diabetestalk.net

Does Insulin Increase Hunger

9 Proven Ways To Fix The Hormones That Control Your Weight

9 Proven Ways To Fix The Hormones That Control Your Weight

Your weight is largely controlled by hormones. Research shows that hormones influence your appetite and how much fat you store (1, 2, 3). Here are 9 ways to "fix" the hormones that control your weight. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of your pancreas. It's secreted in small amounts throughout the day and in larger amounts after meals. Insulin allows your cells to take in blood sugar for energy or storage, depending on what is needed at the time. Insulin is also the main fat storage hormone in the body. It tells fat cells to store fat, and prevents stored fat from being broken down. When cells are insulin resistant (very common), both blood sugar and insulin levels go up significantly. Chronically elevated insulin levels (termed hyperinsulinemia) can lead to many health problems, including obesity and metabolic syndrome (4, 5, 6). Overeating -- especially sugar, refined carbohydrates, and fast food -- drives insulin resistance and increases insulin levels (7, 8, 9). Here are some tips to normalize insulin levels and improve insulin sensitivity: Avoid or minimize sugar: High amounts of fructose and sucrose promote insulin resistance and raise insulin levels (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). Reduce carbohydrates: A low-carb diet can cause an immediate drop in insulin levels (16, 17, 18, 19). Fill up on protein: Protein actually raises insulin in the short-term. However, it should lead to long-term reductions in insulin resistance by helping you lose belly fat (20, 21). Include plenty of healthy fats: Omega-3 fats found in fatty fish can help lower fasting insulin levels (22). Exercise regularly: Overweight women who walked briskly or jogged had an improvement in insulin sensitivity after 14 weeks in one study (23, 24, 25). Get enough magnesium: Insulin resistant pe Continue reading >>

Insulin And The Brain

Insulin And The Brain

In the Paleo world, we talk a lot about insulin and insulin resistance, and how diet affects metabolic health, diabetes, and other related diseases. But all that talk tends to be really focused on insulin in the bloodstream, and it ignores insulin in the brain. Insulin is one of the few chemicals that can cross the blood-brain barrier, and it’s important for appetite regulation, learning, and memory. Your brain can get insulin resistant just like your muscles or fat tissue, and insulin resistance in the brain is associated with weight gain and also degenerative brain diseases (like Alzheimer’s Disease). Insulin and the Brain Insulin is best-known as a carbohydrate storage hormone. If you eat something containing digestible carbohydrates, you’ll end up with higher blood sugar: more carbohydrates (glucose) in your bloodstream. In the long term, high blood sugar is dangerous. That glucose needs to get out of the bloodstream and preferably sooner rather than later. Enter insulin, which shuttles it off to muscle and/or fat cells as needed. It shouldn’t be surprising that insulin is important for your brain – the brain is the biggest glucose hog in your whole body. It’s the only organ that actually requires glucose. Everything else can run on fat if it has to, but for the brain, it’s glucose or bust. Even if you don’t eat any carbohydrate, your liver will turn protein into glucose (through a process called gluconeogenesis) to make sure your brain gets enough. Even if you don’t eat anything at all, your liver will break down your own muscle tissue to get protein to make glucose for your brain. This review goes over some of the major points about insulin and the brain. Unlike most substances, insulin can pass fairly easily between the bloodstream and the brain Continue reading >>

“do Carbs Make You Hungry?” By James Barnum

“do Carbs Make You Hungry?” By James Barnum

(Click here to jump to a summary of this article.) We hear from a lot of people who believe that when blood insulin levels go up in response to a carbohydrate-dense meal, you wind up hungrier than you were before you ate. The idea is then, that eating carbohydrates can make you hungry, which will promote overeating, which leads to weight gain. This couldn’t be further from the truth. Insulin does not cause hunger. Ghrelin, “the hunger hormone,” is produced during periods of low blood sugar, when growth hormone levels are elevated and insulin levels are at their lowest (4). The hormone leptin inhibits the action of ghrelin and tells your brain that you’re full, and glucose metabolism is the primary determinant of leptin secretion in humans (3). Furthermore, a recent study by Wellhoener et al., has shown that the administration of insulin after feeding curbs appetite. However, it did not have any effect on satiety during fasting when blood sugar was low (2). These data support the idea that insulin can help control hunger. In short, carbohydrate metabolism makes you feel happy and full (5). While insulin may play a small role in keeping you from overeating, its job is to open up a channel to transport nutrients into cells. The video below by Dr. Bryan Walsh explains what insulin is, and how it works, better than anything else on the internet, so you should definitely give it a watch: [youtube=So Why the Confusion? A major problem with this whole scenario is that it only works like that when your body is functioning properly and you’re making the right lifestyle decisions. Leptin resistance will confound issues with hunger and make it difficult to lose body fat. Even when you eat an abundance of carbs, your brain won’t get the signal that you don’t need to ea Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Affects Hunger, Weight Gain, And Energy Levels Fact

Blood Sugar Affects Hunger, Weight Gain, And Energy Levels Fact

Blood sugar affects hunger, weight gain, and energy levels. Thus, sugars and simple carbs can give you the munchies and affect weight gain. How Blood Sugar (Glucose) Affects Insulin, Hunger, Weight Gain, and Energy Levels In a normal healthy human, in general, factoring out other complexities like other food and drink eaten with a meal: Carbohydrates (especially simple ones like sugars) “spike” blood sugar (glucose) levels. This triggers insulin production causes hunger, and primes the body for weight gain. It also creates a quick energy spike followed by a quick crash. This is perfect for storing calories from fruit sugars in the wild, but not so great for modern snacking habits, weight gain, and the munchies.[1] This can be offset by eating fiber, protein, and a generally balanced diet, and can differ in those with medical problems, but, in simple terms, the general rule of thumb for a normal healthy adult would be: Sugar can give you the munchies and cause weight gain. It does little to relieve your hunger pangs. The two videos below explain how sugar “spikes insulin” and causes weight gain. See below for further science and insight. The Skinny on Obesity (Ep. 3): Hunger and Hormones- A Vicious Cycle. This video also describes leptin which is a hormone that helps suppress hunger. It sends a message from your fat cells to your brain to tell your brain you are full, insulin suppresses leptin. The Skinny on Obesity (Ep. 4): Sugar – A Sweet Addiction. This video describes other effects of sugar. FACT: For the average person controlling weight may be a matter of determination. However, there are many additional considerations depending on a range of health factors. For instance, some genetic conditions such as Prader-Willi syndrome impact appetite so strongly th Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Why Do You Continue To Eat When You're Full?

Why Do You Continue To Eat When You're Full?

Isn't this really the million-dollar question? Why do people continue to eat, even after their stomachs are full or even stuffed? If there was a simple answer, I’d gladly share it with you, but the reality is that people overeat for a variety of reasons -- and many of them are rather complex. As this new study suggests, one of the forces driving you to eat a second helping or an extra dessert even though you’re full is the hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin (pronounced GRELL-in) is produced mainly by your stomach, although it is also made in other organs, such as your intestines and your kidneys. Ghrelin has been dubbed the “hunger hormone” because in previous studies people given the hormone became so ravenous, they ate markedly more than their usual food intake. Ghrelin, it appears, may also act on your brain’s “pleasure centers,” driving you to reach for another slice of cheesecake simply because you remember how good the first one tasted and made you feel (at least in that moment). What Influences Your Body’s Level of the Hunger Hormone? Your body’s level of ghrelin can be influenced by many factors, including your lifestyle habits. For instance, chronic lack of sleep increases ghrelin, making you feel hungry when you don’t really need to eat. This is likely one reason why a lack of sleep can make you gain weight. Insulin may also play a role in regulating ghrelin levels. In one study, ghrelin levels were monitored in eight non-diabetic adults as they were given a two-hour infusion of insulin. Shortly after the infusion began, levels of ghrelin began to drop. When the insulin infusion was stopped, levels of the hunger hormone began to rise and rapidly returned to normal. Since insulin is already known to increase levels of leptin -- the "obesity hormone" t Continue reading >>

Understanding Our Bodies: Leptin (the Fullness Hormone)

Understanding Our Bodies: Leptin (the Fullness Hormone)

Time and time again, I tell you guys that the best way to stay healthy is to stay informed. Read labels, I say. Know what you’re eating. Know what you’re not eating. Know this, know that, etc and make informed decisions. Well, part of making informed decisions is understanding how your body works. And for that reason, I’ve decided to dive into a bit of physiology. Even informed consumers tend to know very little about how their appetites actually work. What makes you hungry or full? Why do some foods fill us up more than others? What exactly is going on in our bodies, anyway? I figured you just might want to know. So here is part one of a new series I call “Understanding Our Bodies” – nutrition based on how our bodies work. And to kick it off is a little explanation of the fullness hormone: Leptin. What is Leptin? Leptin is a hormone that is tied closely to regulating energy intake and expenditure, including appetite, metabolism and hunger. It is the single most important hormone when it comes to understanding why we feel hungry or full. When present in high levels, it signals to our brain that we’re full and can stop eating. When low, we feel hungry and crave food. It does this by stimulating receptors in our hypothalamus, the part of our brains which regulates the hormone system in our bodies. When leptin binds to receptors in this part of our brains, it stimulates the release of appetite-suppressing chemicals. People with leptin disorders eat uncontrollably. Now here’s the strange part. Leptin is produced mostly by our adipose tissue – aka our fat. The level of circulating leptin is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body. That means the more fat you have, the greater the amount of leptin you have. It may seem counter-intuitive, Continue reading >>

Top 3 Hunger Hormones (& How To Control Them)

Top 3 Hunger Hormones (& How To Control Them)

Hunger is the quintessential reason why willpower is often “not enough” and tends to be the ultimate factor when people give up on diets. Most physiology behind hunger, and how your body fights to keep the fat you have, has been around for less than 20 years. During this last 20 years, the science exploded with research that explains how hunger works, what triggers excessive hunger, and what you can do about it. In this article, we will discuss some of the most recent research so you have a better grasp about the physiology behind hunger and what triggers excessive hunger. Hunger Hormones & How They Affect You There are multiple hormones that influence hunger in one way or another with about 15 playing a role in your overall hunger levels. For this article, we will focus on the 3 major players: Leptin, Ghrelin, and Neuropeptide Y (NPY). These 3 hormones are the major players when it comes to long and short-term hunger levels. Hunger Hormone #1: Leptin Leptin likes to keep the amount of fat you have at a constant level. As such, we’ll give Leptin the nickname, “Leveling Leptin” and say that it likes to act as a thermostat with regards to your body fat. Leveling Leptin is primarily released from your fat cells and acts on your brain to tell your body how many calories you’re taking in. When the amount of calories you’re eating equals the amount of calories you’re burning, leptin stays at a constant level and “fullness signals” tell your brain not to overeat or under-eat. When you go on a diet, especially a crash diet, leptin levels will drop and the “fullness” signal does not get to your brain as strong or as often. This causes an increase in hunger, as “Leveling Leptin” tries to save you from starvation, or your body’s perceived starvation.1 Continue reading >>

Appetite Regulation And Weight Control: The Role Of Gut Hormones

Appetite Regulation And Weight Control: The Role Of Gut Hormones

The overwhelming increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in recent years represents one of the greatest threats to the health of the developed world. Among current treatments, however, gastrointestinal (GI) surgery remains the only approach capable of achieving significant weight loss results with long-term sustainability. As the obesity prevalence approaches epidemic proportions, the necessity to unravel the mechanisms regulating appetite control has garnered significant attention. It is well known that physical activity and food intake regulation are the two most important factors involved in body weight control. To regulate food intake, the brain must alter appetite. With this realization has come increased efforts to understand the intricate interplay between gut hormones and the central nervous system, and the role of these peptides in food intake regulation through appetite modulation. This review discusses the central mechanisms involved in body weight regulation and explores a suite of well characterized and intensely investigated anorexigenic and orexigenic gut hormones. Their appetite-regulating capabilities, post-GI surgery physiology and emerging potential as anti-obesity therapeutics are then reviewed. The overwhelming increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in recent years represents one of the greatest threats to the health of the developed world.1 Aside from the associated increases in morbidity and mortality, the personal, societal and devastating economic consequences have been well documented.2 Even modest weight loss achieved through currently used approaches can dramatically reduce these consequences, yet gastrointestinal (GI) surgery remains the only treatment offering sustainable weight loss results. Noteworthy, these res Continue reading >>

The 3 Hormones That Regulate Hunger, Cravings And Satiety

The 3 Hormones That Regulate Hunger, Cravings And Satiety

Weight loss isn’t as clear-cut as eating less and exercising more. Even though the “cut calories” or “count calories” approach to losing weight has been a staple in our culture for some four plus decades it is quite evident, due to the fact that society is getting bigger and sicker as a result, that this approach has been very misleading. The first step in changing this phenomenon is to understand that the human body is a complex biological system. Every time you consume a food, your body is evaluating that food as good or bad, nutritionally supportive or hormonally disruptive. It comes down to basic biology — not math. Will those calories support letting your body do what it’s designed to do automatically by stabilizing harmonious hormone balance, or will they throw your body into hormonal havoc? If people were to understand the reason why they’ve gained weight, or the cause, then losing it would be much more comprehendible. Without understanding the “CAUSE”, a solution seems out of reach because it’s like trying to solve a big mystery. But, when we understand causation the solution makes perfect sense. Controlling hormonal balance is the driving force behind having your body in a homeostatic state. There are many hormones that are produced within our body, but 3 in particular are associated with the regulation and reaction to hunger, cravings and satiety which can ultimately lead to weight gain. Let’s look at our 3 hunger, cravings and satiety hormones 1. Insulin Insulin is touted by many nutrition professionals as a fat storing hormone. Although this is true, it’s only true to a varying degree. Insulin is more accurately described as a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food th Continue reading >>

Does Pcos Make Your Brain More Hungry?

Does Pcos Make Your Brain More Hungry?

If you have PCOS, you may feel that you have an altered relationship with food and with feelings of hunger. Before I made major changes to the way that I eat, portion control was always a challenge – it was often difficult for me to stop eating high calorie foods. It’s something I’ve struggled with and over time have learned to create a more balanced relationship with feelings of hunger. I did this primarily through increasing my consumption of nutrient dense, lower glycemic index foods. Interestingly, there is a hormonal and brain-related reason for increased hunger and binging on unhealthy foods in women with PCOS. In 2014, the first study ever to determine the effects of insulin resistance in PCOS on the brain reactivity to food was conducted. These 19 women ranged from having normal insulin responses, to having significant insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is one of the central aggravating features of PCOS, and can affect fertility, hormone regulation and create high androgen levels – now interestingly, we see its effects on our brains themselves. The women in the study underwent a glucose tolerance test, while having MRI imaging of their brains. During the MRI, women viewed pictures of high calorie foods such as hamburgers, french fries, pizza, ice cream and cake, and low calorie foods such as fresh vegetables, fruits and salads. What the researchers found, was startling. Insulin resistant women with PCOS have the opposite brain hunger reactions to high calorie food that those without insulin resistance have. The glucose tolerance test comprised of drinking sweet beverage with a high amount of sugar followed by testing of glucose levels after the test. The brains of the women who had normal sensitivity to insulin showed a reduced brain reactivity to th Continue reading >>

Does Insulin Make You Fat?

Does Insulin Make You Fat?

Whether or not insulin is to blame for the obesity epidemic is one of the hot questions being debated on heath and diet blogs. On the surface, this seems like an arcane question that would mainly interest physiologists and diet researchers. After all, who really cares about the underlying mechanisms of fat storage and release? Most of us just want to know some practical steps we can take to lose excess weight and keep it off and, beyond that, to stay healthy. It seems like a simple yes-or-no question of fact that you could settle by studying populations and doing lab studies. But it’s not so much a question about facts as one about causation. Questions of causation are often the thorniest ones. This particular question has taken on almost political or religious overtones, provoking emotion and acrimony in the diet blogosphere. On one side are defenders of the Carbohydrate/Insulin Hypothesis, like Gary Taubes and Michael Eades. This is laid out in detail in Taubes’ book Good Calories, Bad Calories (2007), and more compactly in “Why We Get Fat: And What To Do About It” (2010). On the other side are opponents such as James Krieger and CarbSane, who find the Carbohydrate/Insulin Hypothesis to be oversimplified and deeply flawed, citing recent scientific advances. People tend to chose up sides in this debate. I’ve been participating in this debate myself (while still learning a lot) on the websites of Jimmy Moore, James Krieger, and CarbSane. I won’t rehash all the technical details here. Instead, I’d like to propose a “frameshift” that recognizes and integrates the strong points from each side, attempting to overcome their shortcomings. First, here’s an overview of what each side has to say: Proponents of the Carbohydrate/Insulin Hypothesis, as articulat Continue reading >>

Polyphagia - Increased Appetite

Polyphagia - Increased Appetite

Tweet Polyphagia is the medical term used to describe excessive hunger or increased appetite and is one of the 3 main signs of diabetes. An increase in hunger is usually a response to normal things such as intensive exercise or other strenuous activity, but polyphagia can also be the result of more severe issues such as depression or stress. Also known as hyperphagia, it is one of the three main symptoms of diabetes, along with: Polydipsia (increased thirst) and Polyuria (frequent, excessive urination) Causes of polyphagia Polyphagia can be caused by: Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels) Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) Anxiety Stress Bulimia Binge eating disorder Hyperthyroidism (raised level of thyroid hormone) Premenstrual syndrome Certain prescription drugs such as corticosteroids Some psychiatric conditions Rare medical conditions such as Kleine-Levin Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome Hunger and hyperglycemia In uncontrolled diabetes where blood glucose levels remain abnormally high (hyperglycemia), glucose from the blood cannot enter the cells - due to either a lack of insulin or insulin resistance - so the body can’t convert the food you eat into energy. This lack of energy causes an increase in hunger. Simply eating will not get rid of the hungry feeling of polyphagia in people with uncontrolled diabetes, as this will just add to the already high blood glucose levels. The best way to lower blood glucose levels is to exercise as this can help to stimulate insulin production and reduce blood sugar levels. However, if the hunger persists, you may need to consult your doctor or diabetes health care team. Hunger and hypoglycemia Increased appetite can also be caused by abnormally low blood glucose (hypoglycemia). If blood glucose readings Continue reading >>

12 Signs Of Insulin Resistance

12 Signs Of Insulin Resistance

Most people think about diabetics when they see the word insulin, but problems with insulin can occur in a number of different conditions, in people with normal blood sugar. You have probably heard of insulin resistance; it is a significant health problem because it’s associated with an increased risk of obesity, heart attacks, polycystic ovarian syndrome, cancer and other serious conditions. People with insulin resistance usually have excessively high levels of this hormone, because it doesn’t work properly. We are seeing an increasing number of patients who have been diagnosed with insulin resistance by their own doctor, yet they don’t fully understand what this term means. How would you know if your insulin level is too high? There is a blood test that can measure your fasting insulin, but it isn’t always reliable and many doctors are not willing to order this test. This is a shame because elevated insulin is bad for your health and shortens your lifespan. Insulin has many important roles in your body. People with too much insulin in their bloodstream are said to have insulin resistance, syndrome X, metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes. They are all interchangeable terms. Due to modern diets and lifestyles, nearly everybody produces more insulin in their pancreas than they should. This is a problem because if blood insulin levels have been high for years, the cells of your body start to ignore it. The insulin becomes less and less effective at its important job in your body (getting glucose inside your cells so you can burn it for energy). Knowing whether or not you have too high insulin is important because it can allow you to make some changes and avoid some serious health problems in the future. Luckily there are several tell tale signs or clues that your bo Continue reading >>

Leptin, Ghrelin, And Weight Loss. Here's What The Research Has To Say.

Leptin, Ghrelin, And Weight Loss. Here's What The Research Has To Say.

It’s a grim statistic: Most people who go on a diet and lose weight end up regaining that weight within a year. Doesn’t sound too promising. Why does this happen? Well, there are many reasons. The big one is that people view a “diet” as a short-term solution and don’t really change their behaviours — which is why our Precision Nutrition Coaching program focuses on sustainable, permanent change. Another reason is that our bodies have appetite- and weight-regulating hormonal mechanisms that try to maintain homeostasis (aka keep things the same) over the long haul. When we consistently take in less energy (in the form of food) than we expend through basal metabolism and activity (as in a diet or famine), our bodies respond by making us hungrier. Our bodies don’t generally want to change. They like everything to stay the same. If we try to change things, our bodies will respond with compensation mechanisms, such as revving up our appetite hormones. Two important hormones that shape our appetite and hunger signals are leptin and ghrelin. Let’s find out more about leptin, ghrelin, and weight loss. Hormonal control of appetite and body fat Leptin and ghrelin seem to be the big players in regulating appetite, which consequently influences body weight/fat. When we get hungrier, we tend to eat more. When we eat more, obviously, we maintain our body weight or gain that weight back. Both leptin and ghrelin are peripheral signals with central effects. In other words, they’re secreted in other parts of the body (peripheral) but affect our brain (central). Leptin is secreted primarily in fat cells, as well as the stomach, heart, placenta, and skeletal muscle. Leptin decreases hunger. Ghrelin is secreted primarily in the lining of the stomach. Ghrelin increases hunger Continue reading >>

More in insulin