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Gestational Diabetes Case Study Danielle

Gestational Diabetes Case Study (335)

Gestational Diabetes Case Study (335)

12. The nurse's response should be based on what information? An elevated glucose in labor increases the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia. Maternal glucose crosses the placenta and fetus responds by making insulin. When the maternal source of glucose disappears at delivery, the neonate's glucose level decreases rapidly and they can bottom out due to high insulin levels. 13. What assessment information is most important for the nurse to validate with the laboring client before giving the medication? Past or present history of opioid dependence. Stadol is not suitable for women with a history of opioid dependence because it can precipitate withdrawal symptoms in the mother and neonate. 14. Amanda tells the nurse that she would like to receive one-half of the prescribed dose of butorphanol tartrate (Stadol) because the last time she was given that medication she felt like she was floating and then experienced some confusion. What should the nurse do? Request that the provider change the prescription 15. The charge nurse refuses, telling the nurse that "there just isn't anyone else." What should the nurse do next? 16. The nurse and perinatologist recognize these signs as an indication of shoulder dystocia. What should the nurse do immediately? Reposition the client using McRobert's maneuver (flexing and abducting the maternal hips, positioning the maternal thighs up onto the maternal abdomen). This position decreases the angle of the pelvic inclination and rotates the symphysis pubis, causing the sacrum to straighten and freeing the baby's shoulder. This maneuver is often combined with suprapubic pressure. 17. The nurse should recognize that which newborn behavior indicates that the infant has suffered a complication from the shoulder dystocia? Unilateral absence of the Moro Continue reading >>

Hesi Gestational Diabetes- Amanda Garrison

Hesi Gestational Diabetes- Amanda Garrison

HESI Gestational Diabetes- Amanda Garrison The patient has given birth twice, once at 35 weeks (twins) and once at 39 weeks (singleton). All of these children are alive. She had one spontaneous abortion at 9 weeks' gestation. How would you record the GTPAL? 4-1-1-1-3. Gravidity is defined as the number of times pregnant, including the current pregnancy. Term is defined as any birth after the end of the 37th week, and preterm refers to any births between 20 and 37 weeks. Both term and preterm describe liveborn and stillborn infants. Abortion is any fetal loss, whether spontaneous or elective, up to 20 weeks gestation. Living refers to all children who are living at the time of the interview. Multiple fetuses are treated as one pregnancy and one birth; each are counted as living. The nurse recognizes that what information in the client's history supports a diagnosis of gestational diabetes? Youngest child weighed 4300g at 39 weeks' gestation. Birth of an infant weighing more than 9lb is a RF for gestational diabetes. The patient is scheduled for a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test in 5 days and is told to arrive at the lab at 8:30am. Which instruction should the nurse give? Follow an unrestricted diet and exercise pattern for at least 3 days before the test. When the client follows an unrestricted diet and exercise pattern the test is a true determination of the body's ability to handle the glucose load given after the FBG is drawn. The patient asks why she wasn't tested for GDM until she was at almost 28 weeks gestation. The Nurse's response should be based on the understanding of which normal physiologic change? Hormonal changes in the second and third trimesters result in increased maternal insulin resistance. Increased levels of hormones increase insulin resistance Continue reading >>

Why Gestational Diabetes Is On The Rise

Why Gestational Diabetes Is On The Rise

Gestational diabetes cases are soaring, and you (as well as your baby) might be at risk without even knowing it. Find out gestational diabetes symptoms and diet. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or high blood sugar during pregnancy, used to be relatively rare, occurring in about 3 percent to 4 percent of pregnancies. But in recent years, the rate has doubled—now, up to 6 percent to 8 percent of moms-to-be are diagnosed with this prenatal complication. And new recommendations lowering the cutoff point for diagnosis may lead to an even more dramatic increase. If these new guidelines from an international panel of 50 experts are adopted in the United States, 16 percent of pregnant women may hear the words, "You have gestational diabetes." In women with GDM, excess glucose (blood sugar) passes from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta. Serious pregnancy complications include preeclampsia (a serious high blood pressure condition that can be fatal), preterm delivery and delivery of overweight babies, often via Cesarean section. Some 70 percent to 80 percent of women diagnosed with GDM in the United States eventually develop type II diabetes. New research is showing that GDM can have long-term consequences for children as well. "Children of women with GDM are at risk for developing type II diabetes themselves," says Danielle Downs, Ph.D., an associate professor of kinesiology and obstetrics and gynecology at Pennsylvania State University who conducts research on gestational diabetes. But even normal-size babies who are born to mothers with untreated GDM are at greater risk of becoming overweight kindergarteners—and, consequently, overweight adults. Although being overweight is a major risk factor for GDM, only about half of women diagnosed with it carry excess Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Case Definition & Guidelines For Data Collection, Analysis, And Presentation Of Immunization Safety Data

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Case Definition & Guidelines For Data Collection, Analysis, And Presentation Of Immunization Safety Data

Gestational diabetes mellitus: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data bLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK jDireccin General de Salud Pblica, Conselleria de Sanidad Universal y Salud Pblica, Spain kFundacin para el Fomento de la Investigacin Sanitaria y Biomdica (FISABIO), Spain Find articles by Ana Maria Alguacil-Ramos aUniversity of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA mGlobal Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth, An Initiative of Seattle Childrens Hospital, USA oGlobal Healthcare Consulting, Delhi, India qErasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands aUniversity of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA bLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK dGeorge Institute for Global Health, India hUniversity of Malawi College of Medicine, Malawi jDireccin General de Salud Pblica, Conselleria de Sanidad Universal y Salud Pblica, Spain kFundacin para el Fomento de la Investigacin Sanitaria y Biomdica (FISABIO), Spain mGlobal Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth, An Initiative of Seattle Childrens Hospital, USA nUniversity of East Anglia/Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK oGlobal Healthcare Consulting, Delhi, India pUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA qErasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 1Present address: University of Washington, Seattle, USA. 2Brighton Collaboration homepage: . Copyright 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (1.1. Need for developing case definitions and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation for gestational diabetes mellitus as an adverse event following immunization Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition in Continue reading >>

Early-onset Menarche Increases Gestational Diabetes Risk

Early-onset Menarche Increases Gestational Diabetes Risk

Early-Onset Menarche Increases Gestational Diabetes Risk Girls who have their first period at 11 years of age or younger are at a significantly greater risk of developing gestational diabetes during pregnancy than their counterparts who have their first period at the age of 13, a population-based cohort study from Australia indicates. The results were published online March 5 in the American Journal of Epidemiology. "Gestational diabetes is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy, and it has long-lasting health consequences for both mothers and their children," study authors Danielle Schoenaker and Gita Mishra, PhD, both from the University of Queensland, in Herston, Australia, write. "[And we found that] compared with women who had their first menstruation at age 13 years, women with menarche at or before age 11 years had a 51% higher risk of gestational diabetes after controlling for early-life, reproductive, and lifestyle factors and BMI," they add. "Identification of women at risk of gestational diabetes at an early life stage may allow early health monitoring and intervention," they note. The findings add to prior inconsistent results on this topic, they add younger age at menarche was associated with higher risk of gestational diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study II , as reported by Medscape a year ago, but not in the Omega Cohort Study. Each Year of Earlier Menarche Ups Risk of Gestational Diabetes by 10% The new data were derived from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health involving individuals born between 1973 and 1978 for which Dr Mishra is the director. A series of sequential surveys were done over time using the same cohort. For the current analysis, investigators analyzed age at menarche reported in the second survey, in 2000, when p Continue reading >>

Cholesterol Abnormalities Are Common In Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes

Cholesterol Abnormalities Are Common In Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes

Julie A Quinlivan1,2,3* and Danielle Lam3,4 1University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Australia 2Women’s and Children’s Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Australia 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Joondalup Health Campus, Australia 4University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia *Corresponding Author: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology University of Notre Dame Australia Suite 106 Private Consulting Rooms Joondalup Health Campus, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia Tel: 61-8-94009631 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Quinlivan JA, Danielle L (2013) Cholesterol Abnormalities are Common in Women with Prior Gestational Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 4:255. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000255 Copyright: ©2013 Quinlivan JA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Objectives: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of persisting diabetes and high cholesterol in postpartum women with prior Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods: All women with a diagnosis of GDM who delivered from April 2010 to 30 June 2012, at Joondalup Health Campus were included in the study. On the postnatal ward, women were given an appointment to attend a diabetes follow up clinic at 6-12 weeks postpartum. They were provided with a pathology request for a glucose tolerance test, fasting cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and HDL and cardiac risk ratio. Results: Of 4956 women with no prior known history of diabetes who delivered at the hospital over th Continue reading >>

Hesi Case Studies--obstetric/maternity-gestational Diabetes (amanda Garrison)

Hesi Case Studies--obstetric/maternity-gestational Diabetes (amanda Garrison)

12. The nurse's response should be based on what information? An elevated glucose in labor increases the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia 13. What assessment information is most important for the nurse to validate with the laboring client before giving the medication? Past or present history of opioid dependence 14. Amanda tells the nurse that she would like to receive one-half of the prescribed dose of butorphanol tartrate (Stadol) because the last time she was given that medication she felt like she was floating and then experienced some confusion. What should the nurse do? Request that the provider change the prescription 15. The charge nurse refuses, telling the nurse that "there just isn't anyone else." What should the nurse do next? 16. The nurse and perinatologist recognize these signs as an indication of shoulder dystocia. What should the nurse do immediately? Reposition the client using McRobert's maneuver 17. The nurse should recognize that which newborn behavior indicates that the infant has suffered a complication from the shoulder dystocia? 18. What should the nurse recommend to Amanda in regard to infant feeding? Breastfeeding should be initiated immediately and done on demand 19. Which client should the charge nurse assign the LPN? A multigravida who had an uncomplicated term delivery and is breastfeeding 20. As the charge nurse is going down the hall to tell the nurses about the new admissions, she hears one nurse giving misinformation about the Rubella vaccine to a client and her husband. What action should the charge nurse take? Speak to the nurse in the hall so the nurse can correct the information for the client 21. Where will the nurse expect to palpate the uterine fundus? 22. Amanda asks the nurse why the insulin was discontinued after the baby was b Continue reading >>

Balance After Baby Intervention For Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes (babi2)

Balance After Baby Intervention For Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes (babi2)

Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. In our 2012 pilot study we created and tested a web-based lifestyle intervention program adapted from the NIH sponsored Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), modified specifically for women with a recent history of GDM. This program, delivered in the first year postpartum, encouraged weight loss, dietary changes, and physical activity. The purpose of the current study, called Balance After Baby Intervention 2 (BABI-2), is to study a larger group of women with two years of follow-up. We will assess whether women assigned to the intervention group lose more weight and decrease their risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Participants assigned to the BAB lifestyle intervention will receive support from a lifestyle coach and gain access to a website with online presentations that contain healthy eating and physical activity educational tips. Participants assigned to the post-GDM follow-up group will have access to a website containing links to information about diabetes prevention. The landmark Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that an intensive lifestyle intervention in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) could reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes. These findings were consistent, regardless of ethnicity, age, body mass index (BMI), gender. However, the DPP does not have a specific focus on new mothers with a recent history of gestational diabetes. Although there are recommendations that all women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) receive postpartum testing for diabetes and type 2 diabetes risk Continue reading >>

Case Study: A 34-year-old Woman In Her Second Pregnancy At 24 Weeks Gestation

Case Study: A 34-year-old Woman In Her Second Pregnancy At 24 Weeks Gestation

Case Study: A 34-Year-Old Woman in Her Second Pregnancy at 24 Weeks Gestation A 34-year-old Hispanic-American woman who is in her second pregnancy and has had one live birth and no abortions is seen for prenatal care at 24 weeks gestation. Her weight is 220 lb, and her blood pressure is 130/80 mmHg. Uterine size is appropriate for gestational age. The patient's past obstetric history includes the spontaneous vaginal delivery of a 9 lb, 8 oz. male infant at 40 weeks gestation, 8 years ago in Mexico. The patient reports that the child is doing well. Her family history reveals that her mother has type 2 diabetes mellitus. A urine dipstick shows 3+ glycosuria and negative ketones. 1. What tests should be done to evaluate the patient's glucose tolerance? 2. How is the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) established? 3. What would be the best treatment and follow-up strategy? This patient presents with several risk factors for GDM, defined as carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees of severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, regardless of whether insulin is used for treatment or the condition persists after pregnancy. She is over 30 years of age, from an ethnic group at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, is obese, and has a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes. The findings of significant glycosuria should prompt the performance of a glucose determination before the patient leaves the clinic. The usual approach to screening would be a 50-g oral glucose load administered to the patient between 24 and 28 weeks gestation when the "diabetigenic stress" of pregnancy is present. A positive test is a venous plasma glucose value 1 hour later of > 140 mg/dl. This would lead to a 100-gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with the diag Continue reading >>

Does Early Menarche Heighten Risk For Gestational Diabetes?

Does Early Menarche Heighten Risk For Gestational Diabetes?

Does Early Menarche Heighten Risk for Gestational Diabetes? Authors: News Author: Pam Harrison; CME Author: Laurie Barclay, MD This article is intended for primary care clinicians, diabetologists/endocrinologists, obstetrician-gynecologists, cardiologists, nurses, public health officials, and other members of the healthcare team involved in female reproductive health and in caring for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. The goal of this activity is to provide medical news to primary care clinicians and other healthcare professionals in order to enhance patient care. Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to: Evaluate the association between age at menarche and development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health Determine the clinical implications of the association between age at menarche and development of GDM, based on this Australian population-based cohort study As an organization accredited by the ACCME, Medscape, LLC, requires everyone who is in a position to control the content of an education activity to disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The ACCME defines "relevant financial relationships" as financial relationships in any amount, occurring within the past 12 months, including financial relationships of a spouse or life partner, that could create a conflict of interest. Medscape, LLC, encourages Authors to identify investigational products or off-label uses of products regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, at first mention and where appropriate in the content. Disclosure: Pam Harrison has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Disclosure: Robert Morris, PharmD, has disclosed no relevant financial relatio Continue reading >>

Association Between Age At Menarche And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study On Women's Health

Association Between Age At Menarche And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study On Women's Health

In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 2227 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age 11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk. age at menarche , gestational diabetes , life course , menarche , women's health The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, with the greatest rise occurring in adults under 50 years of age ( 1 , 2 ). It has therefore become increasingly important to identify risk factors that can be used to promote early prevention. Results from a meta-analysis by Janghorbani et al. ( 3 ) suggested that younger age at menarche (age at onset of first menstruation in girls) is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Age at menarc Continue reading >>

Case Study On Obesity And Diabetes

Case Study On Obesity And Diabetes

| diabetes | obesity and diabetes case study we offer products that help you solve your health problems obesity and diabetes case study. Case study: the pathology of hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, obesity and diabetes for 7 years the framingham heart study mar 20, 2015 case studies. Obesity and depression case study group members: taviel bartley (leader), erika whiters, brakimia boynton, and johnleekia little georgia southern university pu. [[obesity and type 2 diabetes research]] natural remedies for diabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2 case study nursing 95% off. Case study: obesity and losing weight female client profile gestational diabetes while pregnant with the youngest child client medical history 3-4 meals a day. Obesity and diabetes statistics ] the real cause of diabetes (and the solution) skip to content diabetes type 1 case study evolve read more what is. The kingdom of tonga: a geographical case study by melanie bauer, danielle best, brooke clawson, brooke fonohema, michael greene, madison hardy & jennifer young. Case study for stroke in the health plans obesity disease management program be related to child/adolescent obesity increases in diabetes. Case study: a 52-year-old woman with obesity, poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, and symptoms of depression marjorie cypress, ms, c-anp, cde. The following case study illustrates the clinical role of advanced practice nurses in the uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (a1c 7%) obesity (bmi 324 kg/m 2. Aw is a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who was referred by his primary care physician to the weight center for an evaluation of his obesity and. Case study: a 55-year-old man with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes who collapsed and died. Objectives: obesity, hypertension and dia Continue reading >>

The Economic Burden Of Elevated Blood Glucose Levels In 2012: Diagnosed And Undiagnosed Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, And Prediabetes

The Economic Burden Of Elevated Blood Glucose Levels In 2012: Diagnosed And Undiagnosed Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, And Prediabetes

OBJECTIVE To update estimates of the economic burden of undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes mellitus in 2012 in the U.S. and to present state-level estimates. Combined with published estimates for diagnosed diabetes, these statistics provide a detailed picture of the economic costs associated with elevated glucose levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study estimated health care use and medical expenditures in excess of expected levels occurring in the absence of diabetes or prediabetes. Data sources that were analyzed include Optum medical claims for ∼4.9 million commercially insured patients who were continuously enrolled from 2010 to 2012, Medicare Standard Analytical Files containing medical claims for ∼2.6 million Medicare patients in 2011, and the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample containing ∼7.8 million hospital discharge records. The indirect economic burden includes reduced labor force participation, missed workdays, and reduced productivity. State-level estimates reflect geographic variation in prevalence, risk factors, and prices. RESULTS The economic burden associated with diagnosed diabetes (all ages) and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes (adults) exceeded $322 billion in 2012, consisting of $244 billion in excess medical costs and $78 billion in reduced productivity. Combined, this amounts to an economic burden exceeding $1,000 for each American in 2012. This national estimate is 48% higher than the $218 billion estimate for 2007. The burden per case averaged $10,970 for diagnosed diabetes, $5,800 for gestational diabetes, $4,030 for undiagnosed diabetes, and $510 for prediabetes. CONCLUSIONS These statistics underscore the importance of finding ways to reduce the burden of prediabetes and diabetes Continue reading >>

Metabolomics In Gestational Diabetes

Metabolomics In Gestational Diabetes

Xun Mao - Chongqing Medical University, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Xuyang Chen - Chongqing Medical University, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Chang Chen - Chongqing Medical University Hua Zhang - Chongqing Medical University, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Kai P. Law - Chongqing Medical University, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that is first diagnosed during pregnancy in the absence of existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Early screening tools for GDM are currently unavailable, but metabolomics is a promising approach for detecting biomarkers of GDM. This review evaluates recent GDM studies employing metabolomic techniques, highlighting the challenges in those studies and envisions the future directions for metabolomic study of GDM. A diverse range of predictive markers and dysregulated metabolic pathways have been associated with the pathogenesis of GDM, but these findings have lacked reproducibility among studies. The case-control study design has been most frequently employed in the studies of GDM, and most of them used specimens acquired in mid-pregnancy. However, this approach might not be adequate to recognise the complexity of the condition. The sample size in some of the studies is limited, and this may result in findings from a participant set that is not representative of the general population. Therefore, we propose that future metabolomic studies pertaining to GDM use a cross-platform approach employing unified diagnostic criteria, a longitudinal cohort, and innovative data processing methods to allow for full-scale identification and comprehensive coverage of the metabolome. In addition, t Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Hesi Case Study

Gestational Diabetes Hesi Case Study

The patient has given birth twice, once at 35 weeks (twins) and once at 39 weeks (singleton). All of these children are alive. She had one spontaneous abortion at 9 weeks' gestation. How would you record the GTPAL? 4-1-1-1-3. Gravidity is defined as the number of times pregnant, including the current pregnancy. Term is defined as any birth after the end of the 37th week, and preterm refers to any births between 20 and 37 weeks. Both term and preterm describe liveborn and stillborn infants. Abortion is any fetal loss, whether spontaneous or elective, up to 20 weeks gestation. Living refers to all children who are living at the time of the interview. Multiple fetuses are treated as one pregnancy and one birth; each are counted as living. The nurse recognizes that what information in the client's history supports a diagnosis of gestational diabetes? Youngest child weighed 4300g at 39 weeks' gestation. Birth of an infant weighing more than 9# is a RF for gestational diabetes. The patient is scheduled for a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test in 5 days and is told to arrive at the lab at 8:30am. Which instruction should the nurse give? Follow an unrestricted diet and exercise pattern for at least 3 days before the test. When the client follows an unrestricted diet and exercise pattern the test is a true determination of the body's ability to handle the glucose load given after the FBG is drawn. The patient asks why she wasn't tested for GDM until she was at almost 28 weeks gestation. The Nurse's response should be based on the understanding of which normal physiologic change? Hormonal changes in the second and third trimesters result in increased maternal insulin resistance. Increased levels of hormones increase insulin resistance b/c they act as insulin antagonists. This se Continue reading >>

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