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How Genetic Engineering Can Be Used To Produce Human Insulin?

5.2.3. Genetic Engineering

5.2.3. Genetic Engineering

define the term recombinant DNA; explain that genetic engineering involves the extraction of genes from one organism, or the manufacture of genes, in order to place them in another organism (often of a different species) such that the receiving organism expresses the gene product (HSW6a); describe how sections of DNA containing a desired gene can be extracted from a donor organism using restriction enzymes; explain how isolated DNA fragments can be placed in plasmids, with reference to the role of ligase; state other vectors into which fragments of DNA may be incorporated; Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA = A section of DNA, often in the form of a plasmid, which is formed by joining DNA sections from two different sources For genetic engineering, you must: Obtain the gene Copy it and place it into a vector Vector carries gene to cell Cell expresses gene in protein synthesis Obtaining the Gene mRNA from transcription can be used as a template to make a copy of the gene Gene can be sequenced using an automated polynucleotide sequencer (markers etc.) DNA probe used to locate the gene, then gene cut out using restriction enzymes Placing Gene in Vector Sealed in a bacterial plasmid (bit of DNA) using DNA ligase Sealed into virus genomes or yeast chromosomes Inserting into recipient Genes in vector are large so... Electroporation = high voltage pulse disrupts membrane Microinjection = DNA injected using a micro-pipette Viral transfer = virus vector infects cells Ti plasmid = circular DNA in bacteria that infects a plant’s genome Liposomes = DNA wrapped in lipids that are fat soluble and diffuse across the lipid membrane Cutting and Sticking Recombinant DNA made by cutting DNA and sticking it together Restriction enzymes from bacteria cut DNA at specific points Restricti Continue reading >>

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

1. What is biotechnology?1 Biotechnology is the application of biological knowledge to obtain new techniques, materials and compounds for pharmaceutical, medical, agricultural, industrial and scientific use, that is, for practical use. The first fields of biotechnology were agriculture and the food industry. Nowadays, many other practical fields use its techniques. Genetic engineering is the use of genetic knowledge to artificially manipulate genes. It is one of the fields of biotechnology. 3. At the present level of advancement of biotechnology, what are the main techniques of genetic engineering? The main genetic engineering techniques used today are: recombinant DNA technology (also called genetic engineering), in which pieces of genes from an organism are inserted into the genetic material of another organism to produce recombinant organisms; nucleus transplantation technology, popularly known as “cloning”, in which the nucleus of a cell is grafted into an enucleated egg cell of the same species to create a genetic copy of the donor (of the nucleus) individual; and DNA amplification technology, or PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which allows to produce millions of replications of the chosen fragments of a DNA molecule. Recombinant DNA technology is used to create transgenic organisms, such as mutant insulin-producing bacteria. Nucleus transplantation technology is in its initial development but is the basis, for example, of the creation of “Dolly” the sheep. PCR has numerous p1ractical uses, such as in medical tests to detect microorganisms present in blood and tissues, DNA fingerprinting and the obtainment of DNA samples for research. Restriction Enzymes and Recombinant DNA Technology 4. What are restriction enzymes? How do these enzymes participate in rec Continue reading >>

Transgenics

Transgenics

Transgenics refers to the movement of genes between organisms of different species. The transferred gene is called a transgene. Transgenes can alter the phenotype of the receiver. A transgene can be used by the cell to produce a new protein that the cell could not make before. There are two important types of transgenics to be aware of: Natural transgenics: Bacteria are capable of transferring genetic material between individuals without reproducing. This is called conjugation. Human uses of transgenics: Scientists are able to create transgenic bacteria, flies and mice! This is called genetic engineering. Genetic engineering uses transgenics to generate organisms with desired phenotypes. A plasmid is a small, circular DNA molecule in bacteria. Scientists use plasmids to add useful genes into other bacteria, plants and even animals: Genetic engineering is used to produce human insulin protein on an industrial scale. Insulin is required for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The human insulin gene has been inserted into bacteria using genetic engineering. These bacteria now produce human insulin. The bacteria are grown in a fermenter: There are several advantages to this method of insulin production: Human insulin: the old method of insulin production used insulin from pigs or calves. This can cause an immune reaction and has ethical objections. Large-scale production: the bacteria are grown in vast amounts. Purer product: the bacteria secrete the insulin, making it very easy to separate from the bacteria and harvest. Much cheaper: the process is roughly 1% of the cost of extracting insulin from a pig pancreas. Genetic engineering has been a topic of fierce ethical and moral debate. It is important to understand both sides of the discussion. The table gives some examples Continue reading >>

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Continue reading >>

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering involves the extraction of a gene from one living organism and inserting it into another organism, so that the receiving organism can express the product of the gene. A basic technique used is the genetic engineering of bacteria. It can be broken into the following key stages: Selection of characteristics. Identifying the gene from amongst all the others in the DNA of the donor organism. Isolation of the gene. Obtaining a copy of the required gene from the DNA of the donor organism and placing it in a vector. (A vector in biology refers to an organism that acts as a vehicle to transfer genetic material from a donor organism to a target cell in a recipient organism.) Insertion Use the vector to introduce the gene into the host cell. Replication Allow the host cell to multiply to make multiple clones of the genes. Example of Genetically Engineered Bacteria – Production of Human Insulin An example of genetically engineered bacteria is in the production of human insulin. Insulin is a protein hormone produced in the pancreas which has an important function in the regulation of blood sugar levels. Insulin facilitates the transport of glucose into cells. A deficiency in insulin is one of the causes of the disease diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes in which the sugar levels in the blood become raised resulting in harmful consequences. At least 3% of the world’s population is affected by diabetes mellitus and sufferers of the disease require insulin injections to manage the disease. Pure Mouse Isotype Controls - IgG subclasses, IgA, IgM, IgE. Ad ICL - A trusted producer of high quality antibodies since 1977. icllab.com Learn more Before genetic engineering, insulin used for treatment was sourced from the pancreas of slaughtered pigs and cattle. This sour Continue reading >>

Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)

Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)

Image: Africa Studio via Shutterstock.com The American Juvenile Diabetes Association estimates that about 3 million Americans suffer from type 1 diabetes. So perhaps, you, like me, know somebody who needs insulin in order to survive. Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. I first learned about diabetes in grade school when a friend was diagnosed. His pancreas stopped producing the insulin his body needed, and he began drinking lots of water and feeling very sick. I went to the hospital with his family and learned how to give insulin injections and understand blood sugar measurements. One thing I didn’t learn at the time is the amazing biotechnology story behind the tiny bottles of life-saving insulin that showed up in his refrigerator. Insulin was first produced in the 1920s by scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best. Banting and Best had discovered that insulin was the hormone that diabetics lacked, and they figured out a way to harvest insulin from animal pancreases. In what is commonly described as one of medicine’s “most dramatic moments,” scientists went into a diabetic children’s ward, injecting the comatose and dying children with this insulin. By the time they reached the far end of the ward, children on the near end were already waking up. The refining process for insulin was perfected, and up until the 1980s, people around the world relied on insulin from pigs and cows to lift the death sentence of diabetes. But porcine and bovine insulin, although similar to the human variety, were not exactly the same. Although most people have no problem using insulin from these animals, some reacted poorly to it. The chemical structure of human insulin Continue reading >>

Why The Future Of Drugs Is In Genetically Engineered Microbes

Why The Future Of Drugs Is In Genetically Engineered Microbes

Earlier this year, experts and law enforcement agencies worried about the possibility of cheap, home-brew heroin when two teams of scientists reported that they had created genetically engineered yeast strains that could almost make morphine from sugar. With morphine-making yeast, a would-be Walter White could brew heroin in an Albuquerque basement without relying on opioids extracted from poppies grown halfway across the world. The new genetically engineered yeast couldn’t quite go all the way from sugar to morphine, but it was clearly only a matter of time before someone made a strain that could. Three months later, a third team of scientists, led by synthetic biologist Christina Smolke at Stanford University, finished the job. In a paper out last month, the scientists describe two genetically engineered yeast strains that metabolize sugar into opioids. While the risk of home-brewed heroin posed by these yeast strains is small—the opioid yield is very low, and, instead of morphine, the yeast make opioids that are harder to process into heroin—the implications of this work are large. These genetically engineered microbes are part of a major technical advance that could change how we make, distribute, price, and regulate drugs. With morphine-making yeast, a would-be Walter White could brew heroin in an Albuquerque basement without relying on opioids extracted from poppies grown halfway across the world. Though the new yeast strains are an important development, the use of genetically engineered microbes to make drugs is not new. Back in 1982, Eli Lilly began selling recombinant human insulin, the first drug produced by genetically modified bacteria. Before then, diabetics relied on animal insulin obtained from pork or beef pancreases, which were supplied in limite Continue reading >>

What Is The Use Of Genetic Engineering To Transfer Human Genes Into Bacteria?

What Is The Use Of Genetic Engineering To Transfer Human Genes Into Bacteria?

Transferring a human gene into bacteria is a useful way of making more of that gene’s protein product. It is also a way of creating mutant forms of a human gene that can be reintroduced into human cells. Inserting human DNA into bacteria is also a way of storing the entire human genome in a frozen "library" for later access. Production of Medicine A gene contains information to make a protein. Some proteins are life-sustaining molecules in humans. By inserting a human gene into a bacterium, scientists can produce large amounts of the protein that is encoded by the gene. The production of insulin is a perfect example. Some diabetes patients need insulin injections in order to survive. Human insulin is produced through the use of bacteria. It’s Cold in This Library Bacteria contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Plasmids have regions that can be cut such that a human gene can be inserted into the plasmid. The entire human genome -- all the genes in a human -- can be cut into small pieces. These pieces can be inserted into plasmids that are then inserted into bacteria. Each bacterial cell contains one piece of human DNA and can be grown into a colony of many bacteria that contain the same piece of DNA. In this way the human genome can be stored in a freezer that is like a library. Instead of books, the freezer contains vials of bacteria; each vial contains a piece of the human genome. Creating Mutants Another advantage of inserting a human gene into a bacterium is that you can mutate that gene at any location within its sequence. You can even cut out chunks of the gene. These mutations do not hurt the bacteria, which produces the protein from the mutated gene as it would do for any other gene in the plasmid. This method allows scientists to isolate a hum Continue reading >>

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

For a non-technical introduction to the topic of genetics, see Introduction to genetics. For the song by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, see Genetic Engineering (song). Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974. The first company to focus on genetic engineering, Genentech, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. Genetically engineered human insulin was produced in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria were commercialised in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato. The Flavr Savr was engineered to have a longer shelf life, but most current GM crops are Continue reading >>

Genetic Engineering Products

Genetic Engineering Products

Overview of Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use of biological techniques and engineered organisms to make products or plants and animals that have desired traits. Learning Objectives Describe the historical development of biotechnology Key Takeaways For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diganostic tests. Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. nanotechnology: the science and technology of creating nanoparticles and of manufacturing machines which have sizes within the range of nanometres People have used biotechnology processes, such as selectively breeding animals and fermentation, for thousands of years. Late 19th and early 20th century discoveries of how microorganisms carry out commercially useful processes and how they cause disease led to the commercial production of vaccines and antibiotics. Improved methods for animal breeding have also resulted from these efforts. Scientists in the San Francisco Bay Area took a giant step forward with the discovery and development of recombinant DNA techniques in the 1970s. The field of biotechnology continues to accelerate with new discoveries and new applications expected to benefit the economy throughout the 21st century. In its broadest definition, biotechnology is the application of biological techniques and engineered Continue reading >>

# 104 Genetic Engineering, Putting Human Insulin Genes Into Bacteria

# 104 Genetic Engineering, Putting Human Insulin Genes Into Bacteria

Genetic engineering is a process of taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species. The control of all the normal activities of a bacterium depends upon its single chromosome and small rings of genes called plasmids. In genetic engineering pieces of chromosome from a different organism can be inserted into a plasmid. This allows the bacteria to make a new substance. Using genetic engineering to put human insulin genes into bacteria Human cells with genes for healthy insulin are selected. A chromosome (a length of DNA) is removed from the cell. The insulin gene is cut from the chromosome using restriction endonuclease enzyme. A suitable bacterial cell is selected. Some of its DNA is in the form of circular plasmids. All the plasmids are removed from the bacterial cell. The plasmids are cut open using the same restriction endonuclease enzyme. The human insulin gene is inserted into the plasmids using ligase enzyme. The plasmid are returned to the bacterial cell (only one is shone in the diagram). The bacterial cell is allowed to reproduce in a fermenter. All the cells produced contain plasmids with the human insulin gene. The importance of this process Diabetics need a source of insulin to control their blood sugar level. In the past cow insulin has been used, but some people are allergic to it. Human insulin produced from genetically engineered bacteria will not trigger an allergic reaction. The insulin is acceptable to people with a range of religious belief who may not be allowed to use insulin form animals such as cows or pigs. The product is very pure. Human insulin can be made on a commercial scale, reducing costs. Video Genetic Engineering Video Genetically Engineered Insulin Continue reading >>

Interactive Resources For Schools

Interactive Resources For Schools

Drag the bases into the correct sequences to form the amino acid chain DNA sequence amino acid chain adenine cytosine guanine guanine guanine thymine thymine thymine thymine Details of the enzymes involved. Genetically-engineered bacteria are grown in large stainless steel fermentation vessels. The vessel contains all the nutrients needed for growth. When the fermentation is complete, the mixture containing the bacteria is removed from the fermentation vessel. The bacteria are filtered off and broken open to release the insulin they have produced. The insulin is separated from all the other proteins and organelles from inside the bacteria and once purified it is packaged for distribution. All the equipment is kept sterile to prevent contamination and regular checks make sure that the insulin meets the required quality standards. Drag these processes into the correct order for making human insulin from genetically engineered bacteria. Continue reading >>

Gene Therapy And Genetic Engineering

Gene Therapy And Genetic Engineering

For bacteria to make insulin, where do they get the insulin gene to insert into the bacteria? -A graduate student from California Back in the 1970's scientists managed to coax bacteria into making the insulin that many people need to treat their diabetes. They did this by putting the human insulin gene into the bacteria. The insulin gene they used came from human DNA. The scientists were able to get this gene in a couple of different ways. Neither of which was very easy back in the 70's! One group managed to make it on a machine called a DNA synthesizer. Like its name sounds, this machine makes DNA. Luckily the insulin gene is small since these machines could only make small snippets of DNA. A second group managed to fish it out of human DNA. This was done by putting random pieces of human DNA into bacteria and finding the bacterium that had the insulin gene. This is really hard to do but used to be the only way to get big pieces of DNA. Nowadays, what with the human genome project, it'd be much easier. By knowing just a bit about the gene they're interested in, scientists can just go look it up on the computer. Then they can simply pluck the DNA they're interested in right out of a tube of human DNA. Of course getting the gene isn't enough. You also need to get it into bacteria and have the bacteria be able to read the gene. Then you need to purify the insulin away from the bacteria. Luckily you only asked about the first part so I'll focus on that. What I thought I'd do is go over how scientists originally got the insulin gene. Then we'll look at what they might do now in a similar situation. But first, we're going to need to go into a little background. We need to go over what genes and proteins are and how they're related. Only then will we see how scientists were a Continue reading >>

What Is Genetic Engineering?

What Is Genetic Engineering?

Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of DNA to alter an organism’s characteristics (phenotype) in a particular way. What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering, sometimes called genetic modification, is the process of altering the DNA? in an organism’s genome?. This may mean changing one base pair? (A-T or C-G), deleting a whole region of DNA, or introducing an additional copy of a gene?. It may also mean extracting DNA from another organism’s genome and combining it with the DNA of that individual. Genetic engineering is used by scientists to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism. For example, genetic engineering can be used to produce plants that have a higher nutritional value or can tolerate exposure to herbicides. How does genetic engineering work? To help explain the process of genetic engineering we have taken the example of insulin, a protein? that helps regulate the sugar levels in our blood. Normally insulin? is produced in the pancreas?, but in people with type 1 diabetes? there is a problem with insulin production. People with diabetes therefore have to inject insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Genetic engineering has been used to produce a type of insulin, very similar to our own, from yeast and bacteria? like E. coli?. This genetically modified insulin, ‘Humulin’ was licensed for human use in 1982. The genetic engineering process A small section is then cut out of the circular plasmid by restriction enzymes, ‘molecular scissors’. The gene for human insulin is inserted into the gap in the plasmid. This plasmid is now genetically modified. The genetically modified plasmid is introduced into a new bacteria or yeast cell. This cell then divides rapidly and starts making insulin. To create Continue reading >>

What Was The First Commercial Use Of Genetic Engineering?

What Was The First Commercial Use Of Genetic Engineering?

Recombinant DNA technology was first used commercially to produce human insulin from bacteria. In 1982, genetically-engineered insulin was approved for use by diabetics. People with certain types of diabetes inject themselves daily with insulin, a protein hormone that regulated blood sugar. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas, and the pancreases of slaughtered animals such as swine or sheep were used as a source of insulin. What Was The First Commercial Use Of Genetic Engineering? (continued) To provide a reliable source of human insulin, researchers obtained from human cells strands of DNA carrying the gene with the information for making human insulin. Researchers made a copy of the DNA carrying this insulin gene and moved it into a bacterium. When the bacterium was grown in the lab, the microbe split from one cell into two cells, and both cells got a copy of the insulin gene. Those two microbes grew, then divided into four, those four into eight, the eight into sixteen, and so forth. With each cell division, the two new cells each had a copy of the gene for human insulin. And because the cells had a copy of the genetic "recipe card" for insulin, they could make the insulin protein. In this way, special strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria or yeast given a copy of the insulin gene can produce human insulin. What Was The First Commercial Use Of Genetic Engineering? (continued) DNA is like a recipe card: it carries a record of information for how to assemble ingredients. Whether you're working with a recipe, a DVD, or DNA, it's a powerful thing to be able to work with recorded information. Continue reading >>

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