diabetestalk.net

How Are Insulin Needles Made

Insulin Syringes

Insulin Syringes

An insulin syringe has three parts: a needle, a barrel, and a plunger. The needle is short and thin and covered with a fine layer of silicone to allow it to pass through the skin easily and lessen pain. A cap covers and protects the needle before it is used. The barrel is the long, thin chamber that holds the insulin. The barrel is marked with lines to measure the number of insulin units. The plunger is a long, thin rod that fits snugly inside the barrel of the syringe. It easily slides up and down to either draw the insulin into the barrel or push the insulin out of the barrel through the needle. The plunger has a rubber seal at the lower end to prevent leakage. The rubber seal is matched with the line on the barrel to measure the correct amount of insulin. Insulin syringes are made in several sizes. Syringe size and units Syringe size Number of units the syringe holds 1/4 mL or 0.25 mL 25 1/3 mL or 0.33 mL 30 1/2 mL or 0.50 mL 50 1 mL 100 Use the smallest syringe size you can for the dose of insulin you need. The measuring lines on the barrel of small syringes are farther apart and easier to see. When you choose the size of syringe, consider the number of units you need to give and how well you can see the markings on the barrel. A 0.25 mL or 0.33 mL syringe usually is best for children (who often need very small doses of insulin) and for people with poor eyesight. A 1 mL syringe may be best for an adult who needs to take a large amount of insulin. This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.© 1995-2015 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Continue reading >>

Syringe

Syringe

A syringe is a simple pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (called a barrel), allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube. The open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle, a nozzle, or tubing to help direct the flow into and out of the barrel. Syringes are often used to administer injections, insert intravenous drugs into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, and measure liquids. The word "syringe" is derived from the Greek σύριγξ (syrinx, meaning "tube") via back-formation of a new singular from its Greek-type plural "syringes" (σύριγγες). Medical syringes Sectors in the syringe and needle market include disposable and safety syringes, injection pens, needleless injectors, insulin pumps, and specialty needles.[2] Hypodermic syringes are used with hypodermic needles to inject liquid or gases into body tissues, or to remove from the body. Injecting of air into a blood vessel is hazardous, as it may cause an air embolism; preventing embolisms by removing air from the syringe is one of the reasons for the familiar image of holding a hypodermic syringe pointing upward, tapping it, and expelling a small amount of liquid before an injection into the bloodstream. The barrel of a syringe is made of plastic or glass, usually has graduated marks indicating the volume of fluid in the syringe, and is nearly always transparent. Glass syringes may be sterilized in an autoclave. However, most modern medical syringes are plastic with a rubber piston, because this type seals much better between the piston and the barrel and because they are cheap enough to dispose of after being used Continue reading >>

How Do They Get The Hole In A Thin, Little Hypodermic Needle?

How Do They Get The Hole In A Thin, Little Hypodermic Needle?

topic 11413 Our question, How do manufacturers make the tiny hole through a hypodermic needle? We have asked several people we thought might know, pharmacists, doctors, etc. and so far no one can explain it. It started out as a simple question but now we are on a quest to find the answer. We are junior high science students. Carol Cornelius - Guymon, Oklahoma Hi Carol, I believe that the only way to do this is to firstly make a much larger tube (using stainless for needles) and to FILL that tube with a material that can be easily, so-to-speak, removed. I think it was copper. Why? Because if you cold extrude or cold size, and pass unfilled tubing through a range of ever decreasing dies to get very, very small tube diameters, you'll get ovality if not complete distortion and flattening. In the rolling mill industry the super fine rolling mill design is called a Zenzimir (or a word sounding very much like that) but I don't think that by itself it can make hypo needles. But the initial tubing? Most probably. The next problem is to try to remove the 'filler' material. Thousands and thousands of needles are placed in a nitric acid tank ... and not days, not weeks BUT months later the acid eventually leaches out all the copper. Presto, super fine holes in a super thin material. Ergo, you have your fine needle. OK? Aren't you lucky you are growing up in a world where, compared to Ye Olden Days, injections used to hurt! Now you can go tell all your pharmacists and doctors HOW TO DO IT! Freeman Newton White Rock, British Columbia, Canada (It is our sad duty to advise that Freeman passed away Having been in the medical needle business for over 20 years, I can tell you how this is done. A flat, ( I believe it is about 1 1/2" in width) strip of 304 stainless steel is roll formed and Continue reading >>

Does Needle Size Matter?

Does Needle Size Matter?

Go to: Abstract Hypodermic needles are in widespread use, but patients are unhappy with the pain, anxiety, and difficulty of using them. To increase patient acceptance, smaller needle diameters and lower insertion forces have been shown to reduce the frequency of painful injections. Guided by these observations, fine needles and microneedles have been developed to minimize pain and have found the greatest utility for delivery of vaccines and biopharmaceuticals such as insulin. However, pain reduction must be balanced against limitations of injection depth, volume, and formulations introduced by reduced needle dimensions. In some cases, needle-free delivery methods provide useful alternatives. Keywords: drug delivery, hypodermic needle, insulin delivery methods, microneedle injection, needle gauge, needle length, pain from needle insertion Go to: Hypodermic Needles The hypodermic needle was invented independently by Charles Gabriel Pravaz in France and by Alexander Wood in England in 1853.1 Since then, needles have become the most widely used medical device, with an estimated 16 billion injections administered worldwide.2 Currently, needles are available in a wide range of lengths and gauges (i.e., diameters) either to enable delivery of drugs, vaccines, and other substances into the body or for extraction of fluids and tissue (Figures 1 and 2). The appropriate needle gauge and length are determined by a number of factors, including the target tissue, injection formulation, and patient population. For example, venipuncture requires the use of needles typically as large as 22–21 gauge inserted to depths of 25–38 mm to withdraw milliliters of blood.3 In contrast, vaccines usually require injection of less than 1 ml of fluid and, therefore, 25- to 22-gauge needles with Continue reading >>

Hypodermic Needle

Hypodermic Needle

For the theory on mass media effects, see Hypodermic needle model. "Hypodermic" redirects here. For the song by The Offspring, see Ignition (The Offspring album). Different bevels on hypodermic needles Syringe on left, hypodermic needle with attached colour coded Luer-Lok connector on right Hypodermic needle features A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps,[1] is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end. It is commonly used with a syringe, a hand-operated device with a plunger, to inject substances into the body (e.g., saline solution, solutions containing various drugs or liquid medicines) or extract fluids from the body (e.g., blood). They are used to take liquid samples from the body, for example taking blood from a vein in venipuncture. Large bore hypodermic intervention is especially useful in catastrophic blood loss or treating shock. A hypodermic needle is used for rapid delivery of liquids, or when the injected substance cannot be ingested, either because it would not be absorbed (as with insulin), or because it would harm the liver. There are many possible routes for an injection, with the arm being a common location. The hypodermic needle also serves an important role in research environments where sterile conditions are required. The hypodermic needle significantly reduces contamination during inoculation of a sterile substrate. The hypodermic needle reduces contamination for two reasons: First, its surface is extremely smooth, which prevents airborne pathogens from becoming trapped between irregularities on the needle's surface, which would subsequently be transferred into the media (e.g. agar) as contami Continue reading >>

The History Of Injecting, And The Development Of The Syringe

The History Of Injecting, And The Development Of The Syringe

The origins of injecting effectively go back into pre-history, with use of weapons such as blowpipes and poison tipped darts to introduce substances into the body – albeit involuntarily for most of the recipients – in many parts of the world. At its most basic, a syringe is a type of simple pump and it is likely that syringe-type devices were produced by many people. The earliest and most common syringe type device was called a ‘clyster’ a device for giving enemas. It is impossible to be precise about when this developed, and when injecting as we know it began - the origins of the hypodermic syringe are clouded in uncertainty because there were numerous parallel processes of evolution and experimentation that led to the development of devices to inject drugs and medicines. Because of this various people have been credited with the 'invention' of the syringe including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle and Pascal, and intravenous injection is recorded as early as the 17th century. The first recorded injections Christopher Wren is the first person recorded to have employed intravenous injecting in Britain – injecting into a dog at Wadham College, Oxford, in 1656. This was actually of a psychoactive substance: the dog was injected with alcohol because the effect could be proven through observation when the dog became intoxicated! He also experimented by injecting dogs with opium and other substances (Macht 1916). Wren’s ‘syringe’ for these experiments was a crude device, consisting of a quill attached to a small bladder. In order to gain access to a vein, an incision first had to be made in the skin. Wren also attempted intravenous injection in humans. His subjects for this included “the delinquent servant of a foreign ambassador" ...but it didn't go well: Continue reading >>

Pens And Needles

Pens And Needles

It has been estimated that world-wide around 7.5 billion disposable needles are used outside a medical setting to treat diabetes and other conditions requiring self-administration of injected drugs. Insulin pens are generally preferred by patients but are tied to the use of specific (and more expensive) brands of insulin, supplied in specially made cartridges. Plastic syringes and needles can be used with any insulin supplied in a standard vial. These are recommended for single use only by the manufacturers, but in practice both are frequently re-used by people with diabetes for reasons of convenience and economy. This article reviews practical aspects of insulin administration and delivery, with special reference to resource-poor settings, and considers problems associated with faulty injection technique, the evidence for and against single use of needles, potential problems with storage, and some of the health and environmental hazards associated with disposal of insulin needles. Background Insulin needles used during the first 50 years of insulin therapy were intended for repeated use; in some cases patients were provided with a pumice stone with which to sharpen them. They were used with glass insulin syringes which were stored in methylated spirit and boiled periodically to ensure sterility. New technologies introduced in the 1980s produced much sharper needles with siliconized tips designed to reduce friction as they are pushed through the skin, and attached to plastic syringes. About 7.5 billion are used each year [1]. First generation needles were detachable, allowing reuse of the syringe, but these were soon followed by single unit devices in which the needle was fused with the syringe. Insulin pen devices came into wide use in the 1990s. These are produced by Continue reading >>

The History Of The Hypodermic Needle

The History Of The Hypodermic Needle

Whether it’s an anaesthetic, blood test, insulin, vitamin shot or vaccination, at a base human level something feels instinctively wrong about having a long thin piece of metal stuck deep into your flesh. And yet, in allowing physicians to administer medicine directly into the bloodstream, the hypodermic needle has been one of the most important inventions of medical science. Our resident health humourist Nick Snelling sets out to uncover which sadistic sawbones we have to thank for the idea. In the beginning… Typically, it was the Romans. The word ‘syringe’ is derived from Greek mythology. Chased to the edge of a river by the god Pan, a rather chaste nymph by the name of Syrinx magically disguised herself as water reeds. Determined, Pan chopped the hollow reeds off and blew into them to create a musical whistling sound, thereby fashioning the first of his fabled pipes. Taking that concept of ‘hollow tubes’, and having observed how snakes could transmit venom, the practice of administering ointments and unctions via simple piston syringes is originally described in the writings of the first-century Roman scholar Aulus Cornelius Celsus and the equally famous Greek surgeon Galen. It’s unclear if the Egyptian surgeon Ammar bin Ali al-Mawsili was a fan of either of their scribblings, but 800 years later he employed a hollow glass tube and simple suction power to remove cataracts from his patients’ eyes – a technique copied up until the 13th century, but only to extract blood, fluid or poison, not to inject anything. Syringes get modern Then, in 1650, while experimenting with hydrodynamics, the legendary French polymath Blaise Pascal invented the first modern syringe. His device exemplified the law of physics that became known as Pascal’s Law, which propo Continue reading >>

How Do They Get The Hole Through A Hypodermic Needle?

How Do They Get The Hole Through A Hypodermic Needle?

Syringes are a special interest of mine. In addition to having an engineer’s interest in such things, I’ve been diabetic for some time and have given myself perhaps 30,000 or so injections. So I venture to say I know whereof I speak. The key to syringe making is forming the hollow tube, or cannula. Processes to make small tubes and hollow needles are quite old, and almost always begin by forming a large tube. This large tube is formed by either rolling a sheet of metal into a tube and welding the seam, or by taking a solid billet of metal and boring a hole through the center while the metal is heated (creating "seamless tubing"). This large tube is softened by heating it (called annealing), then drawn through a tool called a die–which in this application of the word is essentially a hardened piece of metal with a small hole. As the tube is drawn through the die it both stretches, increasing the tube length, and shrinks, decreasing the tube diameter. The tube is passed through smaller and smaller dies, continuing to stretch in length and shrink in diameter, until the desired size is reached. The last drawing through the die is often done without heat, therefore cold-working the tube to increase its strength and hardness. Sometimes a stiff piece of wire or a mandrel is placed inside the tube to prevent the walls from collapsing while it is being drawn, but often the process relies on incredibly consistent steel quality and high-tolerance equipment to manufacture cannulae that meet the specifications. Becton Dickinson, one of the largest manufacturers of syringes in the world, says it makes syringes using 3/4-inch-wide stainless steel rolled and welded into a 1/4-inch diameter tube, then heated, drawn, and finally cold-drawn to its final size. Some of those sizes are Continue reading >>

How Do They Make Hypodermic Needles?

How Do They Make Hypodermic Needles?

Q: How do they put that very small hole in a hypodermic needle? A: Actually they don't. The needle is built around the hole. Although some needles are manufactured by other methods, the most common process is to start with a strip, or ribbon, of stainless steel and form it into a tube by passing it through a series of rollers. The starting size of the material might be three-quarters of an inch wide by one-fiftieth of an inch thick stored on a large spool, perhaps several feet in diameter. After the ribbon is formed into a tube, the outside diameter would be about one-quarter of an inch. Next the seam is welded. The forming and welding are the first steps in continuous processes done by automated machines. As the tube moves down the line, the tube would be heated, or annealed, to soften it, followed by passing through a series of progressively smaller holes known as dies. Each die reduces the tube diameter until the desired size is obtained. What started out as one-quarter inch outside diameter would be reduced to 0.014 of an inch for a 28-gauge needle commonly used for insulin injections. In this case, the starting tube diameter is reduced by about 95 percent. As the outside diameter decreases, the inside diameter and wall thickness also decrease, just as a piece of taffy stretches and gets thinner as you pull on it. The velocity on the production line increases through each die. The final tube speed might be 10 or 20 times the starting ribbon speed. The final steps of the production process strengthen and harden the tube, which can be done by eliminating the heating process before the final die, resulting in cold-working, followed by cutting the tube to size and sharpening the injection tip. All that remains is to install a barrel and plunger and the syringe is comple Continue reading >>

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. In people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. Insulin replacement by daily injections is required. In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the condition. RMIT University have produced a short overview of insulin, a drug that keeps in excess of one million Australians alive. Watch the video to understand why insulin is important and why so many Australians rely on it to stay alive. Copyright © 2015 RMIT University, Prepared by the School of Applied Sciences (Discipline of Chemistry). At this stage, insulin can only be injected. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as it would be destroyed in the stomach, meaning it would not be available to convert glucose into energy. Insulin is injected through the skin into the fatty tissue known as the subcutaneous layer. You do not inject it into muscle or directly into the blood. Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. The tummy (abdomen) absorbs insulin the fastest and is the site used by most people. The buttocks and thighs are also used by some people. While i Continue reading >>

How To Recycle Needles

How To Recycle Needles

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 9 million people use needles, syringes or other “sharps” at home. Since most of those people use them frequently, the agency estimates 3 billion needles and 900 million lancets (the sharp instruments used to pierce the skin on your finger) are thrown away every year. Putting needles in your trash can is a major safety hazard. Those sharp needles could puncture a sanitation worker, causing injury and potentially transferring life-threatening diseases like hepatitis and HIV. That is also the reason needles cannot be recycled. Needles and all other sharps must be thrown away using the protocols outlined by your city or state. This article contains basic information about safe needle disposal, as well as resources for determining where you can take them. Who uses needles? Medical establishments (for people and animals) go through thousands of needles a day. They are used for giving shots, inserting IVs, and drawing blood and other fluids. Home needle users include people with diabetes, HIV, hepatitis, blood clotting disorders like hemophilia and allergies to bee stings or foods. People undergoing treatment for infertility or doing gender reassignment use needles regularly. Some people use needles to inject illegal drugs such as heroin and methamphetamines. Can you recycle needles? It goes without saying that needles should never be reused. They also cannot be recycled. The risk of disease transmission is so great that no one will take them, melt the metal back down and use it to recast new needles. It is a shame because needles themselves are made of highly-recyclable stainless steel. Syringes are typically made of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) plastic, which can usually be recycled if you can gather them in Continue reading >>

A Painless Needle

A Painless Needle

Terumo's trademark is registered at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) Background For diabetes patients, daily injections are an uncomfortable and often painful part of life. With multiple injections required every day, anxiety and fear are typical emotions a patient may have when diagnosed with diabetes, especially for children and those with a fear of needles. Traditionally thought of as an unavoidable part of treatment, injection therapy and the pain and discomfort it causes has become one of the major concerns of diabetes patients. However, thanks to Terumo Corporation (Terumo), a Tokyo based medical equipment manufacturer, this traditionally held view is changing. To increase the quality of life of patients, alleviate discomfort and dispel fears surrounding diabetes injection therapy, in 2005 Terumo proposed a challenge to itself: make a needle so fine that it makes injections painless. With over 600,000 people living with diabetes in Japan, Terumo felt a strong social obligation to help provide them with physical and psychological relief. The company called on Mr. Tetsuya Oyauchi, one of its best engineers who has a string of patents to his name for medical syringes, and Mr. Masayuki Okano, the head of Okano Industrial Corporation (Okano), a company involved in metal pressing, to make this vision a reality. Invention The usual method of manufacturing needles is to hollow out a tiny cylinder of metal. But it is extremely difficult to make ultra thin needles this way, because the thinner the cylinder, the more difficult the procedure becomes. Terumo’s quest for an ultra thin needle proved technically difficult, and after one year of research they were not making much progress. Terumo was turned down by a string of large metalwork firms, which th Continue reading >>

Bd Insulin Syringes & Pen Needles

Bd Insulin Syringes & Pen Needles

When patients are confronted with taking insulin injections for diabetes treatment, the choices can be over whelming. You and your physician can choose from pre-loaded pens with disposable needles or bottles of insulin with disposable syringes. The choice usually depends on the cost, availability, ease of delivery as well as personal preference. If the bottle and syringe method is chosen, than you should be aware of certain differences in the supplies. BD Medical has been a world leader in the production of needles and syringes. In 1924, they invented the first insulin syringe made of glass. It was heavy, difficult to hold and required sterilization between injections. After years in development, in 1961, BD created the first disposable Plastipak syringe. It was light weight, easy to use and great for people requiring multiple daily injections. They were also the first to develop the sharps disposal container which helped decrease the growing concern of medical waste for safety and used needles. BD was recognized in 2002, by Forbes magazine as one of “America’s Most Admired Companies” due to the quality of the products and its desire to assist hospitals in complying with certain mandates for medical devices. BD syringes are the most recommended syringes by diabetes educators because of the high quality, ease of reading the scale on the syringe, sharpness of the needle due to the lubricant coating, the stainless steel material, ease of the plunger mechanism and being free of rubber latex. BD manufactures specific insulin syringes in unit measurement along with various gauge and needle lengths. Some common questions are: What are my barrel choices? Depending on the amount of insulin prescribed by your physician, you can have a 3/10cc or 30 unit size, a1/2cc or 50uni Continue reading >>

8 Ways To Take Insulin

8 Ways To Take Insulin

How to take insulin Need insulin? While the drug itself may be old—nearly 90 years to be exact—there’s lots of new things happening when it comes to ways to take it. From the old-fashioned needle and syringe to injector pens to pumps, you’ve got choices to make. There’s even a plethora of devices that can help you inject if you have poor vision or mobility issues. Check out these eight options and talk with your certified diabetes educator to determine which insulin delivery system or injection aids are right for you. Needle and syringe With this type of delivery system, you insert a needle into a vial, draw up the appropriate amount of insulin, and then inject into the subcutaneous space—the tissue just under your skin. Here are 5 types of insulin and 9 factors that affect how insulin works. Even though there are other options, needles and syringes remain the most common way to take insulin. Some of the new insulin injection methods, such as the insulin pen, carry only a preset amount of insulin. Thinner needles and other advancements, such as syringe magnifiers, have made syringes easier to use. Syringe magnifier Have poor vision? You’re not alone. According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20–74 years. Needle guides can help you keep the syringe or pen steady at the desired location and at the correct angle both for drawing up insulin out of the vial and injecting. Some needle guides also come with magnifiers, which help by enlarging the numbers and allowing you to read the fine print and dosages on the syringe. Syringe-filling device These devices are another example of innovations designed to help make insulin needles more palatable. Syringe-filling devices allow a person Continue reading >>

More in insulin