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How Does Nph Insulin Work In The Body?

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Types Of Insulin And How They Work

Insulin is a hormone the body makes to control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It lowers blood sugar by allowing glucose to leave the bloodstream and enter body cells. Without enough insulin, the level of glucose in the bloodstream can become too high. Everyone needs insulin to use food properly. People without diabetes make enough of their own insulin to keep their blood sugar at healthy levels all the time. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin of their own. Instead, they need to take shots of one or more types of insulin to keep their blood sugars close to normal. Between 75 and 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes need to take insulin shots to help them get the best control of their blood sugar levels. Deciding How Much Insulin to Take The amount of insulin a person needs depends on: Body weight Percentage of body fat Activity level Diet Other medicines Emotions and stress General health Type of insulin When you first start taking insulin shots, your doctor might ask you to change the amount you take or the time you take it several times. You and your doctor will base these changes on the results of your blood sugar tests. You'll need to make adjustments until you find the dose and schedule that work best for you. Each person's need for insulin is different: Some people can control their blood sugar with one shot of insulin a day. Most people need more than three shots every day. Many people need more than one type of insulin. If you take several insulin shots a day or use more than one type of insulin, it doesn't mean your diabetes isn't in good control. Your blood sugar, not the amount or type of insulin you take, is the best way to judge how well you are doing. If you take three shots a day and your blood sugar is near normal, that's Continue reading >>

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

A good way to improve your glucose levels is to track the peaks and drops in your glucose , so you can figure out why they happened and how to correct them. Once you identify glucose patterns (they ARE there!), you also want to understand when each of your insulins is active and when they typically stop lowering your glucose. This helps you adjust your doses or food intake to stop unwanted ups and downs in your readings. The table below shows the start, peak, and end times for various insulins with some explanations and typical uses for each. When Does My Insulin Peak and How Long Does It Last? designed to peak, covers meals and lowers high BGs Humalog , Novolog and Apidra insulins currently give the best coverage for meals and help keep the glucose lower afterward. Their glucose lowering activity starts to work about 20 minutes after they are taken, with a gradual rise in activity over the next 1.75 to 2.25 hours. Their activity gradually falls over the next 3 hours with about 5 to 6 hours of activity being common with these insulins.Although insulin action times are often quoted as 3-5 hours, the actual duration of insulin action is typically 5 hours or more. See our article Duration of Insulin Action for more information on this important topic. In general, "rapid" insulins are still too slow for many common meals where the glucose peaks within an hour and digestion is complete within 2-3 hours. The best kept secret on stopping post meal spiking is to eake the injection or bolus earlier before the meal and to eat slower low glycemic carbs. Regular insulin still carries its original name of "fast insulin" but its slower action often works better for people who take Symlin or for those who have gastroparesis (delayed digestion). It is also a great choice for those who Continue reading >>

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

5 Types Of Insulin And How They Work

What you need to know If you have to take insulin to treat diabetes, there’s good news: You have choices. There are five types of insulin. They vary by onset (how soon they start to work), peak (how long they take to kick into full effect) and duration (how long they stay in your body). You may have to take more than one type of insulin, and these needs may change over time (and can vary depending on your type of diabetes). Find out more about the insulin types best for you. Rapid-acting insulin What it’s called: Humalog (lispro), NovoLog (aspart), Apidra (glulisine) Rapid-acting insulin is taken just before or after meals, to control spikes in blood sugar. This type is typically used in addition to a longer-acting insulin. It often works in 15 minutes, peaks between 30 and 90 minutes, and lasts 3 to 5 hours. “You can take it a few minutes before eating or as you sit down to eat, and it starts to work very quickly,” says Manisha Chandalia, MD, director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston. Short-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin R, Novolin R Short-acting insulin covers your insulin needs during meals. It is taken about 30 minutes to an hour before a meal to help control blood sugar levels. This type of insulin takes effect in about 30 minutes to one hour, and peaks after two to four hours. Its effects tend to last about five to eight hours. “The biggest advantage of short-acting insulin is that you don't have to take it at each meal. You can take it at breakfast and supper and still have good control because it lasts a little longer,” Dr. Chandalia says. Intermediate-acting insulin What it’s called: Humulin N (NPH), Novolin N (NPH) Intermediate-acting insulin can control blood sugar levels for about Continue reading >>

Basal Insulin Types, Benefits, Dosage Information, And Side Effects

Basal Insulin Types, Benefits, Dosage Information, And Side Effects

The primary job of basal insulin is to keep your blood glucose levels stable during periods of fasting, such as while you’re sleeping. While fasting, your liver continuously secretes glucose into the bloodstream. Basal insulin keeps these glucose levels under control. Without this insulin, your glucose levels would rise at an alarming rate. Basal insulin ensures that your cells are fed with a constant stream of glucose to burn for energy throughout the day. Here’s what you need to know about basal insulin medication and why it’s important for managing diabetes. Types There are three main types of basal insulin. Intermediate-acting insulin, NPH Brand-name versions include Humulin and Novolin. This insulin is administered once or twice daily. It’s usually mixed with mealtime insulin in the morning, before your evening meal, or both. It works hardest in the 4 to 8 hours after injection, and the effects start waning after about 16 hours. Long-acting insulin Two types of this insulin currently on the market are detemir (Levemir) and glargine (Lantus). This basal insulin begins working 90 minutes to 4 hours after injection and remains in your bloodstream for up to 24 hours. It may start weakening a few hours earlier for some people or last a few hours longer for others. There isn’t a peak time for this type of insulin. It works at a steady rate throughout the day. Ultra-long acting insulin In January 2016, another basal insulin called degludec (Tresiba) was released. This basal insulin begins working within 30 to 90 minutes and remains in your bloodstream for up to 42 hours. As with the long-acting insulins detemir and glargine, there isn’t a peak time for this insulin. It works at a steady rate throughout the day. Insulin degludec is available in two strengths, 1 Continue reading >>

Nph Human Insulin: Does It Work In A Once-a-day Regimen?

Nph Human Insulin: Does It Work In A Once-a-day Regimen?

Abstract A clinical transfer trial was conducted to ascertain whether semisynthetic human NPH insulin has a full 24-hour duration of therapeutic effect comparable to that of NPH insulin from animal sources. Diabetic patients requiring insulin and stabilized on a once-a-day (QD) regimen of animal NPH insulin were enrolled and entered a two-week run-in period during which the constancy of their insulin requirements and the stability of their glycemic control were assessed. At the end of the run-in phase, baseline measurements were made of fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1 C, C-peptide, and insulin antibodies. Patients then were transferred to a QD regimen of semisynthetic human NPH insulin (Novolin N) in the same dose as the animal insulin. Glycemic control was reassessed after 1, 4, and 8 weeks of therapy, and a global assessment of overall glycemic control was made at the conclusion of the study. Efficacy variables were analyzed for 39 patients. Most had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and most were transferred from mixed beef/pork insulin. Six (15%) patients required significant adjustments in insulin dose or regimen; the remaining 85% completed the eight weeks of treatment with minimal changes in insulin dose. Mean values for FBG and hemoglobin A1 C did not change significantly between baseline and the end of the study. The only statistically significant change was an increase in mean body weight (P less than or equal to 0.01). Results of the investigators' global assessments showed that 74% of the patients had unchanged or improved control of glycemia after transferring to semisynthetic human NPH insulin. The average frequency of hypoglycemic events was not significantly changed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS). Continue reading >>

What Is Nph Insulin Used For?

What Is Nph Insulin Used For?

NPH insulin is used for controlling blood sugar levels throughout the day in people with diabetes. It is an intermediate-acting form of insulin that produces a lower peak, starts working more slowly, and lasts longer than regular insulin. NPH insulin uses are approved for both adults and children. NPH insulin (Humulin® N, Novolin® N) is a form of human insulin used to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It is classified as an intermediate-acting insulin and is used to control blood sugar throughout the day. As an intermediate-acting insulin, it starts working more slowly, produces a lower peak, and lasts longer than regular human insulin. In healthy people without diabetes, insulin levels fluctuate throughout the day in response to changes in blood sugar levels. In order to mimic the natural insulin changes that help keep blood sugar safely controlled, many healthcare providers recommend "basal-bolus" insulin regimens. These regimens often involve a long- or intermediate-acting insulin such as NPH insulin to provide a basal insulin level (a relatively steady background level of insulin throughout the day). A rapid- or short-acting insulin is added to provide "bolus" doses to control the spike in blood sugar that occurs after meals. Some people (especially those with type 2 diabetes) may be able to take NPH insulin without adding a rapid- or short-acting insulin. How Does NPH Insulin Work? NPH insulin is a form of insulin, which is a hormone that is naturally produced by the pancreas. This hormone is important for several functions, such as controlling blood sugar. Insulin helps the cells of your body remove glucose ("sugar") from your bloodstream. This sugar fuels your body's cells, giving them the energy they need to work properly. You may need t Continue reading >>

What Is Nph Insulin, Its Side Effects, Onset Peak Time And Duration?

What Is Nph Insulin, Its Side Effects, Onset Peak Time And Duration?

Insulin is a type of hormone which is produced by the pancreas to help our body to properly use the glucose we derive from food we eat. People with diabetes cannot naturally produce enough amounts of insulin or use it properly. This leads to a build up of glucose in the body rather than moving into the cells. High levels of blood sugar can lead to health problems for people with diabetes. However, insulin can be injected under the skin to help people with diabetes reduce the level of blood sugar in their body. NPH insulin is the medication used by patients with diabetes to help manage blood glucose. This type of insulin works by enabling blood glucose to get into the cells so that it can be used for energy by the body. Taken note that insulin NPH is not a cure for diabetes, but helps to control blood sugar levels. What is NPH insulin? NPH is an acronym for Neutral Protamine Hagedorn. NPH insulin also referred to as isophane insulin, is a type of insulin that is given to patients with diabetes to help control their blood sugar levels. It is taken as an injection and the metabolic effects can be felt within 1 or 2 hours after injection. However, its strongest effect is felt between 6 to 10 hours after injection. Insulin Isophane peak Insulin NPH is considered to be an intermediate acting insulin, which takes 1 to 3 hours before the injection effects are felt. Isophane insulin peaks between 5 and 8 hours after injection but the effects start to cease after 18 to 24 hours. Dosage The insulin NPH dosage that your doctor recommends depends on the ability of your pancreas to produce insulin and how well it is used by your body. Your doctor will recommend the right dose, depending on the results obtained after monitoring the values of your blood sugar levels. Other factors like Continue reading >>

Basal Insulins (intermediate And Long-acting)

Basal Insulins (intermediate And Long-acting)

Who? Intermediate- and long-acting (basal) insulins are recommended for patients with type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. They may also be used in other types of diabetes (i.e. steroid-induced). Persons with type 1 diabetes generally use intermediate-acting insulin or long-acting insulin in conjunction with regular or rapid acting insulin. Persons with type 2 diabetes may use intermediate or long-acting insulins in conjunction with regular or rapid acting insulins or with oral medications. What? Injections given under the skin. Not suitable for insulin pumps. These medications can be injected with a traditional syringe and needle, or with a disposable pen that has been prefilled with insulin. Most patients tend to prefer pens though while convenient, they can be more expensive. The most common type of intermediate-acting insulin is: NPH (marketed as Humulin N and the Humulin N Pen) NPH (marketed as Novolin N and the Novolin N FlexPen) Long-acting insulins are marketed as different brands. The common ones are: Glargine (marketed as Lantus and the Solo Star Pen) Detemir (marketed as Levemir and the FlexPen) Degludec (marketed as Tresiba and the FlexTouch Pen) Where? These medicines are injected into the tissue under the skin and are slowly released into the body. These insulins allow glucose from the bloodstream to enter the cells in the body so that glucose can be used as energy. They also reduce glucose release into the bloodstream. When? NPH is usually injected twice a day. It begins working 1-3 hours after injection, and is most effective between 4-10 hours of injection. It generally keeps working for 10-16 hours. Detemir can be used once or twice a day. It begins working a few hours after injection and generally keeps working for anywhere from 20-24 hours. Glarg Continue reading >>

Humulin-n

Humulin-n

How does this medication work? What will it do for me? Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone made by the pancreas that helps our body use or store the glucose (sugar) it gets from food. For people with diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin to meet the body's requirements, or the body cannot properly use the insulin that is made. As a result, glucose cannot be used or stored properly and accumulates in the bloodstream. Insulin injected under the skin helps to lower blood glucose levels. There are many different types of insulin and they are absorbed at different rates and work for varying periods of time. NPH is an intermediate-acting insulin. It takes 1 to 3 hours to begin working after injection, reaches its maximum effect between 5 and 8 hours, and stops working after about 18 to 24 hours. Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are being given this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop using this medication without consulting your doctor. Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to use this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it. What form(s) does this medication come in? Vial Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, glycerol, m-cresol, phenol, protamine sulfate, and zinc. May contain dimethicone, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide. Cartridge/KwikPen Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, Continue reading >>

Insulin And Diabetes

Insulin And Diabetes

Insulin injections are required when the body produces little or no insulin, as with type 1 diabetes. They are also required for some people with type 2 diabetes when diabetes tablets, together with healthy eating and regular physical activity, are not enough to control blood glucose levels. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by special cells, called beta cells, in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. Insulin also helps store excess glucose in the liver. Why must it be injected? While ways of taking insulin by mouth or as a nasal spray are being developed, they are yet to become readily available. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as the stomach would digest it, just as it digests food. What if I have to go on to insulin? For people with type 2 diabetes, starting on insulin can be a difficult and frightening decision to make. However, the many injection devices and tiny needles available today make injecting insulin much easier than most people imagine. In fact many say that they can feel the finger prick for monitoring blood glucose more than they can feel the needle used to inject insulin. When starting on insulin, your doctor and diabetes educator will help you adjust to the new routine. You may find that even with their help, it may take a while to find exactly the right dose to reduce your blood glucose to acceptable levels and to suit your particular lifestyle. Are there different types of insulin? There are 5 types of insulin ranging from short to long acting as insulin is classified according to how long it works in the body. Some insulins are clear in appearance, others cloudy. Everyone is different and will respond differentl Continue reading >>

What Is Intermediate-acting Insulin?

What Is Intermediate-acting Insulin?

RATE★★★★★ Intermediate-acting insulin treatments are products with human insulin complexed with a substance to delay its absorption and prolong its action. It starts working within 1-2 hours and reaches its highest level in the blood around 4-12 hours after its used and stays effective for about 12-18 hours. These times can vary among patients. It is often used to help control blood sugar between meals. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and it helps manage glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream by stimulating the cells to absorb glucose, which is needed by the cells for energy. Insulin also keeps the liver from producing more glucose. In type 2 diabetes, the body can lose the ability to produce insulin and if insulin is produced, the body isn’t able to use it properly (insulin resistance). Many kinds of insulin treatments, including intermediate-acting insulin, enable the body to get the insulin that is needed for glycemic control. Some of the intermediate-acting insulins available in the US include: Humulin N is an intermediate-acting insulin that is used to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes. It can help keep your blood sugar levels within a normal range by moving glucose from the bloodstream into the cells, and it also prevents the liver from producing more glucose. Humulin N is available in pre-filled pens, one of which is called Humulin N Kwikpen and vials, each containing a 100 units/ml (U-100) of insulin. Once the pen is in use, it is good for 14 days and should not be refrigerated but stored at room temperature (below 86°F). The vial is good for 31 days after first use, and can be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature. Humulin N is injected under the skin (subcutaneously) in the abdomen, thigh, upper arm or buttocks Continue reading >>

Humulin-n

Humulin-n

How does this medication work? What will it do for me? Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone made by the pancreas that helps our body use or store the glucose (sugar) it gets from food. For people with diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin to meet the body's requirements, or the body cannot properly use the insulin that is made. As a result, glucose cannot be used or stored properly and accumulates in the bloodstream. Insulin injected under the skin helps to lower blood glucose levels. There are many different types of insulin and they are absorbed at different rates and work for varying periods of time. NPH is an intermediate-acting insulin. It takes 1 to 3 hours to begin working after injection, reaches its maximum effect between 5 and 8 hours, and stops working after about 18 to 24 hours. Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are being given this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop using this medication without consulting your doctor. Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to use this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it. What form(s) does this medication come in? Vial Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, glycerol, m-cresol, phenol, protamine sulfate, and zinc. May contain dimethicone, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide. Cartridge/KwikPen Each mL contains 100 units of NPH insulin. Nonmedicinal ingredients: dibasic sodium phosphate, Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin

Type 2 Diabetes And Insulin

Getting Started When most people find out they have Type 2 diabetes, they are first instructed to make changes in their diet and lifestyle. These changes, which are likely to include routine exercise, more nutritious food choices, and often a lower calorie intake, are crucial to managing diabetes and may successfully lower blood glucose levels to an acceptable level. If they do not, a drug such as glyburide, glipizide, or metformin is often prescribed. But lifestyle changes and oral drugs for Type 2 diabetes are unlikely to be permanent solutions. This is because over time, the pancreas tends to produce less and less insulin until eventually it cannot meet the body’s needs. Ultimately, insulin (injected or infused) is the most effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes. There are many barriers to starting insulin therapy: Often they are psychological; sometimes they are physical or financial. But if insulin is begun early enough and is used appropriately, people who use it have a marked decrease in complications related to diabetes such as retinopathy (a diabetic eye disease), nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease), and neuropathy (nerve damage). The need for insulin should not be viewed as a personal failure, but rather as a largely inevitable part of the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. This article offers some practical guidance on starting insulin for people with Type 2 diabetes. When to start insulin Insulin is usually started when oral medicines (usually no more than two) and lifestyle changes (which should be maintained for life even if oral pills or insulin are later prescribed) have failed to lower a person’s HbA1c level to less than 7%. (HbA1c stands for glycosylated hemoglobin and is a measure of blood glucose control.) However, a recent consensus statement from Continue reading >>

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Synthetic human insulin is identical to your own. However, relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, regular human insulin has several undesirable features. Synthetic human insulin is identical in structure to your own natural insulin. But when it is injected under the skin it doesn’t work as well as natural insulin. This is because injected human insulin clumps together and takes a long time to get absorbed. The activity of this synthetic human insulin is not well synchronized with your body’s needs. In this section, you will find information about: Fast-acting injected insulin Relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, Regular human insulin has undesirable features, such as a delayed onset of action, and variable peak and duration of action when it is injected under the skin. Because of this, fewer and fewer medical providers are prescribing Regular insulin. The delayed onset of action is the reason you have to inject the insulin and wait before eating. And the variable duration of action predisposes to low blood sugars long after the meal is over. REGULAR INSULIN IS LESS PREDICTABLE THAN RAPID-ACTING ANALOG VERSIONS when injected under the skin. NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is an intermediate-acting human insulin that is used to cover blood sugar between meals, and to satisfy your overnight insulin requirement. A fish protein, protamine, has been added to the Regular human insulin to delay its absorption. This long acting insulin is a cloudy suspension that needs to be remixed thoroughly before each injection. Because NPH is a suspension of different sized crystals, it has a very unpredictable absorption rate and action. This results in more frequent low and high blood sugars. The use of NPH has declined with the availability of other long-acting insul Continue reading >>

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