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Discovery Of Insulin Timeline

The Incredible History Of Insulin, A Drug That Was Discovered Almost A Century Ago

The Incredible History Of Insulin, A Drug That Was Discovered Almost A Century Ago

An insulin pump.Alden Chadwick/Flickr Diabetes, a group of conditions in which the body can't properly regulate blood sugar, affects roughly 30 million people in the US. And for many people living with diabetes — including the 1.25 million people in the US who have Type 1 diabetes — injecting insulin is part of the daily routine. Insulin, a hormone that healthy bodies produce, has been used to treat diabetes for almost a century, though it's gone through some modifications. In the past decade, the list prices of insulin have risen about 300%. This has drawn criticism from patients having to pay the high cost as well as from political figures such as Senator Bernie Sanders, who went after insulin drugmakers this month over their exorbitant prices. Here's the story of how the critical diabetes medicine became what it is today. Insulin is an integral part of the human body. It's a hormone that, in most people, is produced in the pancreas to help regulate our blood sugar levels. For those living with Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't make any insulin, which can cause blood sugar levels to rise too high after a carbohydrate-rich meal, or fall dramatically unexpectedly. Back in the 1920s, researchers figured out that the pancreas was an important part of what was making diabetics so sick and got to work figuring out if they could make a treatment for them. Pictured here is an inflamed pancreas alongside the duodenum to its right, and the spleen to its left, in a rhesus monkey. Dr. Frederick Banting, a Toronto-based surgeon, along with medical student Charles Best, started by testing out what happens when you remove a dog's pancreas. When they did, the dog developed diabetes. Next, they found that if you inject insulin back into the dog, it went back to normal. Dr. Fre Continue reading >>

Six Generations Of Caring And Discovery

Six Generations Of Caring And Discovery

The Lilly story began 140 years ago, when founder Colonel Eli Lilly combined scientific rigor and passion for discovery, with caring for the individuals and communities the company served. Employees honor his legacy by embodying his call to "Take what you find here and make it better and better." Here are a few examples of how Lilly has made life better. Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

For many years scientists believed that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas was the key to preventing diabetes and controlling normal metabolism. No one could find it, until in the summer of 1921 a team at the University of Toronto began trying a new experimental approach suggested by Dr. Frederick Banting. By the spring of 1922, the Toronto researchers — Banting, Charles Best, J.B. Collip and their supervisor, J.J.R. Macleod, were able to announce the discovery of insulin. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize for one of the most important, and most controversial, breakthroughs in modern medical history. Early Research For many centuries people knew about diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes), but it was only dimly understood until the end of the 19th century. Initially, the body’s inability to process carbohydrates and other nutrients, signified most obviously by the presence of sugar in the urine, was thought to be a liver or a stomach disorder. In 1889 German researchers Oskar Minkowski and Josef von Mehring discovered that dogs that had their pancreas removed immediately became severely and fatally diabetic. Something in the pancreas appeared to be essential to prevent diabetes. Researchers immediately began to try to find the mysterious substance. Results were mostly negative; for example, feeding pancreas to diabetic patients did no good. Still, new knowledge about the body’s dependence on chemical messengers — or hormones — added plausibility to the hypothesis that some kind of internal secretion of the pancreas maintains normal metabolism. The gland was already known to have an external secretion, digestive juices that flow into the duodenum. Another German researcher, Paul Langerhans, had discovered a separa Continue reading >>

4.1.1 History Of Diabetes

4.1.1 History Of Diabetes

1869 A german medical student, Langerhans, discovers the the pancreas is responsible for secreting two times of cells, one of them being the hormone Insulin. 1908 Zuelzer extracts insulin from the Pancreas and injects it into five patients with diabetes. Glucose in the urine is reduced by the treatment but there were many negative side effects. 1909 Benedict creates a new method, Benedict's Solution, to more effectively measure the amount of glucose in urine. 1913 Allen's book, "Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes" introduces a change in diabetes therapy from this point in time 1921 Took place in 1921 in Canada by Fredrick Banting, an unsuccessful orthopaedic surgeon, who after reading about the association between the pancreas and diabetes became convinced that he could find the antidiabetic substance. 1922 On January 11, 1922, a 14-year-old boy became the first human patient to receive insulin made by Banting and Best. 1923 Eli Lilly begins commercial production of insulin. 1925 Home testing for sugar in urine is introduced. This simple color reactivity test allowed for closer monitoring of diabetes at home. 1936 1936, protamine zinc insulin was introduced. This was longer lasting and allowed for more flexibility. 1940 Helen Free develops the "dip-and-read" urine test, allowing instant monitoring of blood glucose levels 1970 First blood glucose meter (Ames) is introduced for use in doctors' offices 1986 1993 Instant glucose tablets are introduced to increase blood glucose levels with ease 1996 The FDA approves the first recombinant DNA human insulin. Called Humalog. 2010 Life expectancy for people with diabetes in 2004 is still 15 years lower than that of the general population. Continue reading >>

The Tumultuous Discovery Of Insulin: Finally, Hidden Story Is Told

The Tumultuous Discovery Of Insulin: Finally, Hidden Story Is Told

TORONTO— The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto 60 years ago ranks with the greatest moments in the history of medicine. For the first time, diabetic men and women, many of whom were until then doomed to an ineffectual starvation diet followed by coma and death within a year or two, were offered a treatment that restored them, sometimes in just a few weeks, to rosy-cheeked health. But no comprehensive, accurate and detailed account of the course of events that led to so astonishing a leap forward in the treatment of disease has ever appeared - neither at Toronto nor anywhere else. Some relevant documents were ignored by scholars; others were suppressed by the University of Toronto to avoid embarrassment to surviving researchers. But with the death of the last principal in 1978, historical research could begin without impediment. Michael Bliss, a historian at the university, believes he has now pulled the story together from partial accounts, published and unpublished, and by delving into such hitherto unexplored resources as the Nobel Prize archives at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Professor Bliss's account, ''The Discovery of Insulin,'' to be published this month in Canada by McClelland & Stewart, and next month in this country by the University of Chicago Press, shows to an extent previously unmatched the full dimensions of the feuding and bickering, the jockeying for position and reward, the personal flaws and weaknesses, as well as strengths, of the all-too-human researchers whose achievement did so much for so many. As [email protected]@R. Macleod, one of the two men who shared a Nobel Prize for insulin in 1923, once said: ''If every discovery entails as much squabbling over priority, etc., as this one has, it will put the job of trying to make them o Continue reading >>

The History Of Diabetes

The History Of Diabetes

For 2,000 years diabetes has been recognized as a devastating and deadly disease. In the first century A.D. a Greek, Aretaeus, described the destructive nature of the affliction which he named “diabetes” from the Greek word for “siphon.” Eugene J. Leopold in his text Aretaeus the Cappodacian describes Aretaeus’ diagnosis: “…For fluids do not remain in the body, but use the body only as a channel through which they may flow out. Life lasts only for a time, but not very long. For they urinate with pain and painful is the emaciation. For no essential part of the drink is absorbed by the body while great masses of the flesh are liquefied into urine.” Physicians in ancient times, like Aretaeus, recognized the symptoms of diabetes but were powerless to effectively treat it. Aretaeus recommended oil of roses, dates, raw quinces, and gruel. And as late as the 17th century, doctors prescribed “gelly of viper’s flesh, broken red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers of blind nettles.” Early Discoveries-Human Guinea Pigs In the 17th century a London physician, Dr. Thomas Willis, determined whether his patients had diabetes or not by sampling their urine. If it had a sweet taste he would diagnose them with diabetes mellitus- “honeyed” diabetes. This method of monitoring blood sugars went largely unchanged until the 20th century. Despite physicians’ valiant efforts to combat diabetes, their patients remained little more than human guinea pigs. In the early 20th century, diabetologists such as Dr. Frederick Allen prescribed low calorie diets-as little as 450 calories per day for his patients. His diet prolonged the life of people with diabetes but kept them weak and suffering from near starvation. In effect, the most a person afflicted with diabetes coul Continue reading >>

Timeline For Biochemistry: Metabolism And Bioenergetics

Timeline For Biochemistry: Metabolism And Bioenergetics

No compatible source was found for this media. During this week our attention focuses on biochemistry topics linked to cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. In week 1 we already saw about some of the significant biochemists and biochemistry experiments in these research areas. These were: Pre-1900: The term “biochemistry” (and its German/French equivalent “biochimie”) becomes synonymous with “physiological chemistry” or the “chemistry of life”. Medical schools start to teach that these studies are important for understanding human disease. 1918: Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Fritz Haber, “for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”. 1930s: Krebs discovers urea cycle and then the citric acid cycle. This leads to the award of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1953 for his discovery of the citric acid cycle, along with Fritz Albert Lipmann, “for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”. 1978: Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Peter D. Mitchell, “for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”. 1997: Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker, “for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”; Jens C. Skou, “for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”. Some other seminal biochemists and biochemistry experiments in these research areas include: 1902: Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Hermann Emil Fischer, “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”. 1923: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod, “for the discovery o Continue reading >>

Insulin: Its History And Future

Insulin: Its History And Future

Learn about the invention of the life-saving drug insulin, and what the future holds in store. We all know that without insulin, those of us with type 1 diabetes would slowly starve to death. Our bodies don't make insulin, so we can't process the food we eat properly and get energy and nutrients from it. In this article, I'll talk about the development of insulin, as well as how insulin is used right now in diabetes treatment. At the end, I'll talk a little about the future of insulin and type 1 diabetes. History of Insulin and Diabetes Before insulin became available, children routinely were fed a cup of cooking oil a day because that was thought to help them process food. The results were as you imagine. The archives of Joslin Diabetes Center, where Elliott P. Joslin, MD, was one of the first Americans to use insulin, are replete with before and after pictures of children who looked at death’s door one month, and months later appeared to be healthy normal children. Insulin was greeted as a cure for diabetes; however, today we know that it can only control the disease, and with extended life comes a long list of long-term complications. Diabetes was first described and named by Aratacus of Cappadocia in Asia Minor in the first century AD. The name came from the analogy that diabetics' urine was like water coming through a siphon. The sweet smell of the urine of diabetics was first noted in the 17th century by the Oxford physician, Thomas Willis, but ancient Indians in the 4th century are said to have noted ants congregating at the urine of diabetics. Attempts at treatment began when no more was known about diabetes than the polyuria. John Rollo, Surgeon-General to the Royal Artillery treated a patient by dietary restriction in 1706. The great figure in the story of d Continue reading >>

Insulin Isolated In Toronto

Insulin Isolated In Toronto

At the University of Toronto, Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolate insulin–a hormone they believe could prevent diabetes–for the first time. Within a year, the first human sufferers of diabetes were receiving insulin treatments, and countless lives were saved from what was previously regarded as a fatal disease. Diabetes has been recognized as a distinct medical condition for more than 3,000 years, but its exact cause was a mystery until the 20th century. By the early 1920s, many researchers strongly suspected that diabetes was caused by a malfunction in the digestive system related to the pancreas gland, a small organ that sits on top of the liver. At that time, the only way to treat the fatal disease was through a diet low in carbohydrates and sugar and high in fat and protein. Instead of dying shortly after diagnosis, this diet allowed diabetics to live–for about a year. A breakthrough came at the University of Toronto in the summer of 1921, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin from canine test subjects, produced diabetic symptoms in the animals, and then began a program of insulin injections that returned the dogs to normalcy. On November 14, the discovery was announced to the world. Two months later, with the support of J.J.R. MacLeod of the University of Toronto, the two scientists began preparations for an insulin treatment of a human subject. Enlisting the aid of biochemist J.B. Collip, they were able to extract a reasonably pure formula of insulin from the pancreases of cattle from slaughterhouses. On January 23, 1921, they began treating 14-year-old Leonard Thompson with insulin injections. The diabetic teenager improved dramatically, and the University of Toronto immediate Continue reading >>

Timeline Shows The Trials And Errors Of Treating Diabetes

Timeline Shows The Trials And Errors Of Treating Diabetes

Diabetes was awful in ancient times. A kid coming down with it would often last mere days. Not that medical sages of the times weren't trying. Over the centuries, they threw a plethora of herbs, salves and other remedies at the disorder. Aretaeus thought the key was to stymie the excessive thirst by strengthening the stomach with purging, plant infusions and acidic wine. The 7th century Greek physician Paul of Aegena prescribed "pot-herbs, endive, lettuce, rock-fishes, juices of knotgrass, elecampane in dark-colored wine and dedoctions of dates and myrtle." He also recommended "cataplasms to the hypochondrium"--which sound nasty but in fact were merely poultices applied to the abdomen. The 10th century Persian physician Avicenna recommended exercise--ideally on horseback--to provide friction and thus to temper the incessant urination. Much later, after bleeding, blistering, vein-cutting and more were also touted as helpful, doctors tried with a small measure of success to control the ailment using low-carbohydrate diets. Only in the early 20th century did scientists finally purify insulin. Here are a few high points in the diabetes discovery timeline: * In 1869, the German anatomist Paul Langerhans discovered some distinctive structures in the pancreas--though he didn't know what they were for. To this day, they're known as the "islets of Langerhans." * In 1899, two other German scientists--Joseph von Mering and Oscar Minkowski--discovered that removing the pancreas from a dog resulted in a diabetic dog. It was an accidental discovery: The two were merely trying to figure out the pancreas' role in digestion. * Insulin--the hormone made by the Langerhans islets--was purified in the early '20s by four scientists in Canada: Frederick Grant Banting, John James Richard Macle Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

Frederick Banting (right) joined by Charles Best in office, 1924 Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[1] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning “too great emptying of the urine.”[2] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[2] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[2] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 250 BC by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis.[2] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with obesity.[2] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by Thomas Willis in the late 1600s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus which is also associated with frequent urination.[2] Further history[edit] Plaque in Strasbourg commemorating the 1889 discovery by Minkowski and Von Mering The first complete clinical description of diabetes was given by the Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl. 1st century CE), who also noted the excessive amount of urine which passed through the kidneys.”[3] Diabetes mellitus appears to have been a death sentence in the ancient era. Hippocrates makes no mention of it, which may indicate that he felt the disease was incurable. Aretaeus did attempt to treat it but could not give a good prognosis; he commented that "life (with diabetes) is short, disgusting and painful."[4] The disease must have been rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[2] In medieval Persia, Avicenna (980–1037) provided a detailed account on diabet Continue reading >>

Insulin: A Story Of Innovation

Insulin: A Story Of Innovation

Ninety-four years of development, and the future of insulin therapy Fourteen-year-old Leonard Thompson was gravely ill, slipping in and out of a coma at Toronto General Hospital. He’d been diagnosed with diabetes three years earlier, and despite receiving the best treatment available, his condition had steadily worsened. Doctors offered a risky proposition: a promising but experimental drug they’d been developing but hadn’t yet used in people. The year was 1922. One of the doctors was Sir Frederick Grant Banting, and the drug, of course, was insulin. That day in 1922, Leonard became the first person to receive insulin. But instead of lowering his blood sugar, it caused an allergic reaction that sent Leonard’s doctors back to the lab, where they worked almost around the clock to improve the formulation. Almost two weeks later, they returned to Leonard’s bed with a new syringe: insulin 2.0. With this version, Leonard’s symptoms began to disappear and he regained his health. Insulin was a true breakthrough in diabetes care, and the reworking that made it an initial success set the stage for innovation that would continue throughout the next century. Animal-derived extracts would give way to ultrapure biosynthetic human insulins. Insulin concentration and delivery tools would be standardized to ensure accurate dosing. Insulin analogs with varying speed and duration of action would enable fine-tuning of glucose management. Pumps, pens and inhalers would be developed to customize insulin administration. Three Nobel Prizes would be awarded to scientists for their work with insulin, including Banting, whose birthday November 14 is now celebrated as World Diabetes Day. Banting’s spirit of ingenuity is alive and well at JDRF today, inspiring us to devise even better Continue reading >>

The Discovery Of Insulin

The Discovery Of Insulin

Studies using experimentally induced animal models of diabetes were critical in discovering that insulin could be used to treat diabetes. Frederick Banting and Charles Best began their classic experiments in 1921. By the end of the year they had showed that extracts from the pancreas reduced blood sugar. This was due to the removal of sugars from the urine of dogs whose pancreas had been removed, the usual animal model of diabetes. However, as previous researchers had discovered, the extracts were toxic, causing a serious fever in both the dogs and diabetic patients. The biochemist James Collip joined their team and prepared insulin from the pancreas' of cows and pigs which was pure enough to eventually allow Banting and Best to treat diabetes. He used alcohol to extract insulin, producing several different protein solutions. To find out the amount of insulin present in each solution, he measured their activity by injecting each solution into rabbits and monitoring their blood sugar levels. Collip developed a measure of activity based on the ability of the extract to lower blood sugar in the rabbit which was used to standardise extracts. Collip, Banting and Best’s extracts were used successfully in dogs and then in patients in 1922 with dramatic results. Banting shared the 1922 Nobel Prize with John Macleod, Dean of the faculty of medicine, who oversaw his work. Year: 1923 Scientist(s): Frederick Banting, John MacLeod Animal(s): Cow, Dog, Other fish, Pig, Rabbit Countries: Canada, United Kingdom Research field(s): Biochemistry, Cell biology, Medical technologies Medical application(s): Basic research, Medicine Continue reading >>

U Of T Commemorates 90th Anniversary Of Insulin With Unveiling Of Multimedia Exhibit At Mars

U Of T Commemorates 90th Anniversary Of Insulin With Unveiling Of Multimedia Exhibit At Mars

The University of Toronto marked 90 years of excellence in diabetes research today with the unveiling of INSULIN: Toronto’s Gift to the World, a permanent exhibit in Toronto’s MaRS Centre that tells the story of the discovery of insulin. A product of collaboration among U of T’s Department of Physiology, Toronto General Hospital (now part of the University Health Network) and what later became U of T’s Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, the discovery of insulin set U of T Medicine on a course of innovation which continues to this day. The exhibit includes a video; two information panels; Frederick Banting’s desk; a lab bench; a replica of the 1923 Nobel Prize in Medicine; letters of correspondence; a timeline; vials of insulin from the 1920s through the present, lab instruments and other historical artefacts. The University of Toronto’s Faculty of Medicine curated the exhibit in partnership with the University Health Network and MaRS. Exhibit Location: MaRS Centre 101 College Street, ground floor, Toronto, Ontario Canada Northeast corner of the building, across the hall from Mercatto restaurant. View a map For more information on the discovery of insulin, visit Continue reading >>

History Of Insulin

History Of Insulin

Go to: Insulin The discovery of insulin in 1922 marked a major breakthrough in medicine and therapy in patients with diabetes. Long before the discovery of insulin, it was hypothesized that the pancreas secreted a substance that controlled carbohydrate metabolism (5). For years, attempts at preparing pancreatic extracts to lower blood glucose were unsuccessful due to impurities and toxicities (6). Frederick Banting, an orthopedic surgeon, had the idea of isolating pancreatic islet extracts by ligating the pancreatic duct of dogs, keeping them alive until the acini degenerated, leaving the islets for isolation. He approached John Macleod, professor of physiology and department head at the University of Toronto, for laboratory space. Macleod granted him laboratory space, ten dogs for his experiments, a student research assistant (Charles Best), and provided supervision and guidance. The experiments began on May 17, 1921, and by September they showed that the depancreatized dog developed diabetes and that intravenous injection with their pancreatic extract, which they named isletin, lowered the blood glucose. By late 1921, the biochemist J.B. Collip joined the group and helped purify the isletin for human use. The first injection of the pancreatic extract to a 14-year-old boy by Banting and Best on January 11, 1922, caused a sterile abscess, had no effect on ketosis, and resulted in mild blood glucose reduction. Subsequent injections of the purified extract by Collip had promising results that same year. Blood glucose and glucosuria decreased, and ketonuria disappeared. Rosenfeld reported encouraging results in six more patients (6). Several months later, in 1923, Banting, Best, and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize. Eli Lilly began producing insulin from animal pancrea Continue reading >>

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