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Do You Need Insulin With Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Long-term Discontinuation Of Insulin Treatment In A Type 1 Diabetic Patient

Long-term Discontinuation Of Insulin Treatment In A Type 1 Diabetic Patient

A case for late autoimmune diabetes of the adult? Type 1 diabetes is a well-defined condition requiring life-saving insulin replacement therapy immediately after diagnosis (1). It is also a well-known fact from the natural course of the disease that soon after the insulin therapy has been initiated, insulin requirements decrease, sometimes rapidly, and patients who stopped taking insulin shortly after diabetes diagnosis have been reported (2). However, this so-called “honeymoon period” usually starts several weeks after the diagnosis and rarely exceeds several months’ duration. It is believed, however, and has been unfortunately shown in the past, e.g., during wartime, that insulin discontinuation in a long-standing type 1 diabetic patient poses a serious threat to health and life (3,4). We describe a case of a patient with a definite diagnosis of autoimmune diabetes who, 2 years after having been diagnosed with diabetes, stopped insulin treatment for a period of 17 months and did not develop ketoacidosis. In April 2000, a 19-year-old woman was admitted to the Metabolic Diseases Department due to profound weakness, dizziness, and increased thirst, as well as a 10-kg weight loss in 6 months. The symptoms occurred several months earlier but became more severe within the previous 8 weeks. The patient was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in November 1998. Her symptoms at the time gradually developed for 4 months and included increased thirst, polyuria, weight loss, and mild ketoacidosis. At the time of diagnosis, her blood glucose was 17.8 mmol/l. She was positive for islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs), with a titer of 90 JDF units, as well as positive for antibodies against GAD (anti-GAD, 80 units/ml). The treatment on discharge consisted of an intensive insulin regimen: Continue reading >>

Selecting An Insulin Program For Type 1 Diabetes

Selecting An Insulin Program For Type 1 Diabetes

For people with Type 1 diabetes, is there really anything more personal and significant in your life than your insulin program? In a way, your insulin program defines your lifestyle. It can either dictate your meal, sleep, and activity schedules, or it can set you up for successful control of your diabetes. Unfortunately, most people are given little choice or education on how to select the insulin program that best meets their needs. As a matter of fact, many people probably put more thought and effort into choosing a car — perhaps because they have a better idea of what they’re looking for. So what should you look for in an insulin program, and how do you know if the one you’re following is really the best one for you? Read on for some tips on this important decision. What’s in an insulin program? Every insulin program for people with Type 1 diabetes should include a basal, or “background,” insulin. Basal insulin is necessary to cover the liver’s secretion of glucose throughout the day and night, which provides the cells with a continuous supply of glucose to burn for energy. Insufficient basal insulin at any time will result in a sharp rise in blood glucose level and can also lead to the buildup of ketones, acidic by-products of fat-burning that can accumulate in large amounts if no glucose is being burned simultaneously. If high blood glucose and ketones are not treated promptly, a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis can develop. Each person’s basal insulin requirements are unique, but typically they are higher during the early morning and lower in the middle of the day. This is due to the nighttime production of blood-sugar-raising hormones and to the enhanced insulin sensitivity that comes with daytime physical activity. Basal i Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

KidsHealth / For Teens / Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? en espaolDiabetes tipo 1: Cul es el tratamiento? Your teachers follow a lesson plan that outlines what you'll study each day. Your parents may have a plan to help you pay for college. And your weekend social plans determine whether you're seeing a movie, heading to a concert, or playing basketball at the gym. People with type 1 diabetes need to follow a different type of plan. A treatment plan, also called a diabetes management plan, helps people to manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active. Everyone's plan is different, based on a person's health needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team. The first thing to understand when it comes to treating diabetes is your blood glucose level, which is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose isa sugar that comes from the foods we eat and also is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of the body, and is carried to each cell through the blood. Glucose gets into the cells with the help of the hormone insulin . So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 1 diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin. This means that glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn't get into the cells, causing blood glucose levels to go too high. High blood sugar levels can make people with type 1 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range, while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, people with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and stick to a diabetes meal plan check their blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan can help a person stay healthy, but it's not a cure for diab Continue reading >>

What Type Of Diabetes Requires Insulin Injections?

What Type Of Diabetes Requires Insulin Injections?

People with Type 1 diabetes always require insulin injections in order to control blood sugar readings because they make little or no insulin. Insulin is also prescribed for Type 2 diabetes when oral medications or other injectable meds are not controlling blood sugar levels adequately. Anyone taking insulin of any kind is at risk for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Taking insulin does not mean you have a “bad type” of diabetes. The purpose of using insulin is to get the best management of blood sugar readings as close to normal blood sugar readings as possible to help avoid complications from diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in destruction of the insulin producing cells. People with this type of diabetes must take insulin. Type 2 diabetes is a multimolecular disorder that causes 2 things (at least). First insulin secretion is inadequate. It may be the amount or the way it is secreted. Second most people with this type of diabetes also have a resistance to the insulin they do put out. So it's a double whammy. There are three factors that come into play that might determine the need for insulin: physical activity, dietary intake and age. A lot of exercise, a proper diet to control weight may minimize the amount of medication you need for many years but this is a progressive disorder and as you get older so does your ability to produce insulin. Sooner or later, even under the best of circumstances you will need insulin. Now, it may be of advantage to start insulin way before that time to keep your blood glucose normal which leads to a better quality of life and reduce risk for complications. Actually, all types of diabetes (type 1, type 2 and gestational) can require insulin injections. With type 1 diabetes, a person's beta cells stop pr Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. We do not know what causes this auto-immune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors. There is no cure and it cannot be prevented. Type 1 diabetes: Occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin Represents around 10% of all cases of diabetes and is one of the most common chronic childhood conditions Onset is usually abrupt and the symptoms obvious Symptoms can include excessive thirst and urination, unexplained weight loss, weakness and fatigue and blurred vision Is managed with insulin injections several times a day or the use of an insulin pump. What happens to the pancreas? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach, stops making insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the body’s immune system. Without insulin, the body’s cells cannot turn glucose (sugar), into energy. People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day. The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs most frequently in people under 30 years, however new research suggests almost half of all people who develop the condition are diagnosed over the age of 30. About 10-15% of all cases of diabetes are type 1. What happens if people with type 1 diabetes don’t receive insulin? Without insulin the body burns its own fats as a substitute which releases chemical substances in the blood. Without ongoing injections of insulin, the dangerous chemical substances will accumulate and can be life threatening if it is not treated. This is a condition call Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes Without Insulin – Is It Possible?

Managing Diabetes Without Insulin – Is It Possible?

It is widely believed that those with Type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin if they have diabetes for long enough. However, only about 20-30 percent of people with Type 2 diabetes end up needing insulin injections. In this article, we will explore whether it is possible to manage your diabetes without insulin. If so, how can one do so and when they may eventually need insulin if other treatments do not work out? 1 Type 1 Diabetes disclaimer This article is not for people with Type 1 diabetes because it is imperative that people with Type 1 diabetes require insulin every day without question. A person with Type 1 diabetes produces very little, or no insulin. Without insulin, you cannot convert food into usable energy. Simply put, without insulin, a person with Type 1 diabetes cannot survive. 2 When Robert contacted TheDiabetesCouncil, he was concerned that one day he would have to take insulin shots for his Type 2 diabetes. He had heard a few of his friends with diabetes at church talking about how they had to take insulin injections. Robert was “afraid of needles,” and the thought of giving himself a shot scared him. Is Robert going to need to start taking insulin, or is there any way he can avoid it at this point? If he avoids it, what effects would this have on his health? Will he develop long term complications of diabetes if he doesn’t start giving himself shots of insulin? I suggest also reading these: At TheDiabetesCouncil, we decided to take a look at this particular question in depth, for Robert and for others with diabetes who might benefit from reading this information. Insulin isn’t the “bad guy.” Naturally, the fear of giving oneself an injection or “shot,” can increase anxiety and stress. But what if I told you that once you get past t Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Faqs

Type 1 Diabetes Faqs

Do I need to take insulin for the rest of my life? Yes. People with type 1 diabetes are not making enough insulin from their own bodies. Most people inject insulin at least four times a day. However, the insulin pump, or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), is slowly replacing frequent injections as a preferred delivery system. With the pump, a new catheter is inserted every few days under the skin, and insulin is continuously infused into the body. The pump is not the final word in insulin delivery systems, and there are clinical trials underway testing both a patch and a nasal spray as possible insulin delivery systems. Will exercise help control my diabetes? In general, exercise can be beneficial in the management of type 1 diabetes, in addition to taking insulin and eating a healthy diet. To exercise safely and reduce the risks, always consult with your doctor about exercise guidelines. Can I stop taking insulin if I eliminate candy and cookies from my diet? Even if you eliminate concentrated sources of carbohydrates (foods that turn into sugar in your bloodstream) like candy and cookies, you always need to take insulin when you have type 1 diabetes. Check with your doctor about any insulin dose adjustments that may be required if you change your diet. Do I need to monitor my blood sugar even when I’m feeling fine? Feeling fine is no guarantee that your blood sugar levels are in the target range. Remember, symptoms do not appear right away. Without regular blood sugar monitoring, serious damage can happen to your eyes, kidneys, feet – even your brain – without your knowing. If your sugar levels are out of line, consult your doctor. I have type 1 diabetes. Are my children at risk? Yes, but the risk is low. Although type 1 diabetes is a genetic disea Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. We do not know what causes this auto-immune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors. There is no cure and it cannot be prevented. Type 1 diabetes: Occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin Represents around 10% of all cases of diabetes and is one of the most common chronic childhood conditions Onset is usually abrupt and the symptoms obvious Symptoms can include excessive thirst and urination, unexplained weight loss, weakness and fatigue and blurred vision Is managed with insulin injections several times a day or the use of an insulin pump. What happens to the pancreas? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach, stops making insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the body’s immune system. Without insulin, the body’s cells cannot turn glucose (sugar), into energy. People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day. The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs most frequently in people under 30 years, however new research suggests almost half of all people who develop the condition are diagnosed over the age of 30. About 10-15% of all cases of diabetes are type 1. What happens if people with type 1 diabetes don’t receive insulin? Without insulin the body burns its own fats as a substitute which releases chemical substances in the blood. Without ongoing injections of insulin, the dangerous chemical substances will accumulate and can be life threatening if it is not treated. This is a condition call Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Insulin Treatment (beyond The Basics)

INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition that can be controlled with lifestyle adjustments and medical treatments. Keeping blood sugar levels under control can prevent or minimize complications. Insulin treatment is one component of a diabetes treatment plan for people with type 1 diabetes. Insulin treatment replaces or supplements the body's own insulin with the goal of preventing ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis and achieving normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. Many different types of insulin treatment can successfully control blood sugar levels; the best option depends upon a variety of individual factors. With a little extra planning, people with diabetes who take insulin can lead a full life and keep their blood sugar under control. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are also available. (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Overview (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Type 1 diabetes mellitus and diet (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) STARTING INSULIN The pancreas produces very little or no insulin at all in people with type 1 diabetes. All patients with type 1 diabetes will eventually require insulin. Insulin is given under the skin, either as a shot or continuously with an insulin pump. Dosing — When you are first starting insulin, it will take some time to find the right dose. A doctor or nurse will help to adjust your dose over time. You will be instructed to check your blood sugar level several times per day. Insulin Continue reading >>

What Does Insulin Do?

What Does Insulin Do?

The word “insulin” can instill fear in many people who have or who are at risk for diabetes. Some of the beliefs around insulin are that if you have to take it, you’ll go blind or lose a limb. Or that insulin causes you to gain weight. Or that it means your diabetes is worsening. While these beliefs are understandable, the reality is that they’re not true. In fact, insulin is a life-saving medication: without it, people with Type 1 diabetes wouldn’t be alive, and many people with Type 2 diabetes would be struggling. The discovery of insulin is so important that it’s often called one of the greatest medical developments of the 20th century. This week, let’s delve into insulin and learn more about how truly amazing it is! What exactly is insulin? Insulin is a hormone. It’s made in the beta cells of the pancreas, and one of its main roles is to help regulate, or control, your blood sugar. When there’s enough insulin in the body, it helps to keep your blood sugar from going too high. In people who don’t have diabetes, blood sugars are very carefully and tightly controlled, staying within a safe and healthy range. After a person without diabetes eats a meal or a snack, the pancreas releases insulin. The insulin then signals muscle, fat, and liver cells in the body to absorb glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream to be used for energy. In this sense, insulin is like a key that unlocks the doors of the cells to allow glucose to enter. You can also think of insulin as a “storage” hormone, since when there’s more glucose than the body needs, insulin helps the body store that excess glucose in the liver to be used at a later time. Insulin also signals the liver to stop releasing glucose into the bloodstream. Insulin also helps shuttle amino acids (from pro Continue reading >>

The Causes Of Insulin Resistance In Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes (video)

The Causes Of Insulin Resistance In Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes (video)

Most people believe that people with type 1 diabetes are not insulin resistant simply because they are not overweight. This could not be farther from the truth. While insulin resistance affects many overweight individuals, many people with type 1 diabetes remain skinny their entire lives despite a large degree of insulin resistance (1–3). Over the past decade, I have helped many people with type 1 diabetes measure, track and reverse insulin resistance. In practice, 100% of all my clients with type 1 diabetes suffer from insulin resistance despite the assumption that they were insulin sensitive. By measuring their baseline insulin resistance, we were able to identify an impaired ability to utilize glucose as a fuel, and through dedicated diet modification and frequent exercise, some of my clients have reduced their insulin usage by as much as 60%. If you have type 1 diabetes, do not be fooled into thinking that you are insulin sensitive simply because you are skinny. Insulin resistance is a hidden condition, and affects both normal weight and overweight individuals (1–3). What Causes Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance underlies all forms of diabetes, and is a condition which primarily affects your muscles, liver and adipose tissue. Many people think that diabetes is caused by an excess intake of sugar and candy starting from a young age. While eating artificial sweeteners and drinking soda can certainly increase your risk for the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, in most cases diabetes is caused by excessive FAT intake. The most important thing you can do as a person with diabetes is understand the following: Diabetes is caused by a fat metabolism disorder, which results in a glucose metabolism disorder. At the heart of all forms of diabetes is insu Continue reading >>

Insulin For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Examples The different types of insulin are categorized according to how fast they start to work (onset) and how long they continue to work (duration). The types now available include rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulin. Rapid-acting Generic Name Brand Name insulin aspart NovoLog insulin glulisine Apidra insulin human (inhalation powder) Afrezza insulin lispro Humalog Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Generic Name Brand Name insulin detemir Levemir insulin glargine Lantus Mixtures Generic Name Brand Name 70% NPH and 30% regular Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30 50% lispro protamine and 50% lispro Humalog Mix 50/50 75% lispro protamine and 25% lispro Humalog Mix 75/25 70% aspart protamine and 30% aspart NovoLog Mix 70/30 50% NPH and 50% regular Humulin 50/50 Packaging Injectable insulin is packaged in small glass vials (bottles) and cartridges that hold more than one dose and are sealed with rubber lids. The cartridges are used in pen-shaped devices called insulin pens. Inhaled insulin is a powder that is packaged in a cartridge. Cartridges hold certain dosages of insulin, and more than one cartridge might be needed to take enough insulin. How insulin is taken Insulin usually is given as an injection into the tissues under the skin (subcutaneous). It can also be given through an insulin pump, an insulin pen, or jet injector, a device that sprays the medicine into the skin. Some insulins can be given through a vein (only in a hospital). Powdered insulin is packaged in a cartridge, which fits into an inhaler. Using the inhaler, a person breathes in to take the insulin. How It Works Insulin lets sugar (glucose) in the blood enter cells, where it is used for energy. Without insulin, the blood sugar level rises above what is safe for the body. If the Continue reading >>

Treatment

Treatment

There's no cure for diabetes, so treatment aims to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible and to control your symptoms to prevent health problems developing later in life. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, you'll be referred for specialist treatment from a diabetes care team. They'll be able to help you understand your treatment and closely monitor your condition to identify any health problems that may occur. Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body doesn't produce any insulin. This means you'll need regular insulin treatment to keep your glucose levels normal. Insulin comes in several different preparations, each of which works slightly differently. For example, some last up to a whole day (long-acting), some last up to eight hours (short-acting) and some work quickly but don't last very long (rapid-acting). Your treatment is likely to include a combination of different insulin preparations. Insulin Insulin injections If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll probably need insulin injections. Insulin must be injected, because if it were taken as a tablet, it would be broken down in your stomach (like food) and would be unable to enter your bloodstream. When you're first diagnosed, your diabetes care team will help you with your insulin injections, before showing you how and when to do it yourself. They'll also show you how to store your insulin and dispose of your needles properly. Insulin injections are usually given by an injection pen, which is also known as an insulin pen or auto-injector. Sometimes, injections are given using a syringe. Most people need two to four injections a day. Your GP or diabetes nurse may also teach one of your close friends or relatives how to inject the insulin properly. Insulin pump therapy Insulin pump therapy is an alter Continue reading >>

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