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Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India

Assessment Of Cost Of Illness For Diabetic Patients In South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital Acharya Ld, Rau N R, Udupa N, Rajan M S, Vijayanarayana K - J Pharm Bioall Sci

Assessment Of Cost Of Illness For Diabetic Patients In South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital Acharya Ld, Rau N R, Udupa N, Rajan M S, Vijayanarayana K - J Pharm Bioall Sci

Background: The impact of diabetes on health-care expenditures has been increasingly recognized. To formulate an effective health planning and resource allocation, it is important to determine economic burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the cost of illness (COI) for diabetic inpatients with or without complications. Methodology: The study was conducted in the medicine wards of tertiary care hospital after ethical approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 116 each diabetic with or without complications were selected and relevant data were collected using COI questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. MannWhitney U test is used to assess the statistical significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes alone and with complications'. P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total COI includes the cost of treatment, investigation, consultation fee, intervention cost, transportation, days lost due to work, and hospitalization. The median of total COI for diabetic care without any complication was Rs. 22,456.97/- per patient per annum and with complication was Rs. 30,634.45/-. Patients on dialysis had to spend 7.3 times higher, and patients with cardiac intervention had to spend 7.4 times higher than diabetic patients without any complication. Conclusion: Treatment costs were many times higher in patients with complications and with cardiac and renal interventions. Complications in diabetic patients will increase the economic burden to family and also to the society. Keywords:Cost of illness, diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, direct medical cost, economic burden Acharya LD, Rau N R, Udupa N, Rajan M S, Vijayanarayana K. Assessment of cost of illness for diabetic patients in South Continue reading >>

Health Economics In India: The Case Of Diabetes Mellitus Sahay R, Baruah Mp, Kalra S - Indian J Endocr Metab

Health Economics In India: The Case Of Diabetes Mellitus Sahay R, Baruah Mp, Kalra S - Indian J Endocr Metab

As we work to tackle the growing burden of endocrinopathy, including diabetes and associated noncommunicable disease, we often find the distinctions between clinical endocrinology, and other medical and nonmedical specialties, blurring. Examples of clinical disciplines which interface endocrinology include nephrology, cardiology, geriatrics, and gynecology; many of these issues have been covered earlier in the IJEM. [1] , [2] , [3] , [4] The para clinical subjects also contribute to the growth of endocrinology as a science: Public health, pharmacology, and psychology are but a few examples. [5] , [6] , [7] Yet other, classically nonmedical, ways of thinking, however, are enriching clinical science as well. These specialties bring with them the strength to expand endocrinology's impact far beyond the walls of the outdoor patient clinic, the hormone laboratory, or the indoor ward. They allow the endocrinologist to contribute toward influencing policy decisions and resource allocation, at national and regional levels. Thus, these sciences help the endocrinology raise her or his voice for the benefit of persons at risk of, or living with, endocrinopathy. In this way, the endocrinologist lives up to the promise made in the Hippocratic Oath: To work "for the benefit of the sick." [8] One such specialty is health economics. Though not a component of traditional endocrine learning or teaching, health economics is gradually making inroads as an integral part of endocrine pedagogy and praxis. Faced with an ever-growing multitude of investigations for screening, diagnosis, and follow-up; prophylactic and therapeutic drugs and devices, the endocrinologist needs to know which is most cost-effective. This information is necessary at the individual, as well as community and national Continue reading >>

Review Diabetes Care In India

Review Diabetes Care In India

Abstract Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%—at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various deve Continue reading >>

Economic Burden Of Diabetes Mellitus And Its Socio-economic Impact On Household Expenditure In An Urban Slum Area | Fernandes | International Journal Of Research In Medical Sciences

Economic Burden Of Diabetes Mellitus And Its Socio-economic Impact On Household Expenditure In An Urban Slum Area | Fernandes | International Journal Of Research In Medical Sciences

DOI: Economic burden of diabetes mellitus and its socio-economic impact on household expenditure in an urban slum area Sophia D. Fernandes, Sunny D. A. Fernandes Background: India is on the brink of an epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM). In the near future, DM will pose a severe burden on the already fragile and under-resourced health care system in India. Methods: A prospective community based cohort study was taken up for assessing the financial burden on households of patients with DM in an urban slum of Mumbai to reflect the economic implications of DM. Results: The mean age of participants was 51 years. Forty (33.33%) out of 120 were suffering from diabetes for more than 5 years and it was proved statistically that the total cost of expenditure on treatment per month was significantly related to the duration of DM. On an average the monthly direct expenditure was INR 687.5 per patient and indirect expenditure was INR 348.75 per patient. Catastrophic expenditure was borne by 5.8% of the participants. Conclusions: Direct cost forms the major component of the total cost of DM management. The expenditure on the management of Diabetes increases with the duration of the illness. As the out-of-pocket expenditure is the mainstay of financing the cost of diabetes mellitus in India, there is a possibility of these households of DM patients might be pushed into the poverty trap. It is recommended that the Government facilities for management of DM should be strengthened and quality of services should be improved in the interest of diabetic patients. Public awareness campaigns about the economic implications of DM and services provided by the government should be carried out. Catastrophic expenditure, DM, Healthcare expenditure Global report on Diabetes. France: World Health Continue reading >>

Worldwide Economic Burden Of Diabetes Estimated At $1.3 Trillion

Worldwide Economic Burden Of Diabetes Estimated At $1.3 Trillion

The world faces a substantial economic burden from diabetes—about $1.3 million, or 1.8% of global gross domestic product (GDP), according to a new study from researchers at the University of Göttingen, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and colleagues. In contrast to most earlier estimates of diabetes’ economic burden, the new study incorporated not only the direct costs of the disease, such as expenditures for insulin, testing strips, and treatment, but also indirect costs representing production shortfalls due to illness and premature death, which account for nearly 35% of the total economic burden. The study also found that large diabetes-related costs are a problem not only in high-income countries but in poorer world regions as well. Harvard Chan School researchers involved in the study included Rifat Atun, professor of global health systems, Till Bärnighausen, adjunct professor of global health, and Sebastian Vollmer, adjunct professor of global health. Learn more Read a press release from the University of Göttingen: Significant economic burden from diabetes: International team of scientists calculate costs of $1.3 trillion Continue reading >>

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: Results From A National Survey | Jyotsna Nair - Academia.edu

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: Results From A National Survey | Jyotsna Nair - Academia.edu

The economic burden of diabetes in India: Results from a national survey s190 Poster Session 1study so that he was excluded of it. In one of the cases with ICA > 10 little is known about the economics of diabetes in this country. A nationalUJDF, these they were normalized evolutionarily. In the 5 years of pursuit study carried out in 1999 on a representative population of diabetesnone of the studied cases has developed diabetes autoinmune. Conclu- patients aimed to assess the burden of diabetes in India. A total of 5.5 16sions: Our results demonstrate the biggest frequency of ICA and/or IAA T&e 1 and Type 2 diabetes patients were assessed by questionnaire onpositive in the FFD of diabetic type. 1 than in the general population. aspects of socio-economic profile, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, and estimation of direct costs and indirect costs. Mean estimated direct costs of diabetes in India were Rs. 4,724 ($109) per individual per annumP740 including drug treatment, monitoring and check-ups. Mean estimatedFasting Incremes Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Activation indirect costs were Rs. 14,250 ($329) per individual per annum includingof PKB measures of productivity and income loss through illness in earningEINAR JEBENS, Jorgen Jensen. Dep. Physiol., Nat. Inst. Occupat. and non-earning family members. Estimated hospitalisation costs wereHelath, Oslo, Norway Rs. 3,195 ($74) per individual per annum. Mean estimated total costs of diabetes in India were Rs. 22,169 ($512) per individual per annum.Several lines of evidences suggest that PKB is involved in insulin- Patients with a higher level of education and monthly household incomestimulated glucose uptake whereas contraction-stimulated glucose uptake spent more on treatment and monitoring, which is highly pro Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications In India And Economic Costs To The Nation

Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes And Its Complications In India And Economic Costs To The Nation

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition volume 71, pages 816824 (2017) | Download Citation Diabetes, a major lifestyle disorder, has become a global burden, and the prevalence rates are rising steeply in developing economies. Rapid socioeconomic transition with urbanization and industrialization are the main causes for the global diabetes epidemic. Among developing economies, the highest increase in number of people with diabetes is in China followed by India. In India, the epidemic of diabetes continue to increase and is experiencing a shift in diabetes prevalence from urban to rural areas, the affluent to the less privileged and from older to younger people. Diabetes is a progressive disorder leading to complications, which are broadly divided into small vessel or microvascular disease and large vessel or macrovascular disease. Microvascular complications affect the inner part of the eyethe retina known as diabetic retinopathy, the kidney termed as diabetic nephropathy and the peripheral nerves termed as diabetic neuropathy. The macrovascular complications affect the heart, the brain and the peripheral arteries termed as cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease, respectively. Given the lifelong expenditure associated with diabetes and its complications, individuals, families and the society are unable to cope with the economic, emotional and social disease burden due to diabetes. The economic burden of diabetes can be reduced by providing universal healthcare coverage, access to affordable medicines and early detection and treatment of the disorder. This emphasizes the need for a multi-prolonged strategy to minimize the burden of diabetes and its complications. Continue reading >>

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature.

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature.

The economic burden of diabetes in India: a review of the literature. LSE Health, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK. [email protected] More LSE Health, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK. [email protected] More Social Policy Department, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK. [email protected] More 1.School of Health Systems Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India. [email protected] 2.LSE Health, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK. [email protected] 3.LSE Health, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK. [email protected] 4.Social Policy Department, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK. [email protected] Globalization and Health [02 Dec 2014, 10:80] Diabetes and its complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is on the rise. This calls for an assessment of the economic burden of the disease.To conduct a critical review of the literature on cost of illness studies of diabetes and its complications in India.A comprehensive literature review addressing the study objective was conducted. An extraction table and a scoring system to assess the quality of the studies reviewed were developed.A total of nineteen articles from different regions of India met the study inclusion criteria. The third party payer perspective was the most common study design (17 articles) while fewer articles (n =2) reported on costs from a health system or societal perspectiv Continue reading >>

Economic Burden Of Diabetes Mellitus In Western India: A Hospital Based Study | Prajapati | International Journal Of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology

Economic Burden Of Diabetes Mellitus In Western India: A Hospital Based Study | Prajapati | International Journal Of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology

Economic burden of diabetes mellitus in western India: a hospital based study Arpit Prajapati, Nitin Kothari, Barna Ganguly Background: Descriptive cost of illness study can provide an overall picture of diabetes in monetary terms in developing country, which may serve as a vital source of information for health care organizations and planning bodies to plan and prioritize local health policies and schemes. The aim was to explore cost description of diabetes in a tertiary care hospital in Anand district of Gujarat, India. Methods: This was an observational study with one year follow up. Ethical approval was taken from IEC. Patients were recruited and were divided into three categories according to duration of diabetes; newly diagnosed cases as category I, diabetes since last 5 year as category II and since last 10 years as category III. All these patients were followed up with 4 visits. Cost was calculated into three components; direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect cost. Descriptive and regression analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. Results: Total 90 patients were analyzed after 12 patients were lost to follow up, 30 in each category. Mean total cost was found to be 12391.84 INR. Contributions from direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost and indirect cost were 74%, 2% and 24% respectively. Maximum cost incurred was due to medicine cost (44.14%) followed by complication cost (43.34%). Conclusions: Heavy economic burden highlights the urgent need for the health care organizations to plan and prioritize policies and accordingly in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Cost of illness, Direct cost, Indirect cost Davey PG, Malik M, Dodd T, MacDonald T. Pharmacoeconomics and Drug Prescribing. In: Speight TM, Holford NHG, editors. Continue reading >>

(pdf) The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature

(pdf) The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature

Background: Diabetes and its complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is on the rise. This calls for an assessment of the economic burden of the disease. Objective: To conduct a critical review of the literature on cost of illness studies of diabetes and its complications Methods: A comprehensive literature review addressing the study objective was conducted. An extraction table and a scoring system to assess the quality of the studies reviewed were developed. Results: A total of nineteen articles from different regions of India met the study inclusion criteria. The third party payer perspective was the most common study design (17 articles) while fewer articles (n =2) reported on costs from a health system or societal perspective. All the articles included direct costs and only a few (n =4) provided estimates for indirect costs based on income loss for patients and carers. Drug costs proved to be a significant cost component in several studies (n =12). While middle and high-income groups had higher expenditure in absolute terms, costs constituted a higher proportion of income for the poor. The economic burden was highest among urban groups. The overall quality of the studies is low due to a number of methodological weaknesses. The most frequent epidemiological approach employed was the prevalence-based one (n =18) while costs were mainly estimated using a bottom up approach (n =15). Conclusion: The body of literature on the costs of diabetes and its complications in India provides a fragmented picture that has mostly concentrated on the direct costs borne by individuals rather than the healthcare system. There is a need to develop a robust methodology to perform methodologically rigorous and transparent Continue reading >>

Diabetes In India: Measuring The Dynamics Of A Public Health Catastrophe Patnaik Pk, Jain Kk, Chandra P, Pathak J, Raman K V, Shah A - J Soc Health Diabetes

Diabetes In India: Measuring The Dynamics Of A Public Health Catastrophe Patnaik Pk, Jain Kk, Chandra P, Pathak J, Raman K V, Shah A - J Soc Health Diabetes

Diabetes has emerged as a major concern in the Indian health-care setting but has been underrecognized as a significant challenge in the context of public health policy due to the necessity to handle acute health conditions. Trends obtained from national and regional surveys over time strongly point to the increasing diabetes burden. In addition, people with undiagnosed and prediabetes can aggravate the burden in the near future. Long-term concerns arise from the rapid transformations such as urbanization, rural-urban migration, and lifestyle changes happening across different populations of India. Attempts at creating a rational diabetes prevention and management policy are severely hindered by a lack of comprehensive, standardized data on diabetes prevalence, and trends in the evolution of the epidemic. The impact of diabetes is multifaceted, ranging from the clinical impact of higher secondary complications to personal, psychosocial, and financial effects on the individual which create a cycle of negative outcomes. Given the chronic nature of diabetes, the impact is likely to remain as a self-perpetuating burden on the health-care system. The magnitude, spread, and impact of the diabetes epidemic are substantial, and it has transitioned to being a pandemic with potentially catastrophic implications for the Indian Public Health System. It is therefore essential to create public health policy specific to diabetes care that is effective in reducing the multidimensional impact of diabetes catastrophe and prevent further multiplication of this pandemic. Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, epidemic, prevalence, public health Patnaik PK, Jain KK, Chandra P, Pathak J, Raman K V, Shah A. Diabetes in India: Measuring the dynamics of a public health catastrophe. J Soc Health Diabetes Continue reading >>

Overview Of Diabetes Burden

Overview Of Diabetes Burden

Diabetes is one of the largest global health challenges of this century. The number of people living with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is increasing day by day causing severe economic burden to the patients and to the society at large. Among the two types, Type 2 diabetes, being common and more prevalent contributes significantly to the increasing trend. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that globally there are 415 million people with diabetes in 2015 and is predicted to increase to 642 million by 2040.1 It is alarming to note that more than 47% of the world’s population is still undiagnosed for diabetes with the prevalence still bound to increase further. Furthermore, 318 million people are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance and 20.9 million live births are affected by some form of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy, of which 85.1% are due to gestational diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are increasing in every country, but more than 80% live in low and middle –income countries such as India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines and Indonesia. Among the top 10 countries in the world, India stands second with 69.2 million people with diabetes and another 36.5 million with prediabetes which is a high-risk condition for diabetes and cardio-vascular disease.1 This increasing incidence is mainly attributed to lifestyle changes; eating unhealthy food and being physically inactive. The South Asian and Pacific region is facing a high risk with prevalence of diabetes. There are reported differences in the characteristics of diabetes in Asian populations2. A recently reported Indian Council of Medical Research - INdia DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study conducted in four different zones of rural and urban India showed that the prevalence Continue reading >>

Economic Burden Of Diabetes In Urban Indians

Economic Burden Of Diabetes In Urban Indians

Economic Burden of Diabetes in Urban Indians 1Bharti Vidyapeeth Medical College, School of Optometry, Pune, India 2Community Eye Care Foundation, Dr. Gogates Eye Clinic, Pune, India 3West Bengal University Of Technology (Optometry Colleges), Kolkatta, Paschimbaga, India 1Bharti Vidyapeeth Medical College, School of Optometry, Pune, India 2Community Eye Care Foundation, Dr. Gogates Eye Clinic, Pune, India 3West Bengal University Of Technology (Optometry Colleges), Kolkatta, Paschimbaga, India 4Department of Pathology, Shrimati Kashibai Navale Medical College, Narhe, Pune, India 5Diabetes Care and research Foundation, Pune, India * Address correspondence to this author at the Community Eye Care Foundation, Dr. Gogates Eye Clinic, Pune, India; Tel: +91-20-66027227; Fax: +91-20-26059723; E-mail: [email protected] Received 2014 Nov 7; Revised 2014 Nov 25; Accepted 2014 Nov 25. Copyright Chandra et al.; Licensee Bentham Open. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( ) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as direct cost (cost of medicines, doctors fees, investigations, lasers and surgery) and indirect cost (travel, diet control, health Continue reading >>

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C ur re nt D ia be te s R ev ie w s ������ �������� ������� ������ � ������� ���� � U. Shrivastava1-3, A. Misra*1-4, V. Mohan5, R. Unnikrishnan5 and D. Bachani6 1Centre for Public Health India, New Delhi, India; 2National Diabetes, Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation, New Delhi, India; 3Diabetes Foundation (India), New Delhi, India; 4Fortis C-DOC Hospital for Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases and Endocrinology, New Delhi, India; 5Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialties Centre and Madras Diabetes Research Founda- tion, Chennai, India; 6Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India A R T I C L E H I S T O R Y DOI: 10.2174/1573399812666160805153 328 Abstract: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs; including coronary heart disease and type 2 diabe- tes) are rapidly increasing in India causing nearly 5.8 million deaths per year. Primary reasons for rise in NCDs in India are nutrition and lifestyle transitions. Further, presence of higher body fat, ab- dominal fat, liver and pancreatic fat and lower lean mass than whites, contribute to heightened meta- bolic and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians. Importantly, conversion from pre-diabetes to diabetes occurs more rapidly, and reversion to normal glucose regulation with appropriate lifestyle measures is more difficult in Asian Indians than white population. Huge number of patients with diabetes and with complications increase morbidity, mortality and pose substantial economic burden. It is diffi- cult, though not impossible, to decrease pace of rapidly expanding juggernaut of NCDs in India. Only concerted efforts from multiple s Continue reading >>

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature

The Economic Burden Of Diabetes In India: A Review Of The Literature

Abstract Diabetes and its complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is on the rise. This calls for an assessment of the economic burden of the disease. To conduct a critical review of the literature on cost of illness studies of diabetes and its complications in India. A comprehensive literature review addressing the study objective was conducted. An extraction table and a scoring system to assess the quality of the studies reviewed were developed. A total of nineteen articles from different regions of India met the study inclusion criteria. The third party payer perspective was the most common study design (17 articles) while fewer articles (n =2) reported on costs from a health system or societal perspective. All the articles included direct costs and only a few (n =4) provided estimates for indirect costs based on income loss for patients and carers. Drug costs proved to be a significant cost component in several studies (n =12). While middle and high-income groups had higher expenditure in absolute terms, costs constituted a higher proportion of income for the poor. The economic burden was highest among urban groups. The overall quality of the studies is low due to a number of methodological weaknesses. The most frequent epidemiological approach employed was the prevalence-based one (n =18) while costs were mainly estimated using a bottom up approach (n =15). The body of literature on the costs of diabetes and its complications in India provides a fragmented picture that has mostly concentrated on the direct costs borne by individuals rather than the healthcare system. There is a need to develop a robust methodology to perform methodologically rigorous and transparent cost of illness studies to inform Continue reading >>

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