diabetestalk.net

Etiology And Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes

Etiology And Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes

Etiology And Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes

Etiology and pathogenesis of gestational diabetes Article Literature Review in Diabetes Care 21 Suppl 2(2):B19-26September 1998 with 152 Reads A significant amount of information regarding the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been gathered since the Third Workshop-Conference on GDM. In spite of this, it is still not known why GDM develops in 2-3% of all pregnant women. Similar frequencies of HLA-DR2, DR3, and DR4 antigens in healthy pregnant women and women with GDM and low prevalences of markers for autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in GDM pregnancy rule out the possibility that GDM is a disease of autoimmune origin. Insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or a meal is substantially increased in women with GDM compared with the same women postpartum. However, insulin secretion increases less in women with GDM than in pregnant women who retain normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Peak insulin concentrations during an OGTT occur later in women with GDM, and following intravenous glucose, a reduced first-phase insulin response is also seen in these women. Second-phase insulin responses are similar in pregnant women with NGT and GDM. Excessive secretion of proinsulin, which does not always return to normal postpartum, is often observed in women with GDM. It is conceivable that this might reflect a stress on the beta-cells and that the beta-cells are stressed because they try to counter the decreased insulin sensitivity that develops during pregnancy. Thus, insulin sensitivity decreases by 50-70% in both normal and GDM pregnancy, but whereas insulin sensitivity returns to normal postpartum in pregnant women with NGT, this is not always the case in GDM. Insulin receptor binding to target tissues is largely unaffected by normal Continue reading >>

The Pathogenesis And Pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Deductions From A Three-part Longitudinal Metabolomics Study In China - Sciencedirect

The Pathogenesis And Pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Deductions From A Three-part Longitudinal Metabolomics Study In China - Sciencedirect

The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus: Deductions from a three-part longitudinal metabolomics study in China Author links open overlay panel Kai P.Law There are many possible causes of the different forms of insulin resistance disorders in humans, but increasing evidence suggests they share a common pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Based on the results of a three-part longitudinal metabolomics study of Chinese pregnant women, a new model of GDM development is proposed. This model proposes that obesity in GDM upregulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules, which activates the tryptophankynurenine pathway and xanthurenic acid synthesis. Hyperglycaemia accelerates nucleotide synthesis and stimulates of nucleotide breakdown, which leads to uric acid synthesis, and superoxide anions are produced as a by-product. The increased production of xanthurenic acid, uric acid, and superoxide anions contributes the development of GDM. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that is first recognised during pregnancy, with no evidence of pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of GDM has been rising steadily over the past few decades, coinciding with the ongoing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although GDM normally disappears after delivery, women who have been previously diagnosed with GDM are at a greater risk of developing gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies, and type 2 diabetes later in life. Infants born to mothers with GDM also have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in their teens or early adulthood. There are many possible causes of insulin resistance, and multiple metabolic aberrants are known to be involved in the development of different forms of diabetes. Increasing evide Continue reading >>

Etiology And Pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Etiology And Pathophysiology Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Etiology and pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. In pregnancy, several physiologic changes take place, the sum of which tends to reset the glucose homeostasis in the direction of diabetes. About 1-2% of all pregnant women develop an abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy, but most often glucose tolerance returns to normal postpartum. This condition is called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The possibility that glucose tolerance deteriorates in pregnancy because of diabetes-like changes in the secretory function of the endocrine pancreas has been investigated in healthy controls and in normal-weight gestational diabetic subjects. The insulin responses to oral glucose and mixed meals are equally large in these two groups, but the insulin response per unit of glycemic stimulus is significantly lower in the gestational diabetic subjects than in the controls. Diabetes-like changes in glucagon secretion are not observed in either group. Insulin degradation is unaffected by human pregnancy and the proinsulin share of the total plasma insulin immunoreactivity does not increase in pregnancy. Insulin receptor binding to monocytes from normal pregnant women is increased in midpregnancy but is significantly decreased in late pregnancy. No difference in insulin binding (at tracer insulin concentration) to monocytes from healthy pregnant controls and gestational diabetic subjects is found. The insulin concentration necessary to reduce tracer insulin binding by 50% (ID50) is lower in the gestational diabetic subjects diagnosed in late pregnancy than in the pregnant controls. Together, these findings indicate that the number of insulin receptors on monocytes is decreased in GDM at this stage of pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS). Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology And Management-a Review

Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology And Management-a Review

Anees A Siddiqui1*, Shadab A Siddiqui2, Suhail Ahmad, Seemi Siddiqui3, Iftikhar Ahsan1, Kapendra Sahu1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi (INDIA)-110062. School of Pharmacy, KIET, Ghaziabad U.P. SGC college of Pharmacy, Baghpat(UP) Corresponding Author:Anees A Siddiqui E-mail: [email protected] Received: 20 February 2011 Accepted: 02 May 2011 Citation: Anees A Siddiqui, Shadab A Siddiqui, Suhail Ahmad, Seemi Siddiqui, Iftikhar Ahsan, Kapendra Sahu “Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology and Management-A Review” Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., April-June 2013, 5(2): 1-23. Copyright: © 2013 IJDDR, Anees A Siddiqui et al. This is an open access paper distributed under the copyright agreement with Serials Publication, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Drug Development and Research The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. Over the last three decades, the status of diabetes has been changed, earlier it was considered as a mild disorder of the elderly people. Now it becomes a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting the youth and middle aged people. According to the Diabetes Atlas 2006 published by the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with diabetes in India currently around 40.9 million is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025 unless urgent preventive steps are taken. The main force of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity a Continue reading >>

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

University of Gondar, Ethopia *Corresponding Author: Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes Lecturer Clinical Chemistry University of Gondar, Gondar Amhara 196, Ethiopia Tel: +251910818289 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Baynes HW (2015) Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:541. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000541 Copyright: © 2015 Baynes HW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia either immune-mediated (Type 1 diabetes), insulin resistance (Type 2), gestational or others (environment, genetic defects, infections, and certain drugs). According to International Diabetes Federation Report of 2011 an estimated 366 million people had DM, by 2030 this number is estimated to almost around 552 million. There are different approaches to diagnose diabetes among individuals, The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of DM focus on fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), while WHO focuses on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). This is importance for regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Diagnosis; Glycemic management Abbreviations DM: Diabetes Mellitus; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase; GDM: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; HDL-cholesterol: High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; HLA: Human Leucoid Antigen; IDD Continue reading >>

Etiology And Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes.

Etiology And Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes.

Diabetes Care. 1998 Aug;21 Suppl 2:B19-26. Etiology and pathogenesis of gestational diabetes. ZymoGenetics, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA. [email protected] A significant amount of information regarding the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been gathered since the Third Workshop-Conference on GDM. In spite of this, it is still not known why GDM develops in 2-3% of all pregnant women. Similar frequencies of HLA-DR2, DR3, and DR4 antigens in healthy pregnant women and women with GDM and low prevalences of markers for autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in GDM pregnancy rule out the possibility that GDM is a disease of autoimmune origin. Insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or a meal is substantially increased in women with GDM compared with the same women postpartum. However, insulin secretion increases less in women with GDM than in pregnant women who retain normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Peak insulin concentrations during an OGTT occur later in women with GDM, and following intravenous glucose, a reduced first-phase insulin response is also seen in these women. Second-phase insulin responses are similar in pregnant women with NGT and GDM. Excessive secretion of proinsulin, which does not always return to normal postpartum, is often observed in women with GDM. It is conceivable that this might reflect a stress on the beta-cells and that the beta-cells are stressed because they try to counter the decreased insulin sensitivity that develops during pregnancy. Thus, insulin sensitivity decreases by 50-70% in both normal and GDM pregnancy, but whereas insulin sensitivity returns to normal postpartum in pregnant women with NGT, this is not always the case in GDM. Insulin receptor binding to target tissues is largely unaffecte Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: Pathogenesis And Consequences To Mother And Offspring

Gestational Diabetes: Pathogenesis And Consequences To Mother And Offspring

Gestational Diabetes: Pathogenesis and Consequences to Mother and Offspring 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland 2Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland 2Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Address correspondence to: Risto Kaaja, e-mail: [email protected] Received 2009 Feb 1; Revised 2009 Feb 27; Accepted 2009 Feb 28. Copyright 2008, SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Data from Western countries suggest that the prevalence of GDM is increasing, being almost 10% of pregnancies and probably reflecting the global obesity epidemic. The majority of women with GDM seem to have -cell dysfunction that appears on a background of chronic insulin resistance already present before pregnancy. In less than 10% of GDM patients, defects of -cell function can be due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic -cells, as in type 1 diabetes, or caused by monogenic mutations, as in several MODY subtypes. Diagnostic criteria for GDM vary worldwide and there are no clear-cut plasma glucose cut-off values for identifying women at a higher risk of developing macrosomia or other fetal complications. Because the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is restricted to high risk individuals, 40% of GDM cases are left undiagnosed. Therefore, in high risk populations almost universal screening is recommended; on Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms;[2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section.[2] Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice.[2] If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth.[2] Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.[2] Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance.[2] Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome.[2] Diagnosis is by blood tests.[2] For those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks gestation.[2][3] For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.[2] Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes is a treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections.[2] Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise.[3] Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day.[3] Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.[2] Gestational diabetes affects 3–9% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.[3] It is especially common during the last three months of pregnancy.[2] It affects 1% of those under the age of 20 and 13% of those over the age of 44.[3] A number of ethnic groups including Asians, American Indians, Indigenous Australians, and Pacific Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Pathophysiology

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Pathophysiology

To review the physiology of glucose and lipid metabolism, weight and energy regulation To appreciate the magnitude of the prevalence of diabetes and its effect on morbidity and mortality To understand the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes To be able to distinguish among diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance states and to become familiar with the Metabolic Syndrome 2. Learning Objectives Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal fuel metabolism resulting chiefly in hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Diabetes is a common chronic disease affecting more than 1 in 10 adults in the US. It is more common in people who are older and socioeconomically disadvantaged. Diabetes is a serious disease associated with acute (due to hyperglycemia) and chronic (due to vascular damage) complications. Diabetes is clinically diagnosed if a fasting plasma glucose is ≥ 126 mg/dl more than once or when an individual has symptoms of diabetes and her casual plasma glucose is ≥ 200 mg/dl. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance define intermediate dysmetabolic states (pre diabetes) with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and death. Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas due to an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental modifiers. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form of diabetes, is characterized by a combination of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and increased risk for cardiovascular and disease death. Gestational diabetes develops secondary to the insulin resistant state of pregnancy and may be associated wit Continue reading >>

Jci -gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Jci -gestational Diabetes Mellitus

1Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Physiology and Biophysics, and 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA. Address correspondence to: Thomas A. Buchanan, Room 6602 GNH, 1200 North State Street, Los Angeles, California 90089-9317, USA. Phone: (323) 226-4632; Fax: (323) 226-2796; E-mail: [email protected] . Find articles by Buchanan, T. in: JCI | PubMed | Google Scholar 1Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Physiology and Biophysics, and 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA. Address correspondence to: Thomas A. Buchanan, Room 6602 GNH, 1200 North State Street, Los Angeles, California 90089-9317, USA. Phone: (323) 226-4632; Fax: (323) 226-2796; E-mail: [email protected] . Find articles by Xiang, A. in: JCI | PubMed | Google Scholar Published in Volume 115, Issue 3 (March 1, 2005) J Clin Invest.2005;115(3):485491.doi:10.1172/JCI24531. Copyright 2005, The American Society for Clinical Investigation. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of various degrees that is first detected during pregnancy. GDM is detected through the screening of pregnant women for clinical risk factors and, among at-risk women, testing for abnormal glucose tolerance that is usually, but not invariably, mild and asymptomatic. GDM appears to result from the same broad spectrum of physiological and genetic abnormalities that characterize diabetes outside of pregnancy. Indeed, women with GDM are at high risk for having or developing diabetes when they are not pregnant. Thus, GDM provides a unique opportunity to study the early pathogenesis of diabetes and to develop Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Table 1. Plasma Glucose Values for Screening and Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus [ 1 ] Appendix A. Appendix A. American Diabetes Association recommendations for medical nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus [ 17 ] Appendix B. Appendix B. Curriculum for education about diabetes self-management [ 27 ] Defining the Diabetes Disease Process and Treatment Options Insulin resistance and its role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) should be defined for the patient. GDM should be differentiated from types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment options should be discussed. Incorporating Nutritional Management Into Lifestyle An individualized meal plan should be devised by a licensed dietitian or another qualified health care professional. Energy needs, the composition of meals, and meal patterns should be discussed. Incorporating Physical Activity Into Lifestyle The importance of exercise should be stressed, but patients should be reminded to start slowly and work up to a personalized goal. Monitoring Blood Glucose and Using the Findings to Improve Blood Glucose Control Patients should be taught to monitor blood glucose four times daily (while fasting and two hours after meals) and when they have symptoms of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. The goal fasting blood glucose concentration is 70-105 mg/dL and the two-hour postprandial goal is 80-120 mg/dL.[ 1 ] Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Acute and Chronic Complications All potential complications to mother and fetus, present and future, should be discussed with the patient, and the importance of compliance with medical nutritional therapy, exercise, and prescribed medications should be stressed. Goal Setting for Health and Problem Solving for Daily Living The patient's support system and ability to Continue reading >>

Pathogenesis Of Gestational Dm

Pathogenesis Of Gestational Dm

Gestational diabetes (GDM) describes a heterogeneous group of hyperglycemic metabolic disorders detected in pregnancy. The majority of women with GDM are overweight or obese, and many have latent metabolic syndrome, a genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes, a physically inactive lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits prior to pregnancy. The risk factors for GDM are similar to those of type 2 diabetes: increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary syndrome, increasing age, family history of diabetes and ethnicity (Asian, Hispanic). Prenatal programming may also contribute to GDM whereby nutritional stress induced by both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition or maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy persistently alter metabolism of the offspring. A minority of women develop type 1 diabetes in pregnancy, and clinicians should be alert to this possibility, but GDM may in general be regarded as pre-type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes first detected in pregnancy [1] [2] . Although type 1 diabetes is more likely to develop in pregnancy, the great majority of women have pre-type 2 diabetes, and many will go on to develop permanent diabetes later in life. If type 1 diabetes is suspected during pregnancy or after delivery, autoimmunity should be confirmed by measurement of antibodies against islet cell antigens (antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase [GADA], islet antigen-2 [IA-2A]). MODY may also present in pregnancy, and genetic testing is recommended when family history suggests that this phenotype may be present. However, in general GDM can be regarded as pre-Type 2 diabetes. Pregnancy is a state of physiological insulin resistance, and thereforerepresents a physiological model of beta-cell stress [3] [4] . Continue reading >>

417: Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis, Classification, And Pathophysiology

417: Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis, Classification, And Pathophysiology

Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Several distinct types of DM are caused by a complex interaction of genetics and environmental factors. Depending on the etiology of the DM, factors contributing to hyperglycemia include reduced insulin secretion, decreased glucose utilization, and increased glucose production. The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. In the United States, DM is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), nontraumatic lower extremity amputations, and adult blindness. It also predisposes to cardiovascular diseases. With an increasing incidence worldwide, DM will be likely a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the future. DM is classified on the basis of the pathogenic process that leads to hyperglycemia, as opposed to earlier criteria such as age of onset or type of therapy (Fig. 417-1). There are two broad categories of DM, designated type 1 and type 2 (Table 417-1). However, there is increasing recognition of other forms of diabetes in which the pathogenesis is better understood. These other forms of diabetes may share features of type 1 and/or type 2 DM. Both type 1 and type 2 DM are preceded by a phase of abnormal glucose homeostasis as the pathogenic processes progress. Type 1 DM is the result of complete or near-total insulin deficiency. Type 2 DM is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and increased glucose production. Distinct genetic and metabolic defects in insulin action and/or secretion give rise to Continue reading >>

Understanding The Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes

Understanding The Pathogenesis Of Gestational Diabetes

Understanding the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes Understanding the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects up to 20% of all pregnancies but have an impact that extends well beyond pregnancy and childbirth, with the potential for lifelong morbidity or mortality for both mother and baby. Despite the enormous health-impact of GDM, little progress has been made with interventions aimed at prevention. An efficacious medical therapeutic that can prevent the development of GDM would be a major advance. Such treatments do not exist and their development is hampered by the fact the pathophysiology of GDM is incompletely understood. Current therapy for GDM is largely glucocentric, with the major therapeutic goal being achievement of glucose levels as close to normal pregnancy values as possible. However, these current therapies do not target inflammation, which is critical to both disease pathogenesis and long-term outcome in GDM. This project will investigate whether major regulators of inflammation such as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) are involved in the pathophysiology of GDM. Norman Beischer Medical Research Foundation Liong, S.; Lappas, M. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from pregnant women. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (2016) 425: 11-25. Lappas, M. Activation of inflammasomes in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes. Mol Cell Endocrinol (2014) 382:74-83. Lappas, M. GSK3beta is increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with gestational diabetes where it regulates the inflammatory response. PLoS One (2014) 9 12 e115854. Lappas, M. The NR4A receptors Nurr1 and Nur77 are increased in human placenta from women with gestational diabetes. Placenta Continue reading >>

Low Socioeconomic Status As A Risk Factor For Gestational Diabetes - Em|consulte

Low Socioeconomic Status As A Risk Factor For Gestational Diabetes - Em|consulte

Low socioeconomic status as a risk factor for gestational diabetes Low socioeconomic status as a risk factor for gestational diabetes S. Bo[1], G. Menato[2], C. Bardelli[2], A. Lezo[1], A. Signorile[2], E. Repetti[3], M. Massobrio[2], G. Pagano[1] [1]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin [2]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Turin [1]Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Universita' di Torino, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126 Torino, Italy. Numerous studies found an inverse association between type 2 diabetes and socio-economic status [ 1 Brancati FL, Whelton PK, Kuller LH, Klag MJ. Diabetes mellitus, race, and socioeconomic status. A population-based study. Ann Epidemiol, 1996, 6, 67-73. Click here to see the Library ] [ 2 Robbins JM, Vaccarino V, Zhang H, Kasl SV. Socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes in African American and non-Hispanic white women and men: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Public Health, 2001, 91, 76-83. Click here to see the Library ]. Gestational diabetes is a condition at risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these two disorders are quite similar [ 3 Kuhl C. Etiology and pathogenesis of gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 1998, 21, B19-B26. Click here to see the Library ]. However, it is not known if socio-economic status might be a risk factor for gestational diabetes. All pregnant women presenting at our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology had a routine screening test (50gr glucose) at 24-28 weeks. A positive result (1-h serum glucose >= 7.8 mmol/l) was followed, 1-2 weeks later, by a 3-h OGTT with 100gr glucose, performed in the morning after an overnight fast of 8-14 h and after at least 3 days of unrestricted diet and physical Continue reading >>

More in insulin