diabetestalk.net

How Does Use Of Insulin Lead To Hypokalemia?

Share on facebook

What is HYPOKALEMIA? What does HYPOKALEMIA mean? HYPOKALEMIA meaning - HYPOKALEMIA pronunciation - HYPOKALEMIA definition - HYPOKALEMIA explanation - How to pronounce HYPOKALEMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum. Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia. Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms. Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm such as bradycardia and cardiac arrest. Causes of hypokalemia include diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet. It is classified as severe when levels are less than 2.5 mmol/L. Low levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum. The speed at which potassium should be replaced depends on whether or not there are symptoms or ECG changes. Mildly low levels can be managed with changes in the diet. Potassium supplements can be either taken by mouth or intravenously. If given by intravenous, generally less than 20 mmol are given over an hour. High concentration solutions (40 and more mmol/L) should be given in a central line if possible. Magnesium replacement may also be required. Hypokalemia is one of the most common waterelectrolyte imbalances. It affects about 20% of people admitted to hospital. The word "hypokalemia" is from hypo- means "under"; kalium meaning potassium, and -emia means "condition of the blood".

Hypokalemia And Hyperkalemia

Physiology of Potassium Handling Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in the body. About 90% of total body potassium is intracellular and 10% is in extracellular fluid, of which less than 1% is composed of plasma. The ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium determines neuromuscular and cardiovascular excitability, which is why serum potassium is normally regulated within a narrow range of 3.5 to 5.0 mmol/L. Dietary K+ intake is highly variable, ranging from as low as 40 mmol/day to more than 100 mmol/day.1, 2 Homeostasis is maintained by two systems. One regulates K+ excretion, or external balance through the kidneys and intestines, and the second regulates K+ shifts, or internal balance between intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. Internal balance is mainly mediated by insulin and catecholamines. Cellular Shifts Ingested K+ is absorbed rapidly and enters the portal circulation, where it stimulates insulin secretion. Insulin increases Na+,K+-ATPase activity and facilitates potassium entry into cells, thereby averting hyperkalemia. β2-Adrenergic stimulation also promotes entry of K+ into cells through increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) ac Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. standout22

    1 Speaking in terms of relationships, I understand that insulin effects K+. I also understand that with increased insulin production or administration you can have a state of hypokalemia. I just don't understand why, on an intracellular level why and how does insulin production or administration decreased serum K+?
    I appreciate any insight and help!

  2. medicrn16

    Hey Standout...we JUST had a test on this two weeks ago, lol. Hardest dang test I ever took.
    Basically, insulin reduces serum K+ from ECF to ICF mainly because insulin increases the activity of the famous sodium-potassium pump. However, this is only a temporary fix and monitoring for the hypokalemic/hypoglycemic effects would be necessary. You would have to give glucose with the insulin as part of the regimen. It depends on whether the person has an actual total body excess of K+ or the K+ has moved from ICF to ECF as to how well this will work and for how long.
    Causes of movement from ICF to ECF would be tissue damage, acidosis, hyperuricemia, and uncontrolled DM.
    Causes of excess total body K+ would be too much potassium foods, salt substitutes, transfusions of whole blood or PRBCs, and decreased K+ excretion from the kidneys due to K+ sparing diuretics, renal failure, or Addison's disease.
    Hope this helps. For me to pass this test (fluids and electrolytes) I made a chart with similarities/differences. Thank God for this. I escaped the doom of much of the class with a B. Hoo-ray. :wink2:

  3. Daytonite

    potassium levels are decreased by insulin. hypokalemia suppresses insulin release leading to glucose intolerance. this was the best explanation of why it happens that i could find and seems to be tied to atp activity:
    http://www.uhmc.sunysb.edu/internalm...ges/part_d.htm - insulin is the first-line defense against hyperkalemia. a rise in plasma k+ stimulates insulin release by the pancreatic beta cell. insulin, in turn, enhances cellular potassium uptake, returning plasma k+ towards normal. the enhanced cellular uptake of k+ that results from increased insulin levels is thought to be largely due to the ability of insulin to stimulate activity of the sodium potassium atpase located in cell plasma membranes. the insulin induced cellular uptake of potassium is not dependent on the uptake of glucose caused by insulin. insulin deficiency allows a mild rise in plasma k+ chronically and makes the subject liabel to severe hyperkalemia if a potassium load is given. conversely, potassium deficiency may cause decreased insulin release. thus plasma potassium and insulin participate in a feedback control mechanism.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

Clinical Update 2013 Speakers' Presentations - 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines: The Essentials - Alice Cheng

Practice Essentials

Hypokalemia is generally defined as a serum potassium level of less than 3.5 mEq/L (3.5 mmol/L). Moderate hypokalemia is a serum level of 2.5-3.0 mEq/L, and severe hypokalemia is a level of less than 2.5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia is a potentially life-threatening imbalance that may be iatrogenically induced. Hypokalemia may result from inadequate potassium intake, increased potassium excretion, or a shift of potassium from the extracellular to the intracellular space. Increased excretion is the most common mechanism. Poor intake or an intracellular shift by itself is a distinctly uncommon cause, but several causes often are present simultaneously. (See Etiology.) Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and low blood pressure. See the image below. Signs and symptoms Patients are often asymptomatic, particularly those with mild hypokalemia. Symptoms that are present are often from the underlying cause of the hypokalemia rather than the hypokalemia itself. The symptoms of hypokalemia are nonspecific and predominantly are related to muscular or cardiac function. Complaints may include the following: Weakness and fatigue (most commo Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. standout22

    1 Speaking in terms of relationships, I understand that insulin effects K+. I also understand that with increased insulin production or administration you can have a state of hypokalemia. I just don't understand why, on an intracellular level why and how does insulin production or administration decreased serum K+?
    I appreciate any insight and help!

  2. medicrn16

    Hey Standout...we JUST had a test on this two weeks ago, lol. Hardest dang test I ever took.
    Basically, insulin reduces serum K+ from ECF to ICF mainly because insulin increases the activity of the famous sodium-potassium pump. However, this is only a temporary fix and monitoring for the hypokalemic/hypoglycemic effects would be necessary. You would have to give glucose with the insulin as part of the regimen. It depends on whether the person has an actual total body excess of K+ or the K+ has moved from ICF to ECF as to how well this will work and for how long.
    Causes of movement from ICF to ECF would be tissue damage, acidosis, hyperuricemia, and uncontrolled DM.
    Causes of excess total body K+ would be too much potassium foods, salt substitutes, transfusions of whole blood or PRBCs, and decreased K+ excretion from the kidneys due to K+ sparing diuretics, renal failure, or Addison's disease.
    Hope this helps. For me to pass this test (fluids and electrolytes) I made a chart with similarities/differences. Thank God for this. I escaped the doom of much of the class with a B. Hoo-ray. :wink2:

  3. Daytonite

    potassium levels are decreased by insulin. hypokalemia suppresses insulin release leading to glucose intolerance. this was the best explanation of why it happens that i could find and seems to be tied to atp activity:
    http://www.uhmc.sunysb.edu/internalm...ges/part_d.htm - insulin is the first-line defense against hyperkalemia. a rise in plasma k+ stimulates insulin release by the pancreatic beta cell. insulin, in turn, enhances cellular potassium uptake, returning plasma k+ towards normal. the enhanced cellular uptake of k+ that results from increased insulin levels is thought to be largely due to the ability of insulin to stimulate activity of the sodium potassium atpase located in cell plasma membranes. the insulin induced cellular uptake of potassium is not dependent on the uptake of glucose caused by insulin. insulin deficiency allows a mild rise in plasma k+ chronically and makes the subject liabel to severe hyperkalemia if a potassium load is given. conversely, potassium deficiency may cause decreased insulin release. thus plasma potassium and insulin participate in a feedback control mechanism.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
Share on facebook

Best Of EDM : https://goo.gl/DYDGDh Nonstop : https://goo.gl/4VwtnZ Nhc vit tuyn chn : https://goo.gl/wVwWcJ Best of EDM top 10 Alan Walker #2 | New Electro House & Dancer 2018 : https://youtu.be/j6ahYUnXG04 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tracklist:...................................... ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Peanut - Music Facebook https://fb.com/peanutedm Website https://peanutedm.blogspot.com/ Soundcloud ................................. Twitter https://twitter.com/peanut42307403 Instagram .................................... ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alan Walker https://fb.com/alanwalkermusic https://soundcloud.com/alanwalker https://twitter.com/IAmAlanWalker https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz https://www.instagram.com/alanwalkerm... DISCLAIMER : If you have problems about copyright or label, please contact me via email or YT inbox. Thank you :) If you wanna use my uploads in your videos/streams, please give a link back to my original video, that's all ;)

Diabetes Mellitus And Electrolyte Disorders

Go to: Abstract Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment. Keywords: Glucose, Osmotic diuresis, Hyponatremia, Hyperkalemia, Hypomag Continue reading >>

Share on facebook

Popular Questions

  1. cybron

    Can you plz tell me why insulin cuZ hypokalemia???

  2. Master shifu

    Insulin results Hypokalemia just by increasing the activity of H*K ATPase pump. So insulin only shifts the K+ from the extracellular compartment to the intracellular compartment, it doesn't decrease the total K+ content of the body........remember it......that's why during management of Hyperkalemia 1st initial therapy is done by giving Insulin + Glucose combination which usually needs 30 minutes to come into action........Hope it helps

  3. cybron

    Thanks master but i heard there is increase activity of Na/K pump not H/K pump..can u plz clarify??
    If H/K pump increases then acid production also increases??

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

No more pages to load

Related Articles

  • How Does Insulin Cause Hypokalemia

    Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are common causes of hyperkalemia. When severe, potassium disorders can lead to life-threatening cardiac conduction disturbances and neuromuscular dysfunction. Therefore, a ...

    insulin Jan 4, 2018
  • Does Ketoacidosis Cause Hypokalemia

    Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Damian Baalmann, 2nd year EM resident A 45-year-old male presents to your emergency department with abdominal pain. He is conscious, lucid and as the nurses are hooking up the monitors, he explains to you that he began experiencing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting about 2 days ago. Exam reveals a poorly groomed male with dry mucous membranes, diffusely tender abdomen with voluntary guarding. He is tachycardic, tachypneic bu ...

    ketosis Jan 1, 2018
  • How Does Ketoacidosis Cause Hypokalemia

    An article from the E-Journal of the ESC Council for Cardiology Practice Practicing cardiologists must keep potassium levels within normal limits in all their cardiac patients. Unrecognised hypokalemia is a leading cause of iatrogenic mortality among cardiac patients who have an inherent risk for arrhythmias and who frequently use medications that increase the risks of hypokalemia and/or arrhythmia. Symptomatic or severe hypokalemia should be cor ...

    ketosis Jan 1, 2018
  • Why Does Insulin Cause Hypokalemia?

    Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.[1] Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia.[1][2] Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms.[3] Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation.[1] It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm, which are often too slow, and can ca ...

    insulin Mar 29, 2018
  • Why Does Ketoacidosis Cause Hypokalemia

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of ...

    ketosis Jan 1, 2018
  • How Does Use Of Insulin Lead To Hypokalemia?

    According to a 2011 national diabetes fact sheet from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 25 million people, or 8.3 percent of the United States population, have diabetes. Diabetes is the condition that results from the lack of insulin production or from insulin resistance; in diabetes, there is abnormal metabolism of glucose, which results in elevated blood glucose levels. Diabetes is associated with dysregulation of potassium, ...

    insulin Apr 4, 2018

More in insulin