Brewing Insulin Using Genetically Modified Bacteria (#gmomonday)
Image: Africa Studio via Shutterstock.com The American Juvenile Diabetes Association estimates that about 3 million Americans suffer from type 1 diabetes. So perhaps, you, like me, know somebody who needs insulin in order to survive. Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood. I first learned about diabetes in grade school when a friend was diagnosed. His pancreas stopped producing the insulin his body needed, and he began drinking lots of water and feeling very sick. I went to the hospital with his family and learned how to give insulin injections and understand blood sugar measurements. One thing I didn’t learn at the time is the amazing biotechnology story behind the tiny bottles of life-saving insulin that showed up in his refrigerator. Insulin was first produced in the 1920s by scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best. Banting and Best had discovered that insulin was the hormone that diabetics lacked, and they figured out a way to harvest insulin from animal pancreases. In what is commonly described as one of medicine’s “most dramatic moments,” scientists went into a diabetic children’s ward, injecting the comatose and dying children with this insulin. By the time they reached the far end of the ward, children on the near end were already waking up. The refining process for insulin was perfected, and up until the 1980s, people around the world relied on insulin from pigs and cows to lift the death sentence of diabetes. But porcine and bovine insulin, although similar to the human variety, were not exactly the same. Although most people have no problem using insulin from these animals, some reacted poorly to it. The chemical structure of human insulin Continue reading >>
Celebrating A Milestone: Fda's Approval Of First Genetically-engineered Product
This article originally appeared in the "History Corner" column of the September-October 2007 issue of Update magazine, the bimonthly publication of the Food and Drug Law Institute. Suzanne White Junod, Ph.D. This year marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of FDA's approval of the world's first recombinant DNA drug product—human insulin (Eli Lilly & Co.'s Humulin). In 1921, Frederick Banting and Charles Best extracted the hormone insulin, which controls blood sugar levels, from the pancreas' of dogs, and in 1922 administered the extract to a 14-year-old boy suffering from type I diabetes mellitus, saving his life and proving insulin's efficacy in treating human diabetes. Following their discovery, virtually all insulin for human use was harvested from slaughterhouse animals, usually porcine or bovine. In the 25 years since FDA's approval of Humulin, however, r-DNA human insulin has proven indistinguishable from pancreatic human insulin, has been proven both safe and efficacious for millions of patients, and, as a result, has almost completely displaced animal source insulins. FDA regulatory scientists worked with Lilly scientists in solving novel challenges related to the production of human insulin in bacteria and played a key role in insuring the safety and efficacy of the first medical product of gene-splicing technology approved for use in humans. Recombinant DNA methodology was just one of many remarkable scientific advances made possible as a result of James Watson and Francis Crick's original discovery of the double helix structure of human DNA, announced in 1953. 1 Precise knowledge of genetic structures has moved many scientific fields forward, including criminology and, more recently, pharmacogenetics and toxicogenetics, which are at the heart of discussions an Continue reading >>
Genetic Engineering Products
Overview of Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use of biological techniques and engineered organisms to make products or plants and animals that have desired traits. Learning Objectives Describe the historical development of biotechnology Key Takeaways For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine. In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diganostic tests. Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. nanotechnology: the science and technology of creating nanoparticles and of manufacturing machines which have sizes within the range of nanometres People have used biotechnology processes, such as selectively breeding animals and fermentation, for thousands of years. Late 19th and early 20th century discoveries of how microorganisms carry out commercially useful processes and how they cause disease led to the commercial production of vaccines and antibiotics. Improved methods for animal breeding have also resulted from these efforts. Scientists in the San Francisco Bay Area took a giant step forward with the discovery and development of recombinant DNA techniques in the 1970s. The field of biotechnology continues to accelerate with new discoveries and new applications expected to benefit the economy throughout the 21st century. In its broadest definition, biotechnology is the application of biological techniques and engineered Continue reading >>
Have Your Say
Genetic engineering The control of all the normal activities of a bacterium depends upon its single chromosome and small rings of genes called plasmids. In genetic engineering pieces of chromosome from a different organism can be inserted into a plasmid. This allows the bacteria to make a new substance. the gene the genetic engineers want may be in a human chromosome - it might be the gene for insulin production they use an enzyme to cut the insulin gene out of the chromosome plasmids are then removed from bacterial cells the plasmids are cut open with an enzyme a human insulin gene is inserted into each plasmid the genetic engineers encourage the bacteria to accept the genetically modified plasmids bacteria with the insulin gene are then multiplied each bacterium will produce a tiny volume of insulin by culturing the genetically engineered bacteria, limitless supplies of insulin may be produced Genetic engineering is used for the production of substances which used to be both expensive and difficult to produce. Examples include: insulin for the control of diabetes antibiotics such as penicillin various vaccines for the control of disease Genetic engineering and insulin production Genetic engineering is a way of producing organisms which have genotypes best suited for a particular function. In the past man has used selective breeding to achieve this. This was done by choosing only his most suitable animals and plants for breeding. Genetic engineering has several advantages over selective breeding. Some are: particular single characteristics can be selected the selection may be quicker a desirable characteristic can be transferred from one species to another There are dangers involved with genetic engineering since it involves creating completely new strains of bacteria. Continue reading >>
Gene Therapy And Genetic Engineering
For bacteria to make insulin, where do they get the insulin gene to insert into the bacteria? -A graduate student from California Back in the 1970's scientists managed to coax bacteria into making the insulin that many people need to treat their diabetes. They did this by putting the human insulin gene into the bacteria. The insulin gene they used came from human DNA. The scientists were able to get this gene in a couple of different ways. Neither of which was very easy back in the 70's! One group managed to make it on a machine called a DNA synthesizer. Like its name sounds, this machine makes DNA. Luckily the insulin gene is small since these machines could only make small snippets of DNA. A second group managed to fish it out of human DNA. This was done by putting random pieces of human DNA into bacteria and finding the bacterium that had the insulin gene. This is really hard to do but used to be the only way to get big pieces of DNA. Nowadays, what with the human genome project, it'd be much easier. By knowing just a bit about the gene they're interested in, scientists can just go look it up on the computer. Then they can simply pluck the DNA they're interested in right out of a tube of human DNA. Of course getting the gene isn't enough. You also need to get it into bacteria and have the bacteria be able to read the gene. Then you need to purify the insulin away from the bacteria. Luckily you only asked about the first part so I'll focus on that. What I thought I'd do is go over how scientists originally got the insulin gene. Then we'll look at what they might do now in a similar situation. But first, we're going to need to go into a little background. We need to go over what genes and proteins are and how they're related. Only then will we see how scientists were a Continue reading >>
What's Genetic Engineering?
MORE Genetic engineering is the process of using technology to change the genetic makeup of an organism - be it an animal, plant or a bacterium. This can be achieved by using recombinant DNA (rDNA), or DNA that has been isolated from two or more different organisms and then incorporated into a single molecule, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Recombinant DNA technology was first developed in the early 1970s, and the first genetic engineering company, Genentech, was founded in 1976. The company isolated the genes for human insulin into E. coli bacteria, which allowed the bacteria to produce human insulin. After approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Genentech produced the first recombinant DNA drug, human insulin, in 1982. The first genetically engineered vaccine for humans was approved by the FDA in 1987 and was for hepatitis B. Since the 1980s, genetic engineering has been used to produce everything from a more environmentally friendly lithium-ion battery to infection-resistant crops such as the HoneySweet Plum. These organisms made by genetic engineering, called genetically modified organisms (GMOs), can be bred to be less susceptible to diseases or to withstand specific environmental conditions. But critics say that genetic engineering is dangerous. In 1997, a photo of a mouse with what looked like a human ear growing out of its back sparked a backlash against using genetic engineering. But the mouse was not the result of genetic engineering, and the ear did not contain any human cells. It was created by implanting a mold made of biodegradable mesh in the shape of a 3-year-old's ear under the mouse's skin, according to the National Science Foundation, in order to demonstrate one way to produce cartilage tissue in a lab. Continue reading >>
What Is Genetic Engineering?
Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of DNA to alter an organism’s characteristics (phenotype) in a particular way. What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering, sometimes called genetic modification, is the process of altering the DNA? in an organism’s genome?. This may mean changing one base pair? (A-T or C-G), deleting a whole region of DNA, or introducing an additional copy of a gene?. It may also mean extracting DNA from another organism’s genome and combining it with the DNA of that individual. Genetic engineering is used by scientists to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism. For example, genetic engineering can be used to produce plants that have a higher nutritional value or can tolerate exposure to herbicides. How does genetic engineering work? To help explain the process of genetic engineering we have taken the example of insulin, a protein? that helps regulate the sugar levels in our blood. Normally insulin? is produced in the pancreas?, but in people with type 1 diabetes? there is a problem with insulin production. People with diabetes therefore have to inject insulin to control their blood sugar levels. Genetic engineering has been used to produce a type of insulin, very similar to our own, from yeast and bacteria? like E. coli?. This genetically modified insulin, ‘Humulin’ was licensed for human use in 1982. The genetic engineering process A small section is then cut out of the circular plasmid by restriction enzymes, ‘molecular scissors’. The gene for human insulin is inserted into the gap in the plasmid. This plasmid is now genetically modified. The genetically modified plasmid is introduced into a new bacteria or yeast cell. This cell then divides rapidly and starts making insulin. To create Continue reading >>
Production Of Therapeutic Proteins By Genetic Engineering
The March 1998 Impact article"Cloning - What is It and Where is It Taking Us?" discussed the procedure of cloning by somatic cell transfer. In that procedure, the nucleus from a cell derived from an embryo, a fetus, or tissue of an adult is inserted into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed. After the egg develops to the appropriate stage, the embryo is inserted into the uterus of a properly prepared female and allowed to develop to term. This produces an offspring essentially genetically identical to the animal that provided the nucleus that was inserted into the egg. This article will discuss the transfer of genes from one species to another in order to endow the recipient species with beneficial properties, or to enable the recipient to produce human proteins for injection into human patients who lack a vitally important protein. Production of Therapeutic Proteins by Gene Transfer There are many proteins essential to good health that some people cannot produce because of genetic defects. These proteins include various blood-clotting factors causing hemophilia, insulin (resulting in diabetes), growth hormone (resulting in lack of proper growth), and other proteins, the administration of which corrects pathological conditions or results in other therapeutic benefits. The early work in this field employed bacteria. Some bacteria in a bacterial culture may contain small circular DNA molecules called plasmids. These plasmids are not part of the chromosomal DNA that is possessed by all the bacteria of the culture. As these exceptional bacterial cells reproduce by binary fission or cell division, the plasmids are transmitted to the daughter cells. They can also be transmitted to other cells by conjugation. Scientists have learned how to utilize plasmids to transfe Continue reading >>
Making Proteins In The Lab
Proteins are produced by living cells and have a huge number of different functions. They act as transporters and messengers around the body, control growth, help keep us healthy, and are the building blocks for body parts like muscles. If we could make these proteins in large amounts in a lab, they could be used for a huge variety of different purposes. Producing proteins in a lab All living organisms contain DNA in their cells. This DNA is the code (or instructions) that cells use to make proteins. The structure of DNA has been known for over fifty years, but it has taken time to work out what it does – and how it can be used in industrial applications. A breakthrough came in 1972, when Paul Berg explained how to cut and paste DNA from a bacterium into a virus. This had wide applications. If you could transplant DNA, you could make proteins to order! This process of transferring DNA from one cell to another is called genetic engineering. The cell containing the foreign DNA is called a recombinant cell. Making insulin One of the first breakthrough uses of this technology was to produce large quantities of insulin, a protein that is needed to treat diabetes. Before then, the insulin came from pigs, cattle and human cadavers. Insulin is made in the pancreas of humans, but pancreas cells are difficult to grow outside the human body. In contrast, Escherichia coli, which is a rod-shaped bacterium found in intestines, is very easy to grow in large quantities in a lab. Scientists were able to transfer the gene needed to make insulin into the bacteria. In 1982, insulin produced by genetically engineered E. coli was approved for use with patients. Solving the problems It sounds easy. Find the protein that interests you. Find the gene (in the DNA) that is needed to produce it. Continue reading >>
Interactive Resources For Schools
Drag the bases into the correct sequences to form the amino acid chain DNA sequence amino acid chain adenine cytosine guanine guanine guanine thymine thymine thymine thymine Details of the enzymes involved. Genetically-engineered bacteria are grown in large stainless steel fermentation vessels. The vessel contains all the nutrients needed for growth. When the fermentation is complete, the mixture containing the bacteria is removed from the fermentation vessel. The bacteria are filtered off and broken open to release the insulin they have produced. The insulin is separated from all the other proteins and organelles from inside the bacteria and once purified it is packaged for distribution. All the equipment is kept sterile to prevent contamination and regular checks make sure that the insulin meets the required quality standards. Drag these processes into the correct order for making human insulin from genetically engineered bacteria. Continue reading >>
Like This Study Set?
process for making recombinant cell? -gene of interest inserted into self replicating vector (plasmid, transposon, viral DNA) accomplished through use of restriction enzymes -recombinant vector take up by bacterium or yeast cell occurs via transformation, gene gun -cell allowed to divide many times producing culture of clones clones all identical each carries vector w/ gene of interest ~the gene of interest can now be isolated in large # for further experimentation ~expression of genome of interest within clones can produce large volume of product can be harvest/used ex:human growth hormone what are some products harvested from recombinant cells? -bacteria w/ genes for human insulin are being used produced insulin for treating diabetes -vaccine for hepat B is being made by yeast carrying a gene for part of hep virus -production hGH in E.coli treats stunted growth -amylas,cellulose other enzymes prepare fabrics for clothing -genes coding degradtive enzyme to clean up toxic wastes inserted in bacterial cells -gene encoding for pest resistance inserted in plants artificial selection -humans use to select desirable breeds of animals or strain of plants to cultivate traits selected by humans -A bacterium w/ a mutation that confers resistance to an antibiotic will survive/reproduce in presence of that antibiotic -by exposing microbes to mutagens create new strains after random mutations were made in penicillin producing penicillin by exposure fungal cultures to radiation -highest yielding variant among survivors was picked for another exposure to a mutagen -site directed mutagenesis more targetd/can be used to make specific change in gene A specific restriction enzyme always recognizes/cuts DNA at very specific nucleotide sequence of DNA molecule -some enzymes cut both strand Continue reading >>
Question: How Is Genetic Engineering Used To Create Bacteria Capable Of Producing Human Insulin?
In the production of human insulin by bacteria the human insulin gene is incorporated into the genetic material of these microorganisms. The mutant bacteria multiply forming lineages of insulin-producing bacteria. In bacteria there are circular stran... view the full answer Chegg Plants Trees © 2003-2017 Chegg Inc. All rights reserved. Continue reading >>
Recombinant Dna And Biotechnology
Biotechnology is an industrial process that uses the scientific research on DNA for practical benefits. Biotechnology is synonymous with genetic engineering because the genes of an organism are changed during the process and the DNA of the organism is recombined. Recombinant DNA and biotechnology can be used to form proteins not normally produced in a cell. In addition, bacteria that carry recombinant DNA can be released into the environment to increase the fertility of the soil, serve as an insecticide, or relieve pollution. Tools of biotechnology. The basic process of recombinant DNA technology revolves around the activity of DNA in the synthesis of protein. By intervening in this process, scientists can change the nature of the DNA and of the gene make-up of an organism. By inserting genes into the genome of an organism, the scientist can induce the organism to produce a protein it does not normally produce. The technology of recombinant DNA has been made possible in part by extensive research on microorganisms during the last century. One important microorganism in recombinant DNA research is Escherichia coli (E. coli). The biochemistry and genetics ofE. coli are well known, and its DNA has been isolated and made to accept new genes. The DNA can then be forced into fresh cells of E. coli, and the bacteria will begin to produce the proteins specified by the foreign genes. Such altered bacteria are said to have been transformed. Interest in recombinant DNA and biotechnology heightened considerably in the 1960s and 1970s with the discovery of restriction enzymes. These enzymes catalyze the opening of a DNA molecule at a “restricted” point, regardless of the DNA's source. Moreover, certain restriction enzymes leave dangling ends of DNA molecules at the point where t Continue reading >>
Genetic Engineering And Working With Dna
The technique illustrated in this animation produced by WGBH and Digizyme, Inc., shows how scientists use natural processes and technological innovations to insert genes into loops of DNA called plasmids. Plasmids can then be introduced into bacterial or other cells, which will proceed to replicate the inserted genes or induce the cells to produce such valuable proteins as human insulin and growth hormone. This resource is part of the Biotechnology collection. Continue reading >>
For a non-technical introduction to the topic of genetics, see Introduction to genetics. For the song by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, see Genetic Engineering (song). Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974. The first company to focus on genetic engineering, Genentech, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. Genetically engineered human insulin was produced in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria were commercialised in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato. The Flavr Savr was engineered to have a longer shelf life, but most current GM crops are Continue reading >>