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How Are Insulin And Glucose Related?

How Glucocorticoids Effect Blood Sugar

How Glucocorticoids Effect Blood Sugar

Medications known as glucocorticoids, such as prednisone and cortisone, are mainly used as anti-inflammatories or as anti-rejection drugs. They are prescribed, for example, for an arthritis attack or after an organ transplant. One of their side effects is to increase blood glucose (sugar) since these drugs promote glucose production in the liver and reduce the sensitivity of the cells to insulin. Consequently, glucose accumulates in the blood and can cause a rise in blood sugar levels. The side-effects vary from person to person based on the prescribed dose of glucocorticoids, the way it is administered (cream, tablets or injection), and the length of time a person takes the drug. If you are taking glucocorticoids, measure your blood sugar more often than usual in order to monitor the drug’s impact on your diabetes control. It may be necessary to talk to your doctor to adjust your antidiabetes medication or your insulin dosage to maintain normal blood-glucose levels. When glucocorticoids treatment is over, blood glucose levels usually return to normal within a few days. Note: It is essential that the termination of glucocorticoids be supervised by a health professional. Research and text: Amélie Roy-Fleming , Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator Scientific review: Louise Tremblay, nurse, M. Ed. September 2014 Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Ball-and-stick model of a glucose molecule Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range. This tight regulation is referred to as glucose homeostasis. Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, and glucagon, which raises it, are the most well known of the hormones involved, but more recent discoveries of other glucoregulatory hormones have expanded the understanding of this process.[1] Mechanisms[edit] Blood sugar regulation the flatline is the level needed the sine wave the fluctuations. Blood sugar levels are regulated by negative feedback in order to keep the body in balance. The levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by many tissues, but the cells in the pancreatic islets are among the most well understood and important. Glucagon[edit] If the blood glucose level falls to dangerous levels (as during very heavy exercise or lack of food for extended periods), the alpha cells of the pancreas release glucagon, a hormone whose effects on liver cells act to increase blood glucose levels. They convert glycogen into glucose (this process is called glycogenolysis). The glucose is released into the bloodstream, increasing blood sugar. Hypoglycemia, the state of having low blood sugar, is treated by restoring the blood glucose level to normal by the ingestion or administration of dextrose or carbohydrate foods. It is often self-diagnosed and self-medicated orally by the ingestion of balanced meals. In more severe circumstances, it is treated by injection or infusion of glucagon. Insulin[edit] When levels of blood sugar rise, whether as a result of glycogen conversion, or from digestion of a meal, a different hormone is released from beta cells found in the Islets of Langerhans in the p Continue reading >>

Glucose Metabolism

Glucose Metabolism

Despite periods of feeding and fasting, in normal individuals plasma glucose remains in a narrow range between 4 and 7 mM reflecting the balance between: (i) the release of glucose into the circulation by either absorption from the intestine or the breakdown of stored glycogen in the liver and (ii) the uptake and metabolism of blood glucose by peripheral tissues[1]. These processes are controlled by a set of metabolic hormones. For decades diabetes had been viewed from a bi-hormonal perspective of glucose regulation involving insulin (discovered in the 1920s; released by pancreatic β-cells ) and glucagon (discovered in the 1950s; released by the pancreatic α-cells)[2]. In the mid-1970s several gut hormones, the incretins, were identified. One of these, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), was recognized as another important contributor to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Subsequently the discovery in 1987, of a second pancreatic β-cell hormone, amylin, whose role complemented that of insulin, led to the view of glucose homeostasis involving multiple hormones[2]. Amylin, like insulin is found to be deficient in people with diabetes. Hormones produced by adipose tissue also play a critical role in the regulation of energy intake, energy expenditure, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. These include leptin, adiponectin, acylation stimulating protein and resistin . Hormones involved Pancreatic β-cell hormones Insulin is a key anabolic hormone that is secreted from pancreatic β-cells in response to increased blood glucose and amino acids following ingestion of a meal. Insulin, through its action on the insulin receptor decreases blood sugar levels by: (i) increasing glucose uptake in muscle and fat through triggering the translocation of the intracellular glucose Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>

The Role Of Glucose, Insulin And Glucagon In The Regulation Of Food Intake And Body Weight.

The Role Of Glucose, Insulin And Glucagon In The Regulation Of Food Intake And Body Weight.

Abstract Glucose and related pancreatic hormones play a major role in the metabolism of monogastric mammals yet their influence on hunger and/or satiety is, as yet, poorly understood. Glucose, insulin and glucagon rise during a meal and gradually decline to baseline levels shortly after a meal. A sudden drop in plasma glucose as well as insulin have been reported just prior to the onset of a meal but the functional significance of this is not yet clear. Systemic injections of glucose have no acute satiety effects but intraduodenal and intrahepatic infusions reduce food intake and free-feeding and deprived animals respectively. Treatments which decrease cellular glucose utilization directly (2-DG) or indirectly (insulin) increase food intake while exogenous glucagon (which produces hyperglycemia) decreases it. There is considerable evidence that some or all of these effects may be due to a direct central action of glucose, 2-DG, insulin, and glucagon on brain mechanisms concerned with the regulation of hunger and satiety although influences on peripheral "glucoreceptors" have been demonstrated as well. The functional significance of glucoprivic feeding is, however, questioned. The feeding response to 2-DG and related compounds is capricious, and its temporal course does not parallel the hyperglycemic reaction which presumably reflects cellular glucopenia. Moreover, numerous brain lesions which increase, decrease, or have no effect on ad lib intake and often have no effect on the response to deprivation have been shown to severely impair or abolish feeding responses to systemic injections of 2-DG that produce severe central as well as peripheral glucopenia. Feeding responses to insulin are intact after most of these lesions, suggesting that this hormone may influence food Continue reading >>

Insulin Regulates Not Just Blood

Insulin Regulates Not Just Blood

Put the Power of MHCP in Your Blood Sugar But Fatty Acids As Well The cinnamon extract MHCP mimics insulin with regard to glucose. Does it do the same with regard to fatty acids? By Aaron W. Jensen, Ph.D. nsulin is one of the most intensively studied proteins in medicine. A wealth of research from laboratories throughout the world over the past 80 years has helped to elucidate the role that this hormone plays in regulating blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. We know that when insulin production is impaired - or, just as importantly, when our cells become resistant to the effects of insulin - our blood glucose levels can become dangerously elevated - a condition called hyperglycemia. The eventual result is the sinister disease diabetes mellitus, or diabetes for short. By far the most common form of this disease is type 2, or age-related, diabetes. All cells in the body require glucose as a source of chemical energy - but to varying degrees. For most tissues, glucose is the primary energy source, and for the brain it is virtually the only source. And although glucose is the preferred energy source for the muscles, they (and many other tissues) are also equipped to use other fuels, notably fatty acids. These organic compounds, which are sometimes loosely referred to as fats, are components of true fats. They are derived from plant and animal fats in our diet and are precursors to the human fats made by our own bodies. As you already know from the title of this article, insulin regulates not just glucose, but fatty acids as well. We'll soon see how it does that - but why is it important? Because fatty acids are among the most basic of all nutrients. Paradoxically, however, some are potentially harmful to our health (particularly our heart health), whereas others are decided Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone; a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body to have an action on another. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels as part of metabolism.1 The body manufactures insulin in the pancreas, and the hormone is secreted by its beta cells, primarily in response to glucose.1 The beta cells of the pancreas are perfectly designed "fuel sensors" stimulated by glucose.2 As glucose levels rise in the plasma of the blood, uptake and metabolism by the pancreas beta cells are enhanced, leading to insulin secretion.1 Insulin has two modes of action on the body - an excitatory one and an inhibitory one:3 Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and lipid synthesis It inhibits the breakdown of lipids, proteins and glycogen, and inhibits the glucose pathway (gluconeogenesis) and production of ketone bodies (ketogenesis). What is the pancreas? The pancreas is the organ responsible for controlling sugar levels. It is part of the digestive system and located in the abdomen, behind the stomach and next to the duodenum - the first part of the small intestine.4 The pancreas has two main functional components:4,5 Exocrine cells - cells that release digestive enzymes into the gut via the pancreatic duct The endocrine pancreas - islands of cells known as the islets of Langerhans within the "sea" of exocrine tissue; islets release hormones such as insulin and glucagon into the blood to control blood sugar levels. Islets are highly vascularized (supplied by blood vessels) and specialized to monitor nutrients in the blood.2 The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon while the beta cells - the most abundant of the islet cells - release insulin.5 The release of insulin in response to elevated glucose has two phases - a first around 5-10 minutes after g Continue reading >>

Thyroid, Blood Sugar, And Metabolic Syndrome

Thyroid, Blood Sugar, And Metabolic Syndrome

This article is part of a special report on Thyroid Disorders. To see the other articles in this series, click here. According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, 27 million Americans suffer from thyroid dysfunction – half of whom go undiagnosed. Subclinical hypothyroidism, a condition in which TSH is elevated but free T4 is normal, may affect an additional 24 million Americans. Taken together, more than 50 million Americans are affected by some form of thyroid disorder. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), also affects 50 million Americans, and insulin resistance, one of the components of metabolic syndrome, affects up to 105 million Americans. That’s 35% of the population. Metabolic syndrome has become so common that it’s predicted to eventually bankrupt our healthcare system. Both metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, two of the leading causes of death in the developed world. With such a high prevalence of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome, you might suspect there’s a connection between the two. And you’d be right. Studies show an increased frequency of thyroid disorders in diabetics, and a higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in people with thyroid disorders. That’s because healthy thyroid function depends on keeping your blood sugar in a normal range, and keeping your blood sugar in a normal range depends on healthy thyroid function. How high blood sugar affects the thyroid Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of metabolic risk factors appearing together, including: abdominal obesity; high cholesterol and triglycerides; high blood pressure; insulin resistance; tendency to form blood clots; and, inflammation. Metabolic syndrome is caused by chronic hyperglyc Continue reading >>

How Glucose Levels Are Regulated In The Blood Stream

How Glucose Levels Are Regulated In The Blood Stream

Insulin and glucagon are like our yin and yang in regards to blood sugar levels. Both are produced by the pancreatic islets, the endocrine portion of the pancreas. Insulin is made by the beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Glucagon is made by the alpha cells in the pancreatic islets. Mnemonic: I remember this by remembering a vowel goes with a consonant, so Insulin starts with a vowel (i) and is matched up with Beta cells, which starts with a consonant (b). Glucagon starts with a consonant (g) and matches up with Alpha, which starts with a vowel (a). Insulin and glucagon are both protein hormones which means if you had to give either one to a patient it would have to be done through an injection, as opposed to steroid hormones which are lipids and can be taken orally. Insulin causes sugars in the blood stream to be transported into the cells, decreasing the blood sugar level. This sugar is usually used for creating ATP. In the liver, however, the glucose molecules join together to form a polysaccharide called glycogen. This process is called glycogenesis which literally means “to produce glycogen.” Glucagon causes the breakdown of glycogen from the liver to release glucose into the blood stream, thus raising blood sugar levels. Interestingly enough, muscle glycogen can only be used by the muscle while liver glycogen can be re-released into the blood stream to be used by the muscles as well. This process is called glycogenolysis which literally means the breakdown (-lysis) of glycogen. Fundamentally, insulin and glucagon are very important for keeping this balance. If you eat a bunch of sugar, insulin is going to be released to get rid of all the sugar in the blood stream. If you haven’t eaten anything for several hours, your body prevents your blood sugar from ge Continue reading >>

Diabetes-related High And Low Blood Sugar Levels - Topic Overview

Diabetes-related High And Low Blood Sugar Levels - Topic Overview

When you have diabetes, you may have high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) from time to time. A cold, the flu, or other sudden illness can cause high blood sugar levels. You will learn to recognize the symptoms and distinguish between high and low blood sugar levels. Insulin and some types of diabetes medicines can cause low blood sugar levels. Learn how to recognize and manage high and low blood sugar levels to help you avoid levels that can lead to medical emergencies, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or dehydration from high blood sugar levels or loss of consciousness from severe low blood sugar levels. Most high or low blood sugar problems can be managed at home by following your doctor's instructions. You can help avoid blood sugar problems by following your doctor's instructions on the use of insulin or diabetes medicines, diet, and exercise. Home blood sugar testing will help you determine whether your blood sugar is within your target range. If you have had very low blood sugar, you may be tempted to let your sugar level run high so that you do not have another low blood sugar problem. But it is most important that you keep your blood sugar in your target range. You can do this by following your treatment plan and checking your blood sugar regularly. Sometimes a pregnant woman can get diabetes during her pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes. Blood sugar levels are checked regularly during the pregnancy to keep levels within a target range. Children who have diabetes need their parents' help to keep their blood sugar levels in a target range and to exercise safely. Be sure that children learn the symptoms of both high and low blood sugar so they can tell others when they need help. There are many support groups an Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Works

How Diabetes Works

Since diabetes is a disease that affects your body's ability to use glucose, let's start by looking at what glucose is and how your body controls it. Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy to all of the cells in your body. The cells take in glucose from the blood and break it down for energy (some cells, like brain cells and red blood cells, rely solely on glucose for fuel). The glucose in the blood comes from the food that you eat. When you eat food, glucose gets absorbed from your intestines and distributed by the bloodstream to all of the cells in your body. Your body tries to keep a constant supply of glucose for your cells by maintaining a constant glucose concentration in your blood -- otherwise, your cells would have more than enough glucose right after a meal and starve in between meals and overnight. So, when you have an oversupply of glucose, your body stores the excess in the liver and muscles by making glycogen, long chains of glucose. When glucose is in short supply, your body mobilizes glucose from stored glycogen and/or stimulates you to eat food. The key is to maintain a constant blood-glucose level. To maintain a constant blood-glucose level, your body relies on two hormones produced in the pancreas that have opposite actions: insulin and glucagon. Insulin is made and secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, small islands of endocrine cells in the pancreas. Insulin is a protein hormone that contains 51 amino acids. Insulin is required by almost all of the body's cells, but its major targets are liver cells, fat cells and muscle cells. For these cells, insulin does the following: As such, insulin stores nutrients right after a meal by reducing the concentrations of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids in the bloodstream. See the next Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Regulation

Blood Sugar Regulation

Most cells in the human body use the sugar called glucose as their major source of energy. Glucose molecules are broken down within cells in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules, energy-rich molecules that power numerous cellular processes. Glucose molecules are delivered to cells by the circulating blood and therefore, to ensure a constant supply of glucose to cells, it is essential that blood glucose levels be maintained at relatively constant levels. Level constancy is accomplished primarily through negative feedback systems, which ensure that blood glucose concentration is maintained within the normal range of 70 to 110 milligrams (0.0024 to 0.0038 ounces) of glucose per deciliter (approximately one-fifth of a pint) of blood. Negative feedback systems are processes that sense changes in the body and activate mechanisms that reverse the changes in order to restore conditions to their normal levels. Negative feedback systems are critically important in homeostasis, the maintenance of relatively constant internal conditions. Disruptions in homeostasis lead to potentially life-threatening situations. The maintenance of relatively constant blood glucose levels is essential for the health of cells and thus the health of the entire body. Major factors that can increase blood glucose levels include glucose absorption by the small intestine (after ingesting a meal) and the production of new glucose molecules by liver cells. Major factors that can decrease blood glucose levels include the transport of glucose into cells (for use as a source of energy or to be stored for future use) and the loss of glucose in urine (an abnormal event that occurs in diabetes mellitus). Insulin and Glucagon In a healthy person, blood glucose levels are restored to normal level Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. Here, insulin is released into the bloodstream by specialised cells called beta cells found in areas of the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula meaning island). Insulin can also be given as a medicine for patients with diabetes because they do not make enough of their own. It is usually given in the form of an injection. Insulin is released from the pancreas into the bloodstream. It is a hormone essential for us to live and has many effects on the whole body, mainly in controlling how the body uses carbohydrate and fat found in food. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells. This glucose can also be converted into fat to provide energy when glucose levels are too low. In addition, insulin has several other metabolic effects (such as stopping the breakdown of protein and fat). How is insulin controlled? When we eat food, glucose is absorbed from our gut into the bloodstream. This rise in blood glucose causes insulin to be released from the pancreas. Proteins in food and other hormones produced by the gut in response to food also stimulate insulin release. However, once the blood glucose levels return to normal, insulin release slows down. In addition, hormones released in times of acute stress, such as adrenaline, stop the release of insulin, leading to higher blood glucose levels. The release of insulin is tightly regulated in healthy people in order to balance food intake and the metabolic needs of the body. Insulin works in tandem with glucagon, another hormone produced by the pan Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose

Blood Glucose

The main sugar found in the blood and the body's main source of energy. Also called blood sugar. PubMed Health Glossary (Source: NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) How the Body Controls Blood Glucose When the blood sugar levels rise, for instance following a meal, the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin enters the bloodstream and ensures that the sugar in the food and drinks we consume is transported from our blood to our cells, where it is transformed into energy for the body. Insulin also causes the liver and the muscles to store sugar, and stops new sugar being made in the liver. The blood sugar levels fall because of this. When blood sugar levels are low, the pancreas releases glucagon into the bloodstream. This hormone causes the cells of the liver to release stored sugar. Glucagon also ensures that the cells of the liver produce new sugar from other substances in the body. When the blood sugar level has risen, the release of glucagon is stopped once again. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) Related conditions Terms to know A cell that makes insulin. Beta cells are located in the islets of the pancreas. Checking blood glucose levels by using a blood glucose meter or blood glucose test strips that change color when touched by a blood sample in order to manage diabetes. Tubes that carry blood to and from all parts of the body. The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins. A hormone produced by the pancreas that increases the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. A simple sugar the body manufactures from carbohydrates in the diet. Glucose is the body's main source of energy. A hormone that helps the body use glucose for energy. The beta cells of the pancreas make insulin. When Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Glucose And Insulin

The Relationship Between Glucose And Insulin

Glucose meet insulin, insulin meet glucose. The Relationship Between Glucose and Insulin What exactly is glucose? Or insulin? Glucose is basically a sugar found in food. Its job is to provide energy to the cell. Glucose gets into the body through digestion. It goes through the mouth, into the stomach, and then finally into the small intestine. So how exactly does this "glucose" get into the cell? Now, glucose is absorbed and then released into the bloodstream by the small intestine and the stomach. Now, the glucose has finally made it into the body! The glucose tries to get into the cells but the cell membrane won't let them. The glucose is too thick. It can't get in on its own. Left Out Since the glucose can't get in, it roams around in the bloodstream. Until... Insulin to The Rescue! Beta cells, which are sensitive to glucose levels, begin making insulin. They order the pancreas to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin produced, depending on the amount of excessive glucose found in the blood stream. Insulin to The Rescue Continued! Now, the insulin attaches itself to the receptor cell wall. This allows an opening to be made. The opening,or the channel, is big enough for the glucose to finally enter. Now, the cell can finally receive the energy it needs to function properly. By: Autumn Shomo, Jaydon Nance, Maria Barrera, and Justin Lorenz Sources Jagoda, R. (March 7, 2011). How Does Insulin Signal a Cell to Take in Glucose from the Blood. In Livestrong. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Freudenrich, C. (2012). Diabetes Overview. In Discovery Fit and Health. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from BD. (2012). How Insulin Works to Regulate Blood Glucose. In BD Diabetes. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Citations: If our presentation did not help, here's a little demonstrat Continue reading >>

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