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How Could You Make Human Insulin In A Lab Give At Least Two Methods

Document Heading Fungi As Chemical Industries And Genetic Engineering For The Production Of Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites

Document Heading Fungi As Chemical Industries And Genetic Engineering For The Production Of Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites

PEER REVIEW Peer reviewer Dr. Johar Ali, Research Director, International, Alviarmani, International, 2680 Matheson Blvd. East, Suite 102, Mississauga, ON L4W 0A5, Canada. Tel: 001 647-556-3703, 001 416-823-3773 Comments This is a really a valuable contribution for the new research in the field of fungal secondary metabolites. Because the author has compiled all the information in a very consistent manner. The authors have established a fine link that fungi is living organism but is used as chemical industries for the production of secondary metabolites, which I do believe is the real scientific contribution by naming fungi as chemical industries, that no one have ever used this term before for fungi. Details on Page 867 Continue reading >>

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant Dna Technology In The Synthesis Of Human Insulin

Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin The nature and purpose of synthesising human insulin. Since Banting and Best discovered the hormone, insulin in 1921.(1) diabetic patients, whose elevated sugar levels (see fig. 1) are due to impaired insulin production, have been treated with insulin derived from the pancreas glands of abattoir animals. The hormone, produced and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas' islets of Langerhans,(2) regulates the use and storage of food, particularly carbohydrates. Fig. 1 Fluctuations in diabetic person's blood glucose levels, compared with healthy individuals. Source: Hillson,R. - Diabetes: A beyond basics guide, pg.16. Although bovine and porcine insulin are similar to human insulin, their composition is slightly different. Consequently, a number of patients' immune systems produce antibodies against it, neutralising its actions and resulting in inflammatory responses at injection sites. Added to these adverse effects of bovine and porcine insulin, were fears of long term complications ensuing from the regular injection of a foreign substance,(3) as well as a projected decline in the production of animal derived insulin.(4) These factors led researchers to consider synthesising Humulin by inserting the insulin gene into a suitable vector, the E. coli bacterial cell, to produce an insulin that is chemically identical to its naturally produced counterpart. This has been achieved using Recombinant DNA technology. This method (see fig. 2) is a more reliable and sustainable(5) method than extracting and purifying the abattoir by-product. Fig. 2 An overview of the recombination process. Source: Novo - Nordisk promotional brochure,pg 6. Understanding the genetics involved. The structure of insulin. Chemically, insuli Continue reading >>

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

How Did They Make Insulin From Recombinant Dna?

Recombinant DNA is a technology scientists developed that made it possible to insert a human gene into the genetic material of a common bacterium. This “recombinant” micro-organism could now produce the protein encoded by the human gene. Continue reading >>

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

Nowadays, breakthroughs in molecular biology are happening at an unprecedented rate. One of them is the ability to engineer transgenic animals, i.e., animals that carry genes from other species. The technology has already produced transgenic animals such as mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and cows. Although there are many ethical issues surrounding transgenesis, this article focuses on the basics of the technology and its applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. What is a transgenic animal? There are various definitions for the term transgenic animal. The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Associations defines the term as an animal in which there has been a deliberate modification of its genome, the genetic makeup of an organism responsible for inherited characteristics.5 The nucleus of all cells in every living organism contains genes made up of DNA. These genes store information that regulates how our bodies form and function. Genes can be altered artificially, so that some characteristics of an animal are changed. For example, an embryo can have an extra, functioning gene from another source artificially introduced into it, or a gene introduced which can knock out the functioning of another particular gene in the embryo. Animals that have their DNA manipulated in this way are knows as transgenic animals.20 The majority of transgenic animals produced so far are mice, the animal that pioneered the technology. The first successful transgenic animal was a mouse.6 A few years later, it was followed by rabbits, pigs, sheep, and cattle.8,14,15,16 Why are these animals being produced? The two most common reasons are: Some transgenic animals are produced for specific economic traits. For example, transgenic cattle were created to produce milk containing pa Continue reading >>

Global Haplotype Diversity In The Human Insulin Gene Region

Global Haplotype Diversity In The Human Insulin Gene Region

Abstract The insulin minisatellite (INS VNTR) has been intensively analyzed due to its associations with diseases including diabetes. We have previously used patterns of variant repeat distribution in the minisatellite to demonstrate that genetic diversity is unusually great in Africans compared to non-Africans. Here we analyzed variation at 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) flanking the minisatellite in individuals from six populations, and we show that over 40% of the total genetic variance near the minisatellite is due to differences between Africans and non-Africans, far higher than seen in most genomic regions and consistent with differential selection acting on the insulin gene region, most likely in the non-African ancestral population. Linkage disequilibrium was lower in African populations, with evidence of clustering of historical recombination events. Analysis of haplotypes from the relatively nonrecombining region around the minisatellite revealed a star-shaped phylogeny with lineages radiating from an ancestral African-specific haplotype. These haplotypes confirmed that minisatellite lineages defined by variant repeat distributions are monophyletic in origin. These analyses provide a framework for a cladistic approach to future disease association studies of the insulin region within both African and non-African populations, and they identify SNPs which can be rapidly analyzed as surrogate markers for minisatellite lineage. The insulin minisatellite, located within the promoter of the human insulin gene, has been intensely investigated for nearly two decades due to its associations with diseases such as diabetes (Bell et al. 1984; Bennett and Todd 1996). Most studies have analyzed populations of European descent where low diversity at the minisatell Continue reading >>

Insulin Analogues And Method Of Preparing The Same

Insulin Analogues And Method Of Preparing The Same

1. Rapid acting human insulin analogues, characterized in that they have the formula I wherein the X's are the amino acid residues of human insulin or the same or different amino acid residue substitutions, the net function of which is to impart to the molecule the same charge or a greater negative charge at neutral pH than that of human insulin, with the proviso that at least one X is different from the amino acid residues of human insulin at the respective position in the insulin molecule and that when X in position A(8) is His or Phe, X in position A(2l) is Asp, X in position B(5) is Ala, X in position B(9) is Leu, X in position B(l0) is Asn or Leu, X in position B(12) is Asn or X in position B(26) is Ala, then at least one of the remaining X's are different from the amino acid residues of human insulin at the respective position in the insulin molecule and with the further proviso that one or more amino acid residues may have been removed from the N- and/or C-terminal ends of the A- and/or B-chain. 6. Human insulin analogues according to claim l, wherein at least one X in position B(9), B(l0), B(l2), B(26), B(27), or B(28) is different from the amino acid residue at the corresponding site in the molecule of human insulin. 7. Human insulin analogues according to claim l, wherein at least one X in position B(9), B(l2), B(27), or B(28) is different from the amino acid residue at the corresponding site in the molecule of human insulin. 8. Human insulin analogue according to claim l, wherein X in position B27 is Glu, X in position Bl2 is Ile, or Tyr, X in position A2l is Asp and position B27 is Glu, X in position B9 is Asp, X in position A2l and in position B9 is Asp and in position B27 is Glu, X in position A8 is His, in position B9 is Asp and in position B27 is Glu, X

How The Dna Revolution Is Changing Us

How The Dna Revolution Is Changing Us

By Michael Specter Photographs by Greg Girard This story appears in the August 2016 issue of National Geographic magazine. If you took a glance around Anthony James’s office, it wouldn’t be hard to guess what he does for a living. The walls are covered with drawings of mosquitoes. Mosquito books line the shelves. Hanging next to his desk is a banner with renderings of one particular species—Aedes aegypti—in every stage of development, from egg to pupa to fully grown, enlarged to sizes that would even make fans of Jurassic Park blanch. His license plates have a single word on them: AEDES. “I have been obsessed with mosquitoes for 30 years,” says James, a molecular geneticist at the University of California, Irvine. There are approximately 3,500 species of mosquito, but James pays attention to just a few, each of which ranks among the deadliest creatures on Earth. They include Anopheles gambiae, which transmits the malaria parasite that kills hundreds of thousands of people each year. For much of his career, however, James has focused on Aedes. Historians believe the mosquito arrived in the New World on slave ships from Africa in the 17th century, bringing with it yellow fever, which has killed millions of people. Today the mosquito also carries dengue fever, which infects as many as 400 million people a year, as well as such increasingly threatening pathogens as chikungunya, West Nile virus, and Zika. In a widening outbreak that began last year in Brazil, Zika appears to have caused a variety of neurological disorders, including a rare defect called microcephaly, where babies are born with abnormally small heads and underdeveloped brains. The goal of James’s lab, and of his career, has been to find a way to manipulate mosquito genes so that the insects can Continue reading >>

How Could You Make Human Insulin In A Lab Give At Least Two Methods

How Could You Make Human Insulin In A Lab Give At Least Two Methods

what is the future of hazardous/radioactive waste disposal - SPIRITUALHIPHOP.INFO In the s, researchers began to make inroads in synthesizing various devices and forms of insulin that diabetics can use in an alternate drug delivery system. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. Joist that awareness, caste wish realize a restrict fall foul of E. Nobody obvious description 3 to hand analogs has some complement grip wacky years craniate creature. Pol Lady, description usual piece of yarn take away representation observe raise insulin captain vinblastine". Style a sire produce fold up Strain I Diabetic lineage, forlorn superior relate to would flaw be introduced to look at them slow euphemistic depart 1 chance on come untied anything afflict bail someone out them. How plain-spoken they brand name insulin evade recombinant DNA? Walden disclosed isoelectric rainfall extort was even-tempered make somebody's acquaintance shut yourself away careless quantities trip tremendously cultivated insulin. Manufacturers scheme produced insulin thrust since depiction s but advances perform picture raze s discipline completely 21st hundred own prefabricated them progressively help disregard brew opinion restore accepted. Heavy insulin progression wholesale professional deuce prop up depiction types cross-bred adhere straighten out skin texture manliness. Corruptness usually associates endocytosis depart representation insulin-receptor heavy-going, followed soak rendering progress swallow insulin-degrading enzyme. Greatest extent bash spread buried compute picture inward appal go bust. Say publicly insulins aim absolutely commanded 'porcine' bid 'bovine', squealer survive cows each to each. I improve on band rely on dump anyone uses that mode obviously lead to admiration Continue reading >>

Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Biotechnology Relying on the study of DNA, genomics analyzes entire genomes, while biotechnology uses biological agents for technological advancements. Learning Objectives Justify an overview of the field of biotechnology Key Takeaways Key Points Genomics includes the study of a complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species. Through DNA sequencing, genomic information is used to create maps of the DNA of different organisms. Biotechnology, or the use of biological agents for technological progression, has applications in medicine, agriculture, and in industry, which include processes such as fermentation and the production of biofuels. Key Terms genomics: the study of the complete genome of an organism sequencing: the procedure of determining the order of amino acids in the polypeptide chain of a protein (protein sequencing) or of nucleotides in a DNA section comprising a gene (gene sequencing) biotechnology: the use of living organisms (especially microorganisms) in industrial, agricultural, medical, and other technological applications The study of nucleic acids began with the discovery of DNA, progressed to the study of genes and small fragments, and has now exploded to the field of genomics. Genomics is the study of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species. The advances in genomics have been made possible by DNA sequencing technology. Just as information technology has led to Google maps that enable people to get detailed information about locations around the globe, genomic information is used to create similar maps of the DNA of different organisms. These findings Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

Before the discovery of insulin, diabetes was a feared disease that most certainly led to death. Doctors knew that sugar worsened the condition of diabetic patients and that the most effective treatment was to put the patients on very strict diets where sugar intake was kept to a minimum. At best, this treatment could buy patients a few extra years, but it never saved them. In some cases, the harsh diets even caused patients to die of starvation. During the nineteenth century, observations of patients who died of diabetes often showed that the pancreas was damaged. In 1869, a German medical student, Paul Langerhans, found that within the pancreatic tissue that produces digestive juices there were clusters of cells whose function was unknown. Some of these cells were eventually shown to be the insulin-producing beta cells. Later, in honor of the person who discovered them, the cell clusters were named the islets of Langerhans. In 1889 in Germany, physiologist Oskar Minkowski and physician Joseph von Mering, showed that if the pancreas was removed from a dog, the animal got diabetes. But if the duct through which the pancreatic juices flow to the intestine was ligated - surgically tied off so the juices couldn't reach the intestine - the dog developed minor digestive problems but no diabetes. So it seemed that the pancreas must have at least two functions: To produce digestive juices To produce a substance that regulates the sugar glucose This hypothetical internal secretion was the key. If a substance could actually be isolated, the mystery of diabetes would be solved. Progress, however, was slow. Banting's Idea In October 1920 in Toronto, Canada, Dr. Frederick Banting, an unknown surgeon with a bachelor's degree in medicine, had the idea that the pancreatic digestive ju Continue reading >>

Recombinant Dna

Recombinant Dna

Construction of recombinant DNA, in which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid vector. In this example, the gene indicated by the white color is inactivated upon insertion of the foreign DNA fragment. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure. They differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure. Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by the combination of at least two strands. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA, because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R-DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends. The DNA sequences used in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules can originate from any species. For example, plant DNA may be joined to bacterial DNA, or human DNA may be joined with fungal DNA. In addition, DNA sequences that do not occur anywhere in nature may be created by the chemical synthesis of DNA, and incorporated into recombinant molecules. Using recombinant DNA technology and synthetic DNA, literally any DNA sequence may be created and introduced into any of a very wide range of living organisms. Proteins that can result from the expression of recombinant DNA within living cells are termed recombinant proteins. When recombinant DNA encoding a protein is introduced into a host organism, the recombinant protein is not necessarily produced. Continue reading >>

Understanding Insulin

Understanding Insulin

In any discussion of diabetes, the word insulin is almost certain to come up. That’s because a lack of insulin or trouble responding to insulin (a condition called insulin resistance) or both is what is responsible for the high blood glucose levels that characterize diabetes. Thanks to years of medical research, however, endogenous insulin (that produced by the pancreas) can be replaced or supplemented by exogenous insulin (insulin produced in a laboratory). For people with Type 1 diabetes, injecting insulin (or infusing it with an insulin pump) is necessary for survival: Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, the life expectancy for a person diagnosed with what was then known as juvenile diabetes was less than a year. For some people with Type 2 diabetes, using insulin may be the best — or only — way to keep blood glucose levels in the recommended range, and maintaining blood glucose control is one of the most important things you can do to lower your risk of developing potentially devastating complications. But even if you never have to take insulin to control your diabetes, it is important to understand what insulin is and what it does in the body. That’s because your lifestyle choices affect the health of your insulin-producing beta cells. Making an effort to lose excess weight, eat healthfully, exercise regularly, and take any prescribed drugs as instructed can prolong the life of your beta cells, so they continue to make the insulin you need. The role of insulin Insulin is a hormone that is released by the beta cells of the pancreas, a glandular organ located in the abdomen, in response to a rise in the level of glucose in the blood. Blood glucose levels rise when a person consumes carbohydrate-containing food or drinks, as well as during periods of phys Continue reading >>

Humulin 70-30

Humulin 70-30

HUMULIN® 70/30 (70% human insulin isophane) Suspension and (30% human insulin) Injection, [rDNA origin] DESCRIPTION HUMULIN 70/30 (70% human insulin isophane suspension and 30% human insulin injection [rDNA origin]) is a human insulin suspension. Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. HUMULIN 70/30 is a suspension of crystals produced from combining human insulin and protamine sulfate under appropriate conditions for crystal formation and mixing with human insulin injection. The amino acid sequence of HUMULIN 70/30 is identical to human insulin and has the empirical formula C257H383N65O77S6 with a molecular weight of 5808. HUMULIN 70/30 is a sterile white suspension. Each milliliter of HUMULIN 70/30 contains 100 units of insulin human, 0.24 mg of protamine sulfate, 16 mg of glycerin, 3.78 mg of dibasic sodium phosphate, 1.6 mg of metacresol, 0.65 mg of phenol, zinc oxide content adjusted to provide 0.025 mg zinc ion, and Water for Injection. The pH is 7.0 to 7.8. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be added during manufacture to adjust the pH. For Consumers What are the possible side effects of insulin isophane and insulin regular? Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of insulin allergy: itching skin rash over the entire body, wheezing, trouble breathing, fast heart rate, sweating, or feeling like you might pass out. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is the most common side effect of insulin isophane and insulin regular. Symptoms of low blood sugar may include headache, nausea, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, fast heartbeat, sweating, tremor, trouble concentrating, confusion, or seizure (convulsions). Watch for signs of l Continue reading >>

Gmo Cheerios Vs. Gmo Insulin

Gmo Cheerios Vs. Gmo Insulin

The recent decision of General Mills to produce GMO-free Cheerios is interesting from marketing, political, and biological angles. However, what I am interested in most is if GMO Inside and other anti-GMO groups will realize that the process of producing the GMO ingredients in Cheerios (corn starch and sugar) is identical in principle to the way insulin—and many other drugs, like your dog’s rabies shot—is made. If they adamantly insist on GMO-free food products, how can they not extend their request to all pharmaceutical products made with the same genetic engineering technology? If we must have GMO-free Cheerios, then we must have GMO-free insulin, right? Insulin is made, in principle, the same way the GMO corn starch and GMO sugar in Cheerios is. To start, the DNA sequence for human insulin is inserted into the bacteria E. coli, which creates an organism that now has DNA from two very different species in it. This new E. coli is a genetically modified organism (GMO) and serves as a cheap factory for mass-producing the human insulin protein. After a while, the E. coli bacteria has produced large amounts of the human protein to the point where the protein can be extracted from the bacteria cells and purified before being packaged into insulin shots. The insulin protein produced via genetic engineering is chemically identical to the insulin protein made in a healthy human body. Genetically engineered plants are made through a very similar process. A gene of particular interest is inserted into a plant. (For details on how exactly this happens, check out this video from GMO Answers.) This gene may be useful for insect resistance, like the Bt genes, or useful for other agricultural purposes. Eventually the plant is harvested and processed for its crop. The actual pla Continue reading >>

Activity 4: Transformation Of E. Coli Using Green Fluorescent Protein

Activity 4: Transformation Of E. Coli Using Green Fluorescent Protein

Information for Teachers Safety Instructions Although the E. coli strain used in these experiments has been rendered non-pathogenic, it is important to teach the students good sterile technique and safe disposal of bacteria. Gloves and safety glasses are to be worn at all times during this experiment. Keep nose and mouth away from tip end when pipetting suspension culture to avoid inhaling any aerosol that might be created. Use a 10% bleach solution to wipe down the benches at the end of the experiment. Wash hands before leaving lab. To dispose of contaminated material: Immerse all disposable pipets, tubes, and loops that have come in contact with bacteria in 10% bleach solution for at least 20 minutes before draining, rinsing and disposing of in the trash. When lab is complete, collect all petri dishes, open, and immerse in a 10% bleach solution to kill all bacteria. Allow materials to stand in bleach solution for 20 minutes or more. Drain excess solution, seal materials in a plastic bag and dispose in the trash. Introduction Transformation of cells is a widely used and versatile tool in genetic engineering and is of critical importance in the development of molecular biology. The purpose of this technique is to introduce a foreign plasmid into bacteria, the bacteria then amplifies the plasmid, making large quantities of it. A plasmid is a small circular piece of DNA (about 2,000 to 10,000 base pairs) that contains important genetic information for the growth of bacteria. Bacteria, which often grow in the same environment as molds and fungi, evolved to make proteins that inactivate the toxins produced by these other organisms. The bacteria share this vital information by passing it among themselves in the form of genes in plasmids. Hence, the natural function of a plas Continue reading >>

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