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How Has The Discovery Of Insulin Changed The World

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes was a feared disease that most certainly led to death. Doctors knew that sugar worsened the condition of diabetic patients and that the most effective treatment was to put the patients on very strict diets where sugar intake was kept to a minimum. At best, this treatment could buy patients a few extra years, but it never saved them. In some cases, the harsh diets even caused patients to die of starvation. During the nineteenth century, observations of patients who died of diabetes often showed that the pancreas was damaged. In 1869, a German medical student, Paul Langerhans, found that within the pancreatic tissue that produces digestive juices there were clusters of cells whose function was unknown. Some of these cells were eventually shown to be the insulin-producing beta cells. Later, in honor of the person who discovered them, the cell clusters were named the islets of Langerhans. In 1889 in Germany, physiologist Oskar Minkowski and physician Joseph von Mering, showed that if the pancreas was removed from a dog, the animal got diabetes. But if the duct through which the pancreatic juices flow to the intestine was ligated - surgically tied off so the juices couldn't reach the intestine - the dog developed minor digestive problems but no diabetes. So it seemed that the pancreas must have at least two functions: To produce digestive juices To produce a substance that regulates the sugar glucose This hypothetical internal secretion was the key. If a substance could actually be isolated, the mystery of diabetes would be solved. Progress, however, was slow. Banting's Idea In October 1920 in Toronto, Canada, Dr. Frederick Banting, an unknown surgeon with a bachelor's degree in medicine, had the idea that the pancreatic digestive ju Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

Conclusion “A person who is an insulin dependant diabetic must have insulin. Without it, they die... insulin is life-sustaining. It is, for people who only have a partial deficit of insulin, still the most powerful way to reduce the blood sugar in those people. So it is a very powerful tool” (Hellman). The impact of Dr. Banting's research is seen in 23.6 million children and adults in the United States who have diabetes today, many of whom depend on insulin. Every 20 seconds, someone learns they have diabetes and in the next 24 hours, 4,320 new cases will be diagnosed ("Diabetes Statistics"). Because of insulin, many of these people have the opportunity to live longer, stronger, and free of suffering. As a type one diabetic for nearly eight years now, my life depends on insulin every day. I have had my own small encounters with extremely high blood sugars, and find the pain and discomfort hard to bear for just an hour or two. I cannot imagine being forced to live my whole life in pain without hope of relief. Insulin is only a diabetic treatment. A cure has yet to be discovered. However, I strongly believe that insulin is by far one of the most significant innovations in the medical field, and its impact on diabetics' lives has changed the world for the better. Continue reading >>

A Book That Changed Me: The Discovery Of Insulin

A Book That Changed Me: The Discovery Of Insulin

For a diabetes physician, Bliss's classic book is like The Creation. The Discovery of Insulin is the true tale of the medical and scientific detective work and intrigue that led to what is arguably one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century. But because it was not a cure, it was also one of the century's premier disappointments. When I first read the book in the 1980s I couldn't put it down, and the hair on my neck still rises when I look at those handwritten notes penned during that hot Toronto summer of 1921. The story reads like one of Berton Rouche's medical detective tales or a Michael Crichton science fiction novel. Imagine the following absurd scenario for a research proposal. A young surgeon with no bench research experience has his curiosity piqued by a casual journal article. He goes to his former professor of physiology at an obscure medical school and asks for some space and supplies to attempt to isolate the internal secretion of the pancreasa task which researchers over the world (with one exception) had failed to achieve for half a century. The professor, leaving for his summer holiday, reluctantly gives his permission plus the assistance of an untried medical student. A late addition to the team is a biochemist to help purify the stuff. In the course of that summer this unlikely team achieve the impossible: they isolate the active secretion of the pancreas, and the rest, as they say, is history. But not so fast. When the Nobel Prize is handed out in 1923, it is only the absent professor (Macleod) and the surgeon (Frederick Banting) who are honoured. They, with some degree of rancour, announce that they will each share their portion of the prize with someone else. Banting gives a share to the medical student, Charles Best, while Macleod shares Continue reading >>

Canadainthe20sand30s - Discovery Of Insulin

Canadainthe20sand30s - Discovery Of Insulin

Diabetes. Heard of it? Well, over 1,500,000 people are affected by diabetes in Canada every year. About 10% of people that have diabetes, have type one diabetes, which is usually diagnosed in children or teenagers. The lingering 90% have type two diabetes, which usually affects adults but recently in some cases mostly in high risk populations, children are also being diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes, offcially known as diabetes mellitus, is a serious disese that affects blood glucose levels. A diabetics body either doesnt provide enough insulin to process blood glucose or the tissues in a diabetics body doesnt use the insulin properly. Now, diabetes has been documented for a long time and the charateristics and causes of diabetes may be different for each patient and the type of diabetes they have. Treatments for diabetes were unheard of, until and only after the isolation and discovery of inuslin by Federick Banting, J.J.R. Macleod and with the help of Charles Best and J.B Collip. What is Insulin?...................................................................................................................................... Insulin is a peptide protein hormone that comes from the pancreas. Insulin is the most important hormone for fuel storage it affects your carbohydrates, fat and protein throughout your entire body. For example when you are eating your body (pancreases) releases a certain amount of insulin to break down your food, the amount we eat and what we eat affects our blood glucose levels. Glucose is a kind of blood sugar our bodys process from the sugar and starch in our food, our bodies use the glucose as a kind of energy. When the pancreas is not releasing the right amount of insulin the body needs, the glucose is stored in the bodys cells and build Continue reading >>

Th Discovery Of Insulin

Th Discovery Of Insulin

Transcript of Th Discovery of Insulin The Discovery of Insulin Introduction Frederick Banting was a Canadian medical scientist who made one of the most important discoveries in medical history. Frederick was born in Ontario, near Alliston on November 14th, 1891, and was born as the youngest of five children in the Banting family. He spent his childhood in Allistion, and was educated at public elementary and high schools. Banting studied medicine during his time at the University of Toronto, and was able to join the Canadian Army as a medic in World War I. Once the war was over, Frederick worked in Sick Kids Hospital in Toronto. His interest in diabetes was sparked by a medical article, which was about the pancreas. This article connected the hormonal protein released by the Islets of Langerhans, called Insulin, and the digestive enzymes created in the pancreas. These enzymes were observed to destroy the important hormone that regulates the metobalism of sugar, causing the disease that was known as "Diabetes". Attempts had been previously made by scientists studying Diabetes to feed patients parts of fresh pancreas to supply the missing Insulin. However, the experiments always resulted in failure, as the pancreatic enzymes destroyed the Islet's protein. This puzzled Banting. How could the Insulin be safely isolated before it was destroyed? He continued to research the topic until he came across another article, this time by a scientist named Moses Barron. In his arcticle, Barron said that if the pancreatic ducts are tied, then the enzymes cannnot reach the intestines, and the Islet's Insulin can be protected. This gave Banting the idea that if the ducts were tied long enough, and the amount of enzymes in the pancreas drop, then Insulin could be safely extracted. Banting Continue reading >>

How The Discovery Of Insulin Changed Lives Of People With Diabetes Forever

How The Discovery Of Insulin Changed Lives Of People With Diabetes Forever

How the discovery of insulin changed lives of people with diabetes forever Exactly 90 years ago today, the first insulin injection was given. Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email Exactly 90 years ago today, the first insulin injection was given. Today, more than 59,000 people in Wales, depend on insulin for their daily survival. Health Editor Madeleine Brindley looks at the incredible impact insulin has had ON JANUARY 23, 1922, a 14-year-old boy called Leonard Thompson became the first person to receive an injection of insulin. He had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes two years previously and, like others with the condition, was not expected to survive. The insulin injection 90 years ago today was actually Leonards second. Twelve days previously, on January 11, he had his first, which caused an allergic reaction, probably because of an impurity. A refining process was developed to improve the beef pancreas extract and the second dosage resulted in a marked improvement in his health. Insulin transformed him from a 65-pound boy who was close to death as a result of malnourishment the only treatment at the time for diabetes was a starvation diet to live into adulthood. Leonard lived for a further 13 years, eventually dying of pneumonia at age 27. Since that early start, insulin has become a daily reality for more than 59,000 people in Wales today and the difference, literally between life and death. Dr Meurig Williams, a consultant physician at Prince Philip Hospital, in Llanelli and chair of the Hywel Dda diabetes network, said: Insulin was one of the great discoveries of the 20th century, theres no doubt about that. It not only saved the lives of people with type 1 diabetes and allowed them to live an essentially normal existence when they would have died Continue reading >>

Dr. Bantings Discovery Of Insulin Canadas Gift To The World

Dr. Bantings Discovery Of Insulin Canadas Gift To The World

Dr. Bantings discovery of insulin Canadas gift to the world Canada has numerous discoveries in the medical field that have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and benefit millions and millions of people around the world every year. One of Canadas incredible breakthroughs that will never be forgotten is the discovery of insulin a hormone created by the pancreas, which helps body to keep blood sugar at a stable level and control it from getting too low or high. Diabetes has no boundaries, no age or ethnic group and insulin is Canadas gift to the world, said Grant Maltman, curator of the Banting House National Historic Site of Canada for Diabetes Canada in London, Ontario, where Sir Frederick Grant Banting gave birth to the historic idea in 1920. The legacy today through the discovery of insulin is millions of people around the world. They no longer die of diabetes. Now they are able to live long, healthy and productive lives. Dr. Banting was a medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate. He was one of the most distinguished scientists of Canada. He was a medical student at the University of Toronto when he volunteered for the Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) on September 8, 1915. His studies were fast-tracked to meet the need for more doctors in the army and served in military hospitals in England. After the war, Banting returned to the University of Toronto to complete his surgical training. In July 1920, he decided to establish a general practice of medicine and surgery in London, Ontario. Later, he took a part-time appointment as a demonstrator in physiology at the University of Western Ontario. On October 31, 1920, he was preparing for a lecture on the pancreas and read a number of articles. That night he had a restless sleep. At 2 a.m. in the morning, an idea ca Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

It was the early 1920s and a small-town Canadian doctor was just starting out in practice. But he had so few patients that he couldn't afford to get married. To supplement his meager income he decided to take a part-time job as an instructor in the Western University Medical School's department of physiology in Toronto. The job paid about $10 per week. That doctor and that job changed the world. The doctor's name was Frederick Banting. He discovered insulin. The Book The Discovery of Insulin by Michael Bliss is the brilliant, definitive history of what is arguably the most significant and controversial medical event of modern times. It is certainly the most important medical discovery for every insulin-dependent diabetic on the planet. When insulin was discovered at the University of Toronto in 1921-22, even hardened professionals marveled at its miraculous effect in bringing starved, sometimes comatose, people with diabetes back to life. One of the most sensational of all therapies in its impact, insulin symbolized and stimulated our century's commitment to medical research. There have been few more fitting awards than that of the 1923 Nobel Prize in medicine for the discovery of insulin. But few awards have generated more controversy. Bliss tells this story exceptionally well from beginning to end. Bliss tracks the genesis of the discovery back to October 1920. Banting's boss had asked him to prepare a lecture on carbohydrate metabolism. Fortunately, Banting knew almost nothing about the subject. The Lecture To bone up on it he went to the medical school's library and prepared his lecture on the afternoon of October 30. Unable to sleep that night, at 2 a.m. he jotted down 25 words that would lead him to his great discovery: Diabetus Ligate pancreatic ducts of dogs. Ke Continue reading >>

Insulin: Discovery And Controversy

Insulin: Discovery And Controversy

During the first two decades of the 20th century, several investigators prepared extracts of pancreas that were often successful in lowering blood sugar and reducing glycosuria in test animals. However, they were unable to remove impurities, and toxic reactions prevented its use in humans with diabetes. In the spring of 1921, Frederick G. Banting, a young Ontario orthopedic surgeon, was given laboratory space by J.J.R. Macleod, the head of physiology at the University of Toronto, to investigate the function of the pancreatic islets. A student assistant, Charles Best, and an allotment of dogs were provided to test Banting’s hypothesis that ligation of the pancreatic ducts before extraction of the pancreas, destroys the enzyme-secreting parts, whereas the islets of Langerhans, which were believed to produce an internal secretion regulating sugar metabolism, remained intact. He believed that earlier failures were attributable to the destructive action of trypsin. The name “insuline” had been introduced in 1909 for this hypothetic substance. Their experiments produced an extract of pancreas that reduced the hyperglycemia and glycosuria in dogs made diabetic by the removal of their pancreases. They next developed a procedure for extraction from the entire pancreas without the need for duct ligation. This extract, now made from whole beef pancreas, was successful for treating humans with diabetes. Facilitating their success was a development in clinical chemistry that allowed blood sugar to be frequently and accurately determined in small volumes of blood. Success with purification was largely the work of J.B. Collip. Yield and standardization were improved by cooperation with Eli Lilly and Company. When the Nobel Prize was awarded to Banting and Macleod for the discove Continue reading >>

Inside The Story: The Discovery Of Insulin

Inside The Story: The Discovery Of Insulin

The Intrigue Behind the Discovery and Early Use of Insulin! By Dace Trence, MD, FACE So much of what we are told about discoveries is a simplified version of what really happens in the scientific world. Scientists are human, just like the rest of us, and the path to discovery can be a very interesting story that shows just how human scientists are. Such a story lies behind the discovery of insulin and its’ travels to market—a drug that we all tend to take for granted in the world of diabetes! Elizabeth Hughes was a cheerful, pretty little girl who grew up in the early 1900s. She had straight brown hair and a large interest in birds. She was diagnosed with diabetes when she was 11. Doctors started her on the Dr. Frederick Allen diet, the only treatment for diabetes mellitus type 1 at that time. The diet was basically a starvation diet. She started to lose weight and got to 65 pounds, then to 52 pounds, then to only 45 pounds after a dangerous episode of diarrhea. And she was 5 feet tall! She had survived on the diet for three years—far longer than her doctors had predicted—but she was getting sicker. Then her desperate mother heard some incredible news: insulin was tested in Canadian dogs with diabetes and they recovered from near death! Who was the scientist who tested insulin in the dogs? It was Frederick Banting, a very awkward Ontario farm boy. He graduated from medical school as an average student and began working in a laboratory at the University of Toronto. During a very hot summer in 1921, Banting and his assistant Charles Best experimented on diabetic dogs, with dismal results. But when they got to dog number 92, a yellow collie, she jumped off the table after an injection of pancreas extract and began to wag her tail. Dr. Banting’s mentor and lab dir Continue reading >>

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

The History Of A Wonderful Thing We Call Insulin

Since the dawn of time, we have searched for ways to make life easier for us. The modern age has given us some amazing technological advances—what we would do without the internet, our iPhones or high-speed travel? For many people, surviving life without these things sounds rough. However, if you have diabetes, no doubt you’re also a big fan of one particular 20th-century discovery: insulin. Before insulin was discovered in 1921, people with diabetes didn’t live for long; there wasn’t much doctors could do for them. The most effective treatment was to put patients with diabetes on very strict diets with minimal carbohydrate intake. This could buy patients a few extra years but couldn’t save them. Harsh diets (some prescribed as little as 450 calories a day!) sometimes even caused patients to die of starvation. So how did this wonderful breakthrough blossom? Let’s travel back a little more than 100 years ago.… In 1889, two German researchers, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering, found that when the pancreas gland was removed from dogs, the animals developed symptoms of diabetes and died soon afterward. This led to the idea that the pancreas was the site where “pancreatic substances” (insulin) were produced. Later experimenters narrowed this search to the islets of Langerhans (a fancy name for clusters of specialized cells in the pancreas). In 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Shafer suggested only one chemical was missing from the pancreas in people with diabetes. He decided to call this chemical insulin, which comes for the Latin word insula, meaning “island.” So what happened next? Something truly miraculous. In 1921, a young surgeon named Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best figured out how to remove insulin from a dog’s pancreas. S Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

For many years scientists believed that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas was the key to preventing diabetes and controlling normal metabolism. No one could find it, until in the summer of 1921 a team at the University of Toronto began trying a new experimental approach suggested by Dr. Frederick Banting. By the spring of 1922, the Toronto researchers — Banting, Charles Best, J.B. Collip and their supervisor, J.J.R. Macleod, were able to announce the discovery of insulin. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize for one of the most important, and most controversial, breakthroughs in modern medical history. Early Research For many centuries people knew about diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes), but it was only dimly understood until the end of the 19th century. Initially, the body’s inability to process carbohydrates and other nutrients, signified most obviously by the presence of sugar in the urine, was thought to be a liver or a stomach disorder. In 1889 German researchers Oskar Minkowski and Josef von Mehring discovered that dogs that had their pancreas removed immediately became severely and fatally diabetic. Something in the pancreas appeared to be essential to prevent diabetes. Researchers immediately began to try to find the mysterious substance. Results were mostly negative; for example, feeding pancreas to diabetic patients did no good. Still, new knowledge about the body’s dependence on chemical messengers — or hormones — added plausibility to the hypothesis that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas maintains normal metabolism. The gland was already known to have an external secretion, digestive juices that flow into the duodenum. Another German researcher, Paul Langerhans, had discovered a separa Continue reading >>

Frederick Banting’s Discovery Of Insulin In The 1920s Saved A Child's Life. It’s Still Saving Lives.

Frederick Banting’s Discovery Of Insulin In The 1920s Saved A Child's Life. It’s Still Saving Lives.

Toban B. / Flickr In the 1800s, the life expectancy for a 10-year-old child with Type 1 diabetes was about one year. Now people with Type 1 diabetes can expect to live around 68 years on average. One big reason why: the discovery of the hormone insulin by a team led by Frederick Banting, an early-20th-century scientist from Canada, which revolutionized treatment for the disease. Today, we celebrate Banting’s 125th birthday with a Google Doodle in his honor and with World Diabetes Day. Banting and his colleagues cracked a mystery that was thousands of years old Diabetes is one of the first human diseases on record. Ancient Egyptian manuscripts from as far back as 1500 BC mention a disease “characterized by the ‘too great emptying of urine.’” Around 500 BC, an Indian physician described patients with urine so sweet and sticky it attracted ants. These ancient reports were likely of Type 1 diabetes, the autoimmune version of the disease where antibodies damage the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin. Insulin is the hormone responsible for taking sugar out of the bloodstream and transferring it into the body’s cells, where it can be used for energy. When the body stops making insulin, blood sugar rises. And unchecked high blood sugar can lead to a range of complications — from deteriorating eyesight to nerve damage to the buildup of chemicals called ketones in the blood. Ketones at high levels can be poisonous, causing the blood to turn acidic. (In Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still produces insulin, but the body has become resistant to its effects. It’s a metabolic disease, rather than an autoimmune disease.) While ancient physicians recognized that the disease was a result of mismanagement of the body’s sugar, they didn’t know what caused it. (D Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

The Discovery Of Insulin: A Medical Marvel For The Sugar Sickness

Hope at Last “The extract at this time was sufficiently purified to be tested on three cases of diabetes mellitus in the wards of the Toronto General Hospital,” (Banting 4) Once the purification of insulin was sufficient for human use, Banting and Best published "The Internal Secretion of the Pancreas," in the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine (Lerner). The team now had scientists' attention worldwide. Miracle Drug A published account of a diabetic woman's success with insulin: “Her response to the insulin treatment was immediate. The injections of the extract which have been administered subcutaneously, generally once or twice a day since she has been here have provided the element in her blood which accomplished the necessary oxidation of sugar and she has accordingly been able to extend her diet until it is practically normal. There has been a consequent general improvement in her physique as indicated by the gain in weight and her bright, attractive personality is permitted to reassert itself.” (“Miss Hughes, Ill of Diabetes, Gains by Insulin ‘Cure’”) Continue reading >>

Discovery Of Insulin

Discovery Of Insulin

The discovery of insulin was one of the most dramatic and important milestones in medicine - a Nobel Prize-winning moment in science. Witnesses to the first people ever to be treated with insulin saw "one of the genuine miracles of modern medicine," says the author of a book charting its discovery.1 Starved and sometimes comatose patients with diabetes would return to life after receiving insulin. But how and when was the discovery made, and who made it? How and when was insulin discovered? The discovery of insulin did not come out of the blue; it was made on the back of a growing understanding of diabetes mellitus during the nineteenth century. Diabetes itself had been understood by its symptoms as far back as the 1600s - when it was described as the "pissing evile" - and the urination and thirst associated with it had been recognized thousands of years before. A feared and usually deadly disease, doctors in the nineteenth century knew that sugar worsened diabetes and that limited help could be given by dietary restriction of sugar. But if that helped, it also caused death from starvation. Scientists observed the damaged pancreases of people who died with diabetes. In 1869, a German medical student found clusters of cells in the pancreas that would go on to be named after him. Paul Langerhans had discovered the beta cells that produce insulin. Other work in animals then showed that carbohydrate metabolism was impossible once the pancreas was removed - the amount of sugar in the blood and urine rose sharply, and death from diabetes soon followed. In 1889, Oscar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering removed a dog's pancreas to study its effects on digestion. They found sugar in the dog's urine after flies were noticed feeding off it. In humans, doctors would once have diagnose Continue reading >>

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