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How Are Insulin Injections Given

What Are Some Facts About Sleeping?

What Are Some Facts About Sleeping?

Some very useful facts about sleep everyone should know. Not sure if they are mind blowing but if you have sleep problems, read the reference articles. They are really useful. Benefits of quality deep sleep/power naps Deep sleep primes our brains to function at a higher level, letting us come up with better ideas, find solutions to puzzles more quickly, identify patterns faster and recall information more accurately. The cognitive benefit of a nap could last anywhere from one to three hours, depending on what stage of sleep a person reaches before awakening. It also offers our brains the chance to decide what new information to keep and what to toss. - Rethinking Sleep What happens when you don't get enough sleep Getting too little sleep often makes people feel hungrier than normal, leading to overeating and weight gain. Sleep's Surprising Effects on Hunger Lack of sleep can cause depression, sickness, reduces alertness and make mistakes more likely. Sleep deprivation has long been associated with impaired brain function. Research shows it also has a harmful impact on fat cells, reducing by 30 percent their ability to respond to insulin, a hormone that regulates energy. Thus disrupting energy regulation in humans, a process that can lead over time to weight gain, diabetes and other health problems. Even Your Fat Cells Need Sleep, According to New Research Some more interesting facts Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 2 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) produces insufficient amounts of the hormone insulin and/or the body's tissues become resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin. This causes high blood glucose (sugar) levels, which can lead to a number of complications if untreated. People with type 2 diabetes require regular monitoring and ongoing treatment to maintain normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Treatment includes lifestyle adjustments, self-care measures, and medications, which can minimize the risk of diabetes-related and cardiovascular complications (eg, heart attacks and strokes). Learning to manage diabetes is a process that continues over a lifetime. The diagnosis of diabetes can be overwhelming at the beginning; however, most people are able to lead normal lives, and many patients become experts in their own care. This topic review discusses the role of insulin in blood sugar control for patients with type 2 diabetes. Separate topic reviews about other aspects of type 2 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Alcohol, exercise, and medical care (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Preventing complications in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL IN TYPE 2 DIABETES Keeping blood sugar levels in control is one way to decrease the risk of complications related to type 2 diabetes. The most common complication of type 2 diabetes is heart d Continue reading >>

Choosing An Injection Site

Choosing An Injection Site

Do not take Lantus® during episodes of low blood sugar or if you are allergic to insulin or any of the inactive ingredients in Lantus®. Do not share needles, insulin pens, or syringes with others. Do NOT reuse needles. Before starting Lantus®, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions, including if you have liver or kidney problems, if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant or if you are breast-feeding or planning to breast-feed. Heart failure can occur if you are taking insulin together with certain medicines called TZDs (thiazolidinediones), even if you have never had heart failure or other heart problems. If you already have heart failure, it may get worse while you take TZDs with Lantus®. Your treatment with TZDs and Lantus® may need to be changed or stopped by your doctor if you have new or worsening heart failure. Tell your doctor if you have any new or worsening symptoms of heart failure, including: Sudden weight gain Tell your doctor about all the medications you take, including OTC medicines, vitamins, and supplements, including herbal supplements. Lantus® should be taken once a day at the same time every day. Test your blood sugar levels while using insulin, such as Lantus®. Do not make any changes to your dose or type of insulin without talking to your healthcare provider. Any change of insulin should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Do NOT dilute or mix Lantus® with any other insulin or solution. It will not work as intended and you may lose blood sugar control, which could be serious. Lantus® must only be used if the solution is clear and colorless with no particles visible. Always make sure you have the correct insulin before each injection. While using Lantus®, do not drive or operate heavy machinery until Continue reading >>

Insulin Treatment

Insulin Treatment

Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, which lies just behind your stomach. It helps our bodies use glucose for energy. Everyone with Type 1 diabetes and some people with Type 2 diabetes need to take insulin – either by injection or a pump – to control their blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels). Injecting insulin Insulin is injected using a syringe and needle, or an insulin pen or needle. The needles used are very small as the insulin only needs to be injected under the skin (subcutaneously) – not into a muscle or vein. Once it's been injected, it soaks into small blood vessels and is taken into the bloodstream. As your confidence grows and you become more relaxed, injections will get easier and soon become second nature. The most frequently used injection sites are the thighs, buttocks and abdomen. You may be able to inject into your upper arms, but check with your diabetes team first as this isn't always suitable. As all these areas cover a wide skin area, you should inject at different sites within each of them. It is important to rotate injection sites, as injecting into the same place can cause a build up of lumps under the skin (also known as lipohypertrophy), which make it harder for your body to absorb and use the insulin properly. The three groups of insulin There are three groups of insulin – animal, human (not from humans but produced synthetically to match human insulin) and analogues (the insulin molecule is like a string of beads; scientists have managed to alter the position of some of these beads to create 'analogues' of insulin). Nowadays, most people use human insulin and insulin analogues, although a small number of people still use animal insulin because they have some evidence that they otherwise lose their awareness of Continue reading >>

Insulin Administration

Insulin Administration

Insulin is necessary for normal carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes mellitus do not produce enough of this hormone to sustain life and therefore depend on exogenous insulin for survival. In contrast, individuals with type 2 diabetes are not dependent on exogenous insulin for survival. However, over time, many of these individuals will show decreased insulin production, therefore requiring supplemental insulin for adequate blood glucose control, especially during times of stress or illness. An insulin regimen is often required in the treatment of gestational diabetes and diabetes associated with certain conditions or syndromes (e.g., pancreatic diseases, drug- or chemical-induced diabetes, endocrinopathies, insulin-receptor disorders, certain genetic syndromes). In all instances of insulin use, the insulin dosage must be individualized and balanced with medical nutrition therapy and exercise. This position statement addresses issues regarding the use of conventional insulin administration (i.e., via syringe or pen with needle and cartridge) in the self-care of the individual with diabetes. It does not address the use of insulin pumps. (See the American Diabetes Association’s position statement “Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion” for further discussion on this subject.) INSULIN Insulin is obtained from pork pancreas or is made chemically identical to human insulin by recombinant DNA technology or chemical modification of pork insulin. Insulin analogs have been developed by modifying the amino acid sequence of the insulin molecule. Insulin is available in rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting types that may be injected separately or mixed in the same syringe. Rapid-acting insulin analogs (insulin lispro and insulin a Continue reading >>

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin: The Holy Grail Of Diabetes Treatment

Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. When we eat, insulin is released into the blood stream where it helps to move glucose from the food we have eaten into cells to be used as energy. In people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin as the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by an autoimmune reaction in the body. Insulin replacement by daily injections is required. In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the condition. RMIT University have produced a short overview of insulin, a drug that keeps in excess of one million Australians alive. Watch the video to understand why insulin is important and why so many Australians rely on it to stay alive. Copyright © 2015 RMIT University, Prepared by the School of Applied Sciences (Discipline of Chemistry). At this stage, insulin can only be injected. Insulin cannot be given in tablet form as it would be destroyed in the stomach, meaning it would not be available to convert glucose into energy. Insulin is injected through the skin into the fatty tissue known as the subcutaneous layer. You do not inject it into muscle or directly into the blood. Absorption of insulin varies depending on the part of the body into which you inject. The tummy (abdomen) absorbs insulin the fastest and is the site used by most people. The buttocks and thighs are also used by some people. While i Continue reading >>

Best Insulin Injection Sites: Absorption Time And Rotation

Best Insulin Injection Sites: Absorption Time And Rotation

Insulin is a hormone that helps manage diabetes when it is injected into the body. It can't be taken as a pill or oral medication. This is because the enzymes in the stomach will break down the insulin before it reaches the bloodstream. Insulin injections are one of many ways to treat and manage diabetes. Others include dietary and lifestyle changes, and oral medications. For people who require insulin injections, there are different types of insulin available. It is important to understand and follow the instructions that the doctor provides about how and where to inject insulin. Common injection sites Insulin is injected into the layer of fat directly under this skin, known as subcutaneous tissue. It is injected with a small needle or a device that looks like a pen. There are several different sites where insulin can be injected, including: Abdomen The abdomen is a common site for insulin injection that many people with diabetes choose to use. To give an injection into the abdomen, take a pinch of the fatty tissue from either side between the waist and the hipbones. It should be about 2 inches away from the belly button. This site is easy to access and some people report that it causes less discomfort than other sites. Upper Arms The upper arm is another site where insulin injections can be given. The needle should be placed into the back of the arm (tricep area), about halfway between the elbow and the shoulder. The main disadvantage of this site is that it is very difficult to use for self-administration and may require somebody else to do it. It may be more comfortable to inject into the non-dominant arm. This means injecting into the left arm of a right-handed person or the right arm of a left-handed person. Thighs The thigh is also a very easy area for self-injec Continue reading >>

How To Give An Insulin Injection

How To Give An Insulin Injection

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What do I need to know about insulin syringes? Insulin syringes come in different sizes depending on the dose of insulin you need. Your healthcare provider or pharmacist will help you find the right size syringe. Use the correct size insulin syringe to make sure you get the right dose of insulin. Where do I inject insulin? You can inject insulin into your abdomen, upper arm, buttocks, hip, and the front or side of the thigh. Insulin works fastest when it is injected into the abdomen. Do not inject insulin into areas where you have a wound or bruising. Insulin injected into wounds or bruises may not get into your body correctly. Use a different area within the site each time you inject insulin. For example, inject insulin into different areas in your abdomen. Insulin injected into the same area can cause lumps, swelling, or thickened skin. How do I inject the insulin with a syringe? Clean the skin where you will inject the insulin. You can use an alcohol pad or a cotton swab dipped in alcohol. Grab a fold of your skin. Gently pinch the skin and fat between your thumb and first finger. Insert the needle straight into your skin. Do not hold the syringe at an angle. Make sure the needle is all the way into the skin. Let go of the pinched tissue. Push down on the plunger to inject the insulin. Press on the plunger until the insulin is gone. Keep the needle in place for 5 seconds after you inject the insulin. Pull out the needle. Press on your injection site for 5 to 10 seconds. Do not rub. This will keep insulin from leaking out. Throw away your used insulin syringe as directed. Do not recap the syringe before you throw it away. How can I decrease pain when I inject insulin? Inject insulin at room temperature. If the insulin has been stored in the refr Continue reading >>

What Precautions Should I Take While Travelling Across Europe Given That I Am Diabetic And Need To Carry My Insulin Injections And Other Medicines?

What Precautions Should I Take While Travelling Across Europe Given That I Am Diabetic And Need To Carry My Insulin Injections And Other Medicines?

I've no idea but found some articles for you. Type 2 Diabetes Control while traveling The social network for health Precautions for diabetic patients during travel - The Times of India Have Insulin, Will Fly: Diabetes Management During Air Travel and Time Zone Adjustment Strategies Diabetes and Travel Continue reading >>

Insulin Administration

Insulin Administration

Insulin is a protein formed by two cross-linked peptide chains. Insulin is secreted in pulses by the pancreas and reaches the liver via the portal circulation. Some 80% of the insulin reaching the liver is cleared from the circulation, which means that insulin attains much higher concentrations in the liver than in the peripheral circulation. Insulin has a short plasma half-life (3-4 minutes), and choice of the route and timing of insulin administration is a major determinant of metabolic control. Conventional insulin injections are given into the thigh, abdomen or outer side of the buttock. Standard needles range from 0.8 - 1.6 cm in length, are used with a syringe or pen device and deliver insulin into the subcutaneous fat. Too long a needle or poor injection technique can result in injection into a muscle, which is painful and results in more rapid absorption of insulin. Many alternative routes of administration have been tested, but none can match direct injection or infusion. Subcutaneous insulin injection or infusion share the disadvantages of delivery into the systemic rather than portal circulation, and rates of appearance in the blood stream which are delayed and rendered somewhat erratic by the process of absorption from subcutaneous tissues. Characteristics of an ideal insulin administration system Nature has placed the pancreatic beta cell inside a digestive gland and astride an arterial supply that continuously samples the rate of nutrient absorption from the gut. It responds instantaneously to these blood-borne signals by releasing insulin in synchronised pulses, a pattern of secretion that maximises its effect on liver cells. Furthermore, it matches this insulin secretion with reciprocal suppression or release of its partner hormone pancreatic glucagon, t Continue reading >>

Injecting Insulin

Injecting Insulin

Injecting insulin at home is done subcutaneously, under the skin, but not into muscle or vein. See also Syringe and Insulin pen. It's best to pull up some loose skin into a tent[1][2], then insert the needle firmly, bevel side up[3][4] for comfort[5]. {C BD has animations with narrations to help you learn how to draw insulin properly[6]. One can select from drawing one insulin or combining two insulins in the same syringe. Selecting this and the style of syringe you use personalizes the demo for your needs. The presentation is very clear and unhurried. BD also has a slideshow which shows how to inject your dog[7] or cat[8]. Injecting any insulin at the same site repeatedly over time or blunting a needle with re-use[10] can cause a lipodystrophy: either lipoatrophy[11] or lipohypertrophy. Either makes absorption unreliable. But varying the injection site can cause variability in action profile, too. This page illustrates[12] illustrates the most common areas humans with diabetes inject insulin and explains how absorption differs in various areas of the human body. This is true for ALL insulins. The new shot area needn't be very far from where the last shot was given--the distance of the width of 2 fingers will do fine as a measure[13]. Most of us dealing with pet diabetes vary the side we give the injections in--right side mornings and left side evenings, for example. This is another help in avoiding giving shots in the same areas[14]. Many people give insulin shots in the scruff of the pet's neck, which is now considered to be a less than optimum choice. The neck area provides poor insulin Absorption, due to it not having many capillaries, veins. etc. (vascularization). Other sites suggested by Dr. Greco include the flank and armpit[15]. Intervet recommends giving injec Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children: Giving Insulin Shots To A Child

Diabetes In Children: Giving Insulin Shots To A Child

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas. It lets sugar (glucose) enter body cells, where it is used for energy. It also helps the body store extra sugar in muscle and liver cells. The stored sugar can be released later and used for energy when needed. Insulin for injection comes in small glass bottles, or vials, and in cartridges. Both are sealed with a rubber lid. One vial or cartridge contains many doses. To remove a dose of insulin from: A cartridge: Use a pen-shaped device called an insulin pen. The cartridge fits inside the pen and the dose of insulin is set with a dial on the outside of the pen. The pen is used to give the insulin. Both disposable and reusable insulin pens are available. Each pen operates slightly differently. Note: If your child is using a disposable insulin pen, talk with your child's doctor or pharmacist about how to use the pen properly. Giving insulin with these pens is not covered in this information. To give an insulin injection, the needle is inserted through the skin. The medicine is pushed from the syringe into fatty tissue just below the skin. Insulin usually is injected into the abdomen, upper arm, buttocks, or thigh. Your child may need to take two types of insulin at the same time. Because most types of insulin that are prescribed to be taken at the same time can be mixed together, you can give both doses in the same syringe. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. TrueThis answer is correct. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Insulin lets sugar (glucose) enter body cells, where it is used for energy. It also helps the body store extra sugar in muscle and liver cells. The stored sugar can be released later and used for energy when needed. FalseThis answer is incorrect. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Insul Continue reading >>

My Father's Blood Sugar After A Meal Is 500 Mg/dl. How Can He Get It Down To Normal Levels? Does Standard Medication Work?

My Father's Blood Sugar After A Meal Is 500 Mg/dl. How Can He Get It Down To Normal Levels? Does Standard Medication Work?

Abir, The Bg of your father is quite high. Needs to controlled quickly else he would get ketones in blood. I am not a doctor but , you may talk to you diabetologist. Based on the sugar level , the following is suggested: 1] He needs to shift towards insulin injections 2] The medicine may or may not work. 3]Its simpler to titrate insulin dossage than to track the effectiveness of the standard drug duely supported by Metformin( for reducing insulin resistance) 4] Check Blood Ketones alongwith Blood Sugar. If found larger, suggest to take to hospital immediately.Blood ketones can be checked thru Urine Ketodiasticks 5] Diabetes is not a good disease , it creates lot of multiple organ problems in case of Type 2 diabetes. for eg,heart ,kidney, eyes, numbness in foot 6] Ideally,adopt insulin injections .Depending on BMI (Body Mass Index), and many other factors likediet, exercise , the dossage can be set. 7]Normally Insulin units per day would be less than or equal to his weight 8] Go for a good check-up and medical advice before starting insulin injections 9] To reduce a spot BG reading ,I would have given him Insulin @ 20 Units and checked his BG regularly,by adjusting more insulin injection if required after 2 hours. As I said,take him to a good doctor.Diabetes leads to complications in elders if taken lightly. I care for your father , so said this. hope this helps Write to me, if you need further help Regards Rajnish Continue reading >>

Why Can't G6pd-deficient Patients Be Given G6pd Injections, In The Same Manner That Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Treated Using Insulin Injections?

Why Can't G6pd-deficient Patients Be Given G6pd Injections, In The Same Manner That Type 1 Diabetics Can Be Treated Using Insulin Injections?

Insulin, a hormone, binds to a receptor on the cell membrane (so outside the cell) to have its effect, no need to enter the cell. G6PD is an enzyme, which can be found inside the cell in the Cytosol, so even if we were able to produce enough G6PD to administer it to a patient, it would end up outside the cell, so not in the place where it is needed to do its work, therefore as yet not possible. In short, it's because G6PD acts intracellularly (inside cells), while insulin's method of action is extracellular. Insulin is produced and secreted by cells in your pancreas into the bloodstream where it can travel to the tissues where it is needed, like muscle and fat. It binds to surface receptors on those cells, causing a signaling cascade that directs the cell to take up glucose. G6PD, however is needed within each cell, particularly red blood cells, since it is an enzyme that directly acts on the carbohydrate molecules (not via a signaling system like insulin). As a defense mechanism, cells typically tend to denature or degrade foreign proteins, so it's difficult to deliver fully functioning proteins to cells. This is why gene therapy was created because it's easier to package DNA for delivery. The idea is to deliver the blueprints for the protein and have the cell assemble it rather than delivering a pre-assembled protein. Therefore G6PD deficiency is a great candidate for this approach and many groups all over the world are working on it. Continue reading >>

How To Improve The Insulin Injection Experience

How To Improve The Insulin Injection Experience

If you have type 1 diabetes, or if you have type 2 and have recently begun injecting insulin, you may have a bit of trouble getting used to the process of preparing and administering your own insulin shots. Andrea Penney, RN, CDE, of the Joslin Diabetes Center, says that injection technique is important to master not only for accurate dosing, but for comfort, too. "With proper practice and good technique, you can avoid pain during an injection," she states. Penney sat down with us recently to answer some common questions about insulin injection. If after reading and practicing insulin injections you still find you’re having trouble, Penney suggests seeing a Certified Diabetes Educator for more assistance. Q: How do I decide where to inject? A: People often select injection sites based on many factors: accessibility, presence of fatty tissue, and rate of insulin absorption (which will be discussed shortly). As a result, popular sites for injection include the stomach, outer thigh, the back of the arm (between the shoulder and the elbow), or the upper outside "wallet" area of the buttock (but not into the lower buttock area). Q: Once I decide on a location for an injection, how do I pick the right "spot"? A: Here are some easy guidelines: -Stomach If you’re going to inject into the stomach, stay at least two inches away from the bellybutton and/or any scars you may already have when using the abdomen for injections. -Thigh For an injection in your thigh, inject at least four inches or about one hand’s width above the knee and at least four inches down from the top of the leg. Do not inject insulin into your inner thigh because of the large number of blood vessels and nerves in this area. - Arm The area between the shoulder and elbow on the outside of the arm is usua Continue reading >>

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