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Effective Strategies To Delay The Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes Include Quizlet

Alu 101 - Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Alu 101 - Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Hyperglycemia (high glucose levels in the blood) causes problems in what two ways? The cells do not get the energy they need to function properly, and the excess glucose begins to damage the tissue at the cellular level. What happens as blood glucose levels rise? Excess glucose can be excreted by the kidneys into the urine. What are the two most common forms of Diabetes Mellitus? Type I Diabetes, Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile Diabetes Type I diabetes results when the beta cells in the pancreas have been either damaged or destroyed and the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. Possibly caused by the immune system attacking the beta cells. Onset of Type I DM is usually in childhood or early adulthood but can occur at any age. Usually develop quickly, can include hunger, weight loss, increased thirst (polydipsia), increased urination (polyuria), blurred vision and fatigue. The acute onset of Type I Diabetes can be life-threatening if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Since the body is unable to produce insulin, injections of insulin through manual injection or through an insulin pump are required. Type II Diabetes, Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Adult Onset Diabetes Mellitus (AODM) The pancreas usually still produces insulin, but the body's cells are not able to effectively use the insulin, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin injections are typically not required to treat. Usually develop more gradually and often go unnoticed or are attributed to other causes. Symptoms can include hunger, weight loss, increased thirst (polydipsia), increased urination (polyuria), blurred vision and fatigue. Treatment includes diet modification, oral medication (Metformin), and insulin. Blood sugar levels that are higher Continue reading >>

Medical Surgical Nursing Chapter 49 Diabetes Mellitus

Medical Surgical Nursing Chapter 49 Diabetes Mellitus

Reduction of total cholesterol to 200 mg/dL Decrease in polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia Individuals with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for development of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage between normal glucose homeostasis and elevated blood glucose levels (diabetes). The best indicator of control of this condition is a hemoglobin A1C within normal limits for the nondiabetic patient. Hemoglobin A1C measures the amount of glucose that binds with the component of hemoglobin (A1C), which gives an indication of average glucose levels in the blood over a 90-day period. Although a reduction of risk factors through weight reduction, dietary management, and exercise is important, weight loss and cholesterol within normal limits does not reflect prevention of diabetes. Because the patient does not have true diabetes, the patient would not be experiencing the classic symptomology of the disease: polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. What is the drug of choice for a 45-year-old patient who has a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2, random blood glucose of 200 mg/dL, and a history of hypertension? The BMI indicates that the patient is obese, the blood glucose levels are borderline high, and the patient has a history of hypertension. These factors indicate that the patient has prediabetes. Metformin is used to prevent type 2 diabetes in patients with prediabetes who are under 60 years of age. Glipizide, acarbose, and pioglitazone are used only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Test-Taking Tip: Identify option components as correct or incorrect. This may help you identify a wrong answer. Despite repeated instructions from a nutritionist, a diabetic patient failed to adhere to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for carbohydrates. Thi Continue reading >>

Hnes 251 Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Hnes 251 Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Increased risk of heart defects in the infant, Infants with Microcephaly, and Severe Mental Retardation Untreated Phenylketonuria in pregnant women can lead to: A nutrient that would effectively treat headaches and cramps in a woman with PMS is: What is the first therapeutic option for infertility in obese people? Insulin resistance, Ovulatory disorders, and Metabolic syndrome The two grains persons with celiac disease can safely consume are: Which of the following foods is sure to be gluten free? When women don't menstruate they may feel they are not ovulating and can't get pregnant, so they don't get prenatal care. And Women may not be aware they are already pregnant because a delay in their menses is normal. How could having irregular menstrual cycles lead to a lack of early prenatal care of some obese women? Based on this data, Jane will likely be diagnosed with: High fasting blood glucose, blood triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol levels. Which of the following symptoms would indicate that Jane has metabolic syndrome? Include whole grains and fruits and vegetables that are high in antioxidants Which dietary modifications are indicated for metabolic syndrome? They lack the enzyme necessary to convert phenylalanine to tryosine Women that have PKU must avoid the essential amino acid phenylalanine and consume a diet low in protein because: Which of the following supplements may be recommended to prevent or delay the onset of gestational and type 2 diabetes? The primary GOAL of the treatment of PCOS is: Which of the following foods would be recommended for a woman with PCOS? Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Vitamins B6,B12, and D Bariatric surgery increases the risk that women will develop deficiencies of: A 2000 calorie diet that provides low glycemic index carbohydrates along wit Continue reading >>

Chapter 19: Nutrition For Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 19: Nutrition For Diabetes Mellitus

1. A person is diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus if his or her fasting blood glucose level on two occasions is greater than _____ mg/dL. a. 90 b. 120 c. 126 d. 156 ANS: C Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed as fasting blood glucose level >126 mg/dL on two occasions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 401 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity 2. Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus include a. arthritis, rheumatism, and osteoporosis. b. retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. c. impaired immunity and opportunistic infections. d. dermatitis, nephrotic syndrome, and detached retina. ANS: B Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus include retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus can increase risk and severity of infection indirectly due to poor circulation and high blood glucose levels, but immunity is not impaired. Arthritis, rheumatism, osteoporosis, dermatitis, nephritic syndrome, and detached retina are not associated with diabetes. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 401-402 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity 3. The type of diabetes therapy that seems to be most effective in decreasing and delaying the complications of diabetes is a. psychotherapy. b. intensive therapy. c. combined therapy. d. conventional therapy. ANS: B Intensive therapy is most effective in decreasing and delaying the complications of diabetes because it allows better control of blood glucose levels. Psychotherapy may help patients cope with psychological concerns about their disease, but will not delay complications. Conventional therapy may help prevent complications if blood glucose levels are well controlled, but this is less likely than with intensive therapy. Combined the Continue reading >>

Preconception Nutrition Conditions And Intervention

Preconception Nutrition Conditions And Intervention

3. Which of the following would NOT be used to treat PMS symptoms? 4. Which of the following would NOT be considered a sign or symptom of premenstrual syndrome? 5. Symptoms of PMS occur in about _____ of menstruating women. 6. Untreated phenylketonuria in pregnant women can lead to: a. increased risk of heart defects in the infant. 7. A nutrient that would effectively treat headaches and cramps in a woman with PMS is _____. 8. _____ is the first therapeutic option for infertility in obese people. 9. Excess central body fat is related to _____. an eating disorder that affect fertility is 11. The onset of hypothalamic amenorrhea is related to: a. being underweight, as is seen in anorexia nervosa. b. weight loss accompanied by intense exercise, as seen in the female athlete triad. c. caloric restriction leading to an energy deficit. 12. Which of the following is an example of an autoimmune disease? 13. _____ during the first 2 months of pregnancy is teratogenic and leads to a two- to three-fold risk of congenital abnormalities. 14. Diet strategies appropriate for people with type 2 diabetes include all of the following EXCEPT: e. 40% of total intake from saturated fats. 15. The most effective approach for risk reduction in people with diabetes so far is: 16. What statement below best describes the difference between carbohydrate intake recommendations for persons with insulin resistance such as in metabolic syndrome and those for persons with type 2 diabetes? c. Carbohydrate intake recommendations for persons with type 2 diabetes are more tailor-made than for persons with insulin resistance. 17. Diets that provide low-glycemic index carbohydrates along with _____ of fiber daily are associated with improved blood glucose control. 18. Bariatric surgery increases the risk th Continue reading >>

Exam 3 Review Flashcards | Quizlet

Exam 3 Review Flashcards | Quizlet

Where is our caloric intake in comparison to 1900? What has happened to expenditure of these calories over the past century? How does this history of intake and expenditure compare to the prevalence of overweight individuals over the last 50 years? The increase in intake and decrease of expenditure has resulted in a great increase in the prevalence of overweight individuals What is the current percent of our population identified as being overweight/obese by the standards established by the National, Heart, Lung & Blood Institute (BMI<25)? To identify individuals whose weight puts them at health risks What particular association between prevalence of disease and body size was the primary cause for the change from BMI of 27 to 25 for identifying overweight? Being overweight and the prevalence of heart disease What does the most recent information tell us regarding prevalence of obesity in our society? That there have been dramatic increases in obesity in all age groups. It is more prevalent in Southern states What are "energy in" changes that have occurred, over the past number of years, that are adversely impacting the energy in vs. energy out balance? We are eating much more high fat energy dense foods because they cost less, are easily available, heavily marketed, and have larger portion sizes. When it comes to meals, what do over 50% of the U.S. population do? Eat 50% of their meals outside of the home What are potential problems with this practice? You cannot control what goes into your food, how many calories you're consuming What are "energy out" changes that have occurred over the past number of years that are adversely impacting this side of the equation? More technology = less work. Less manual labor jobs What is the success rate of dieting for weight loss? Th Continue reading >>

600 Final Flashcards | Quizlet

600 Final Flashcards | Quizlet

-psychosocial: poor self esteem, depression, eating disorders -cause someone judged to be fat or overweight to feel humiliated by making mocking or critical comments about their size health benefits with losing 5-10% weight loss NWCR: 3 most common dietary strategies to achieve weight loss -6 key strategies for long-term success at weight loss 1. engaging in high levels of physical activity 2. eating a diet that is low in calories and fat 4. self-monitoring weight on a regular basis 5. maintaining a consistent eating pattern 6. catching "slips" before they turn into larger regains Uncle says everyone is fat because they are lazy and lacking personal responsibility. How could you argue against this, given the population change in obesity prevalence and the concept of obesigenic environments? -there are several factors that contribute to obesity -knowledge about the subject of nutrition and health realistic approach to alter obesigenic nature of USA with respect to food? -education to kids, it is harder to reverse obesity in adults then it would be to prevent it at any early age -bring awareness to the issue to not only to parents but also to children Roberto and colleagues (2015) argued that people bear some personal responsibility for their health, but environmental factors can readily support or undermine the ability of people to act in their own self-interest, or to exercise personal responsibility. The NOURISHING framework (see figure) identifies possible policy actions across which three broad domains? A. Give nutrition education and skills; Inform people about food and nutrition; Nutrition advice and counseling B. Food environments; food systems; behavior change C. Nutrition labeling; offering healthy foods; using economic tools to address food affordability D. Fo Continue reading >>

Ch 49: Nursing Management: Diabetes Mellitus

Ch 49: Nursing Management: Diabetes Mellitus

Why are hormones cortisol, glucagon, epinephrine, and growth hormone referred to as a counter regulatory hormones? Beta Cell exhaustion, insulin resistance, genetic predisposition, altered production of adipokines, inherited defect in insulin receptors, inappropriate glucose production by the liver Which lab results would indicate that the patient has pre diabetes? Fasting blood glucose result of 120 mg/dL The nurse is teaching the patient with pre diabetes ways to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes. What info should be included? maintain a healthy weight and monitor for polyuria, polyphagia and polydipsia *polyphagia: excessive hunger/ increased appetite In type 1 diabetes there is an osmotic effect of glucose when insulin deficiency prevents the use of glucose for energy. Which class symptom is caused by the osmotic effect of glucose? Polydipsia: abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease. Which patient should the nurse plan to teach how to prevent or delay the development of diabetes? a 34 year old woman whose parents both have type 2 diabetes When caring for a patient with metabolic syndrome, what should the nurse give the highest priority to teaching the patient about? Metabolic syndrom is cluster of biochemical and physiological abnormalities associated with CVD, T2D During routine health screening, a patient is found to have fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 132 mg/dL. At a follow up visit, a diagnosis of diabetes would be made based on which lab results? A1C of 7.5% and FPG > or equal to 126 mg/dL The nurse determines that a patient with a 2 hr OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) of 152 mg/dL has When teaching the patient with diabetes about insulin administration, the nurse should include which instruction for the patient? consistently use t Continue reading >>

Chapter 19 Nutrition For Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 19 Nutrition For Diabetes Mellitus

4. The three main symptoms of untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus are b. neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. c. confusion, loss of coordination, and headaches. d. fatigue, loss of appetite, and frequent infections. 5. The cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus is c. inability of cells to respond to insulin in the bloodstream. d. inability of the pancreas to keep up with the body's demands for insulin. 6. The two strongest risk factors for type 2 diabetes are b. recurrent viral infections and stress. d. preference for sweet foods and sedentary lifestyle. 7. In individuals with type 2 diabetes, insulin production is generally 12. The main difference between the different types of exogenous insulin is c. the type of solvent used to carry the insulin. d. the length of time they take to act in the body. 13. Sulfonylureas and meglitinides decrease blood glucose levels by b. slowing the rate of absorption of glucose. c. providing an exogenous source of insulin. 14. Patients with diabetes mellitus should exercise at times when their blood glucose level is _____ mg/dL. 15. To prevent hypoglycemia after exercise, patients with type 1 diabetes should c. increase their intake of protein-based foods. d. increase their intake of carbohydrate-based foods. 16. Patients with type 2 diabetes are most likely to maintain good metabolic control if they a. avoid all sources of simple carbohydrates. b. avoid eating during the evening or at night. c. space their meals evenly throughout the day. d. eat one large meal and two small meals each day. 17. Glycosylated hemoglobin level is used to indicate a. the effect of meals on blood glucose level. b. day-to-day variations in blood glucose level. c. iron deficiency anemia in patients with diabetes. d. overall blood glucose control over several we Continue reading >>

Certified Diabetes Educator Exam 4

Certified Diabetes Educator Exam 4

Measure BP with standard cuffs at arm and calf check first at rest then repeat after 5 min of walking results should be same or approximately the same Skin condition occurs in up to 90% of children with type 2 diabetes. Indicator of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Most common in obese dark-skinned children 25% more frequent in blacks. Dark brownish to black velvety raised patches. Usually resolves when insulin resistance is addressed. Differences in Blood Glucose Monitoring results Whole blood glucose level is lower than plasma Lab tests measure plasma only. Meters programmed for plasma reading are closer to lab draw. Whole blood meters will be lower -Checks insulin vial for type, expiration date and ensures that insulin is free of sediment, frosting or other signs of contamination -Cleanses top of insulin vial with alcohol -Injects air into the insulin vial equal to amount of insulin to be injected -Measures and draws the appropriate amount of insulin -Selects appropriate injection site and has a site rotation system -Administers injection sq. lightly grasp fold of skin and inject at 90 deg angle. Very thin people should use 45 deg angle. -follows appropriate technique for sharps disposal Blood glucose lowering effects of exercise can be immediate or prolonged, affecting blood glucose for a period of up to 48 or more hours. Carbohydrate is the type of food with the greatest effect on postprandial blood glucose levels. What increments of time are looked at when measuring the effects of lifestyle changes Changes are usually evaluated at 6 weeks to 3 months following implementation What information should be included in a food diary for every 15 grams of carbs 1 unit of rapid or short-acting insulin whould be injected Reducing by 30-50% effectively decreases ris Continue reading >>

Chapter 12 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 12 Flashcards | Quizlet

Why do people with Diabetes develop Polydipsia? People with diabetes experience weight gain due to polyphagia and increased food consumption. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus involves destruction of the ________ cells of the pancreas. Individuals who have Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus cannot effectively use oral medication to control their blood sugar. They must use INSULIN. Which of the following tests can be used to detect problems with blood glucose levels? Also referred to as the A1c Hb test. In the case of persistent hyperglycemia, extra glucose in the blood attaches to hemoglobin. The test measures the three-month average of glucose that has attached to hemoglobin. Normal is an A1c less than 6. Control of Diabetes Mellitus TYPE 1 involves taking insulin (can only be administered by injection. Many people use an insulin pump) as well as lifestyle measures: - Numbness, tingling of the hands and feet Diabetes medication (given orally) works to control blood sugar in one or more of the following ways: Increase body's sensitivity to insulin, lower glucose production in the liver and stimulate pancreas to produce and release more insulin The onset of Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented or DELAYED by doing what two things? Diabetes that may develop during pregnancy Gestational diabetes is due to resistance to the effects of ________________________ related to the metabolic effects of pregnancy that increase insulin requirements. Giving birth to a baby over 9 pounds, being overweight, having a family history of Type 2 Diabetes, and being over age 25 are risk factors for __________________________________________. Hormones produced by the placenta during pregnancy lead to higher blood glucose levels in pregnant women but most women can accommodate that change. Gestational diabetes is dia Continue reading >>

Kinesiology Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Kinesiology Final Flashcards | Quizlet

-for what you eat, that has to balance the amount of calories you burn in order to maintain weight What component of expenditure utilizes the greatest amount of daily calories? 2/3 of burned calories is burned through your Basal metabolic Rate What has happened to intake of calories over the last century? Intake of calories has increased. We are eating more, and doing less How does this history of intake and expenditure compare to the prevalence of overweight individuals over the last 50 years? We are eating more and expending less, therefore we are going to be overweight. What is the current percent of our population identified as being overweight/obese by the standards established by the National. Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute (BMI <25)? Overweight is an identifier label for individuals who are at risk for certain diseases What particular association between prevalence of disease and body size was the primary cause for the change from BMI of 27 to 25 for identifying overweight? At BMI 25, risks increased. Therefore, overweight needed to be changed to BMI of 25. What does the most recent information tell us regarding prevalence of obesity in our society? Obesity is an epidemic. It is NOT an adult problem only. More and More children are becoming obese. What are "energy in" changes that have occurred, over the past number of years, that are adversely impacting the energy in vs energy out balance? -We are eating high fat food (it is cheap $$) When it comes to meals, what will 50% of the population do? What are potential problems with this practice You do not know what is going into the food. Many times they lie about what they put into the food (may be more calories than they say, if they even say at all) What are "energy out" changes that have occurred over the past n Continue reading >>

Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Diabetes Flashcards | Quizlet

Causes include obesity, heredity, and environmental factors Decrease in endogenous insulin, or increased with insulin resistance Most patients can control blood glucose through weight loss if obese Oral antidiabetic agents may improve blood glucose levels if dietary modification and exercise are unsuccessful May need insulin on a short- or long-term basis to prevent hyperglycemia Ketosis uncommon, except in stress or infection Acute complication: hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome Diabetes associated with other conditions or syndromes (previously classified as secondary diabetes) Accompanied by conditions known or suspected to cause the disease: pancreatic diseases, hormonal abnormalities, medications such as corticosteroids and estrogen-containing preparations Depending on the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, the patient may require treatment with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin. Onset during pregnancy, usually in the 2nd or 3rd trimester Due to hormones secreted by the placenta, which inhibit the action of insulin Above-normal risk for perinatal complications, especially macrosomia (abnormally large babies) Treated with diet and, if needed, insulin to strictly maintain normal blood glucose levels Glucose intolerance transitory but may recur: 30%-40% will develop overt diabetes (usually type 2) within 10 years (especially if obese) Risk factors include obesity, age >30 y, family history of diabetes, previous large babies (>9 lb) Screening tests (glucose challenge test) should be performed on all pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation Should be screened for diabetes periodically Prediabetes (previously classified as previous abnormality of glucose tolerance [PrevAGT]) history of hyperglycemia (e.g., during pregnancy or illness) Impaired glu Continue reading >>

Nutrition Thru The Life Cycle... Chapter 3 ( Preconceptions Nutrition Conditions And Interventions)

Nutrition Thru The Life Cycle... Chapter 3 ( Preconceptions Nutrition Conditions And Interventions)

The definition of the periconceptional period is The time period around conception measured in weeks or months Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is characterized by Which of the following would not be used to treat PMS symptoms? Which of the following would not be considered a sign or symptom of premenstrual syndrome? Symptoms of PMS occur in whar percentage of menstruating women Untreated phenylketonuria in pregnant women lead to A nutrient that would effectively treat heaches and cramps in a women with PMS is What is the first therapeutic option for infertility in obese people An eating disorder that effects fertility is The onset of hypothalamic amenorrhea is related to 2. weight loss accompanied intense exercise, as seen in female triad athletes Which of the following is an example of an autoimmune disease? What during the first 2 months of pregnancy is teratogenic and will lead to a two to three fold risk of congenital abnormalities What diet strategies are not appropriate for people with type 2 diabetes Less than 40% of total intake from saturated fats The most effective approach for risk reduction in people with diabetes so far is: What statement below best describes the difference between carbohydrate intake recommendations for persons with insulin resistance such as in metabolic syndrome and those for persons with type 2 diabetes? There is no difference between carbohydrates recommendations Diets that provide low glycemic index carbohydrates along how many grams of fibers is associated with improved blood glucose control? Bariactric surgery increases the risk that women develop deficiencies of: Which of the following supplements may be recommended to prevent or delay the onset gestational and type 2 diabetes? Clinical signs associated with polycystic ovar Continue reading >>

Ph302_ch13(diabetes)_chreview

Ph302_ch13(diabetes)_chreview

Discuss the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10-19 years as it relates to the current trend, associated risk factors, and ethnic preference. Type 1 diabetes used to be the primary type of diabetes that affected youth and adolescents. With the increase in obesity among children, the incidence of Type 2 disease is showing a marked increase over the previous minimal level. White children have more Type 1 disease than Type 2 disease (at the present time, but with increasing obesity rates, this may change!). Asian-American youth and American Indian youth have more Type 2 diabetes than Type 1 diabetes. African- American adolescents and Hispanic adolescents have equal amounts of Type 1 disease and Type 2 disease. Continue reading >>

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