, so the cells don't allow glucose to enter. Insulin injections can sometimes help people with Type 2, however they usually can only watch what they eat and be careful to exercise a certain amount. How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes? The GTT is usually administered after an abnormal urine test. Doctors use glucose tolerance testing to monitor the amount of glucose in the patient's blood at a given moment in time and to see if their body reacts properly in response to the glucose. If the glucose levels rise drastically and don't fall back down this indicates that there is a high chance that the patient has diabetes. The insulin test can determine the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes; if the levels of insulin in the blood are high, the patient has Type 2 diabetes, and if there is no insulin in the blood the patient has Type 1. How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin? In type one diabetes the persons immune system attacks the pancreas causing it to shut down insulin production, leaving the person wit Continue reading >>

12 Myths About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes

12 Myths About Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin facts vs. fiction When you hear the word “insulin,” do you picture giant needles (ouch!) or pop culture portrayals of insulin users with low blood sugar (like Julia Roberts losing it in Steel Magnolias)? Either way, most people think of insulin as a difficult, painful, or potentially scary medical treatment. The problem is that if you have type 2 diabetes, you need to know the real deal before you can make an informed choice about whether or not this potentially lifesaving therapy is right for you. Here, we take a look at the facts and fiction about insulin when it comes to treating type 2 diabetes. Diabetics always need insulin Not necessarily. People with type 1 diabetes (about 5% to 10% of diabetics) do need insulin. If you have type 2, which includes 90% to 95% of all people with diabetes, you may not need insulin. Of adults with diabetes, only 14% use insulin, 13% use insulin and oral medication, 57% take oral medication only, and 16% control blood sugar with diet and exercise alone, according to the CDC. The point is to get blood sugar—which can be a highly toxic poison in the body—into the safe zone by any means necessary. Taking insulin means you’ve ‘failed’ “This is a big myth,” says Jill Crandall, MD, professor of clinical medicine and director of the diabetes clinical trial unit at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in the Bronx, N.Y. “Many people who try very hard to adhere to a diet, exercise, and lose weight will still need insulin.” The fact is that type 2 diabetes is a progressive illness, meaning that over time you may need to change what you do to make sure your blood sugar is in a healthy range. Eating right and exercise will always be important, but medication needs can vary. “A large percentage of people with ty Continue reading >>

What Does Insulin Do In My Body?

What Does Insulin Do In My Body?

Diabetes mellitus (MEL-ih-tus), often referred to as diabetes, is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels that result from the body’s inability to produce enough insulin and/or effectively utilize the insulin. Diabetes is a serious, life-long condition and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism (the body's way of digesting food and converting it into energy). There are three forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that accounts for five- to 10-percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for 90- to 95-percent of all diagnosed cases. The third type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy and is referred to as gestational diabetes. Left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause health issues for pregnant women and their babies. People with diabetes can take preventive steps to control this disease and decrease the risk of further complications. Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

History Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas gland, one of the glands in the endocrine system. Insulin, working in harmony with other hormones, regulates the level of blood sugar (glucose). Endocrine glands are ductless glands; that is, they pour their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. The pancreas, a gland in the upper abdomen, has cells within it that secrete insulin directly into the bloodstream. An insufficient level of insulin secretion leads to high blood sugar, a disease called diabetes mellitus or, simply, diabetes. Specifically, diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by the body’s inability to use the hormone insulin to effectively convert carbohydrates into the simple sugar glucose that cells store and use to perform vital functions. Without glucose to fuel their activity, the cells use fat instead, producing ketones as a waste product. Ketones build up in blood and disrupt brain functions. Common signs of diabetes are excessive thirst, urination, and fatigue. The disease can also cause vision loss, decreased blood supply to hands and feet, pain, and skin infections. If left untreated diabetes can induce coma and cause death. Diabetes often runs in families. In the United States about 10% of the Caucasian population suffers from diabetes, and it is even more common among African-American, Mexican-American, and certain Native American groups. The sixth leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes remains a major health problem. According to the American Diabetes Association, about 20.8 million children and adults (about 7% of the U.S. population), as of 2006, suffer from diabetes mellitus. About 14.6 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. However, about 6.2 million people (about one-third) do not know that they ha Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

Insulin. What Does It Do?

Insulin. What Does It Do?

Glucose comes from the digestion of almost all foods, especially starchy ones. We need insulin to make energy from the glucose in these foods. Insulin is a special chemical (hormone) made by the pancreas gland, and allows the glucose from the blood stream to get in to our body’s cells to give us energy. Without insulin the glucose remains in the bloodstream and cannot give us the energy we need. In someone who does not have diabetes the amount of insulin produced depends on the amount of glucose/starchy foods eaten and the energy used and needed. Blood glucose level stays between 3.5 mmol/L and 7 mmol/L What happens when there is not enough insulin? When the pancreas fails to make enough insulin the glucose remains in the blood stream and the blood glucose level rises. This may come on gradually but eventually the glucose levels in the blood rise so high that they spill out of the blood stream through the kidneys and into the urine. The high blood sugar also pulls water out of the bloodstream, causing you to pass additional urine. This in turn makes you very thirsty. If the glucose in the blood cannot be used for energy the body has to find other alternative fuels. The body begins to use up fat stored around the body, and when fat is used to give the body energy ketones form. High blood glucose levels and ketones can make you feel very unwell. Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Sugar Metabolism

Diabetes And Sugar Metabolism

Sugar metabolism is the process of turning the energy from the foods you eat into fuel your body's cells need to grow and function. If you have diabetes, you have a problem with insulin, which is an important hormone in sugar metabolism. Sugar Metabolism: From Food to Fuel When you eat foods, enzymes in the digestive process break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into amino acids, fatty acids, and simple sugars. These byproducts are absorbed into your blood, where they are available to be used as energy when your body needs it. The most important source of fuel for your body is a simple sugar called glucose, also known as blood sugar, which builds up in your blood after a meal. Blood sugar can then travel throughout your bloodstream to be used by cells throughout your body. Your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach, is in control of releasing hormones that tell your body whether to store or release energy for your body to use. One of these hormones, insulin, is essential for helping your body use blood sugar and preventing a build-up of blood sugar in your bloodstream. Insulin “unlocks” your cells to allow the sugar circulating in the blood to enter the cells where it can be turned into energy. After you have eaten a meal, your pancreas senses a rise in your blood sugar level and releases the precise amount of insulin needed to move sugar from your blood into your cells. How Diabetes Affects Sugar Metabolism If you have diabetes, your body has problems producing insulin, responding to insulin, or both. When insulin is not working as it should, blood sugar can build up, eventually spilling over into your urine. This can lead to diabetes symptoms such as increased urination and unexplained weight loss, since your body isn't able to use the energy from t Continue reading >>

Insulins

Insulins

Insulin is a hormone made naturally in the body by the pancreas. This hormone controls the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. People who have type 1 diabetes need to have regular insulin injections. In type 1 diabetes, the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar level goes very high. Some people who have type 2 diabetes may also need to have insulin injections to help control blood sugar levels. Insulin is usually injected under the skin between 2-4 times a day. There are different types of insulin available which are classified according to how quickly and for how long they work. Your doctor or diabetes nurse will discuss the various preparations and devices available and help you choose a regimen that is right for you. Treatment with insulin is usually lifelong. What is insulin and how does it work? What does insulin do? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Insulin is a hormone that is Continue reading >>

Insulin And Diabetes

Insulin And Diabetes

Discovered in 1922 by Frederick Banting and Charles Best, insulin is the hormone in our body that allows glucose (sugar) to get into the cells of our body that need glucose for energy. Produced in the pancreas, insulin is considered the “most powerful” hormone in the body. Every living mammal needs insulin to survive. Humans, cats, dogs, pigs, cows, and even dolphins all need in insulin in order to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Without enough insulin, your blood sugar can rise to dangerously high levels. People with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes do not make enough insulin, or their bodies are unable to make use of the insulin they are producing. Insulin resistance is commonly an aspect of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes in which the body needs more and more insulin to do the job of maintaining healthy blood sugar levels that it used to do with a lesser amount of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes do not make any insulin because a part of the pancreas that is responsible for producing insulin is being continuously attacked by their immune-system, making this form of diabetes an “autoimmune disorder.” People with type 1.5 diabetes, also known as LADA, are essentially type 1 diabetics who are very gradually producing less and less insulin over time, and may also experience some insulin resistance, similar to type 2. An easy way to think of insulin is to remember that it is the “key” necessary to unlock a cell so that sugar can enter it and be used for energy instead of staying in the bloodstream where the excess damages cells. For people who need to take external or supplemental insulin (insulin your body did not produce but that was instead made by a pharmaceutical company), there are several different types and kinds of insulin. The insulin you ta Continue reading >>

What Insulin Does

What Insulin Does

Insulin Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas (a gland that releases a digestive juice into the intestine). The pancreas is composed of acinar cells, which produce digestive enzymes, and the islet cells of Langerhans, which produce hormones. Four hormones are produced by the Langerhans islet cells. Insulin is produced in the B cells, glucagon in the A cells, somatostatin in the D cells, and pancreatic polypeptide in the F cells. Insulin promotes anabolism (building up of tissues) and inhibits catabolism (breaking down of tissues) in muscle, liver, and fat cells. It increases the rate of synthesis (blending) of glycogen, fatty acids, and proteins. Lack of insulin causes diabetes mellitus (a disease characterized by excess sugar in the blood and other body fluids). Insulin's most important feature is its ability to increase the rate of glucose (a crystalline sugar) absorption by cells. Glucose is the most efficient fuel used by and found in almost all cells. Insulin causes a decreased concentration of glucose in the blood and causes the cells to store glycogen (a starchlike substance), mostly in the liver. It also promotes the entry of other sugars and amino acids into the muscle and fat cells. Insulin is therefore responsible for promoting fat storage in fat cells and for the total quantity of protein in the body. Insulin Production Insulin production is stimulated by high levels of glucose and inhibited (limited) by lower levels of glucose. Insulin regulates glucose with glucagon. Glucagon catabolizes (changes into a product of simpler composition) glycogen to glucose and also raises the blood sugar. Glucagon can be given to increase the blood sugar when intravenous (by needle) glucose cannot be given. Glucagon takes about twenty minutes to raise the blood sugar Continue reading >>

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