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Disadvantages Of Animal Insulin

Human Insulin May Be Better Than Animal

Human Insulin May Be Better Than Animal

Q-I`m a diabetic, currently using beef and pork insulin to control my disease. Would a switch to human insulin be a good idea? Where does human insulin come from, and are there any advantages over animal insulin? A-Human insulin has been available since 1982. It can be extracted from the human pancreas, but for the most part it is manufactured in the laboratory using recombinant DNA technology. Human insulin has been shown to have significant advantages over beef and pork extracted insulins. Patients who`ve switched to human insulin have shown significant decreases in anti-insulin antibody levels, making it easier to manage insulin allergies. Many people are also able to absorb it better than animal insulins. And there`s another advantage. Right now, recombinant DNA insulin costs about 40 percent of what purified pork insulin costs, but it`s still more expensive than mixtures containing beef and pork insulin. One drawback of human insulin is that it seems to have a shorter time span for activity. Therefore, patients being switched from animal insulins to human insulin must be monitored by their doctors very carefully. Many diabetic specialists agree that human insulin should always be considered. Continue reading >>

Pig Cell Transplants Treat Diabetes

Pig Cell Transplants Treat Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is currently treated with insulin injections, but this is an imperfect process that can have severe health complications. Live cell transplants improve on this treatment because they can respond to blood sugar levels and release appropriate amounts of insulin. LCT sources live cells from pigs because human cells are in short supply. The advantage of using pig cells is they can be supplied in the amounts needed; the disadvantage is they may be rejected by the patient. LCT encapsulates the cells in a seaweed-based coating to overcome the problem of rejection and to prevent the patient needing immune suppressing drugs. Questions to consider Why does LCT source their cells from pigs instead of humans? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using pig cells to treat type 1 diabetes How does encapsulation contribute to the effectiveness of this treatment? Teaching points After watching this clip, find out more about how pig islets cells are encapsulated. Get information sheet: Preventing pig cell transplant rejection Bob Elliott (Living Cell Technologies What we’re trying to do in LCT is come up with an alternative method of treatment – something very new for diabetes and a number of other diseases – where, instead of giving a drug or some surgery for a medical condition, we’re using live cells to correct the disease process. Now, this is the problem with standard treatment of diabetes where we give many insulin injections per day, trying rather unsuccessfully to keep the blood glucose levels in the normal range. When we’re using living cells, they respond as the normal pancreas responds, which is putting out insulin when needed and stop making it when it’s not needed. So we get a much more even control of blood glucose by using live cells rat Continue reading >>

Gm Vs Animal Insulin

Gm Vs Animal Insulin

Home » About Diabetes » GM Vs Animal Insulin Choices – The Evidence Evidence from people with diabetes A little bit of history Facts Action and duration times of animal and GM ‘human’ insulins Hypoglycaemia and loss of warnings ‘Dead in Bed Syndrome’ The concerns of patients are justified Availability of animal insulins in the UK Changing your insulin What to do if your consultant refuses to change your insulin Availability of animal insulin if admitted to hospital Frequently asked questions Allergic reactions to insulin Choices – The Evidence The NHS has always allowed patients to have an informed choice of treatment before they make their treatment decisions and this includes information about risks and benefits. In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed on informed choice as a result of NHS policy which puts patients at the centre of care and encourages involvement in their treatment decisions so that in the ideal world, patients and their doctors make decisions jointly. The treatment of diabetes is no exception and therefore people with insulin-requiring diabetes, whether Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes should have an informed choice of insulins and should be given information about risks and benefits. IDDT has always argued that this should be the case and so if people have a preference for natural pork or beef insulins, whether this is due to adverse reactions to GM synthetic insulins or simply personal preference, then their views should be respected. IDDT advocates the same principles should apply to the newer insulin analogues. The importance of high quality evidence to inform our decisions When new drugs, including new insulins, reach the market the research has been in limited numbers of people. Often this early research only involves a highly Continue reading >>

Disadvantages Of Animal Pharming

Disadvantages Of Animal Pharming

Animal Pharming traditional methods of recombinant protein production, have combined to make pharming a preferred alternative. advantages : 1. Animal Pharming My article is on the Animal Pharming. Commercial dairy cow farming business is not an Bovine somatotropin (bST) Others feel that a product such as bST will work to the disadvantage of producers in the Great Some animal rights groups see the 5 Farm Animal Pharming . Animal pharming, two decades on. This type of farming evolved with the history of agriculture. Weighing the GMO arguments: One benefit may be that veterinary staff can know whether an animal is carrying a disease or has This process is called "pharming". If you are curious about what the disadvantages of genetic engineering carried out in plant and animal life as well as humans are, then just read on!Pros of Pharming: A majority of the advantages of Pharming are economical. animals, and plant life are The Disadvantages of Organic Farming. 5 Interactions of the GM plant with non-target organisms. Animal Pharming Animal Pharming: The Industrialization of Transgenic Animals December 1999 Inherent disadvantages in traditional methods, This is the first article of a 2-part series. What are the disadvantages of phishing? Hence, Phreaking, Phishing, Pharming, etc. Epub 2008 Jul 29. In most cases of pharming, Disadvantage Jan 26, 2009 · What are the advantages & disadvantages of human cloning and gene There are several advantages to the cloning of animals and to the cloning of human The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of of animal pharming Modified Animals and Pharming and transgenic plants. Learn vocabulary, Used in pharming - production of animals that have been GM to produce therapeutic Dis Continue reading >>

Review Alternatives To Animal Testing: A Review

Review Alternatives To Animal Testing: A Review

1. Introduction Use of animals for various purposes like food, transportation, pets, sports, recreation and companionship is as old as the human beings itself. Using animals for the purpose of research is one of the extended uses. Various animals like mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits, fishes (examples – zebra fish, trout), birds (mainly chicken), guinea pigs, amphibians (xenopus frogs), primates, dogs, cats etc. are being used in research for a long time (CULABBR, 1988). Drug testing and toxicological screenings which are useful in the development of new treatments for infectious and non-infectious diseases is the main purpose of such studies. Animals also serve as a tool to understand effects of medical procedures and surgical experiments. Moreover, they are used to obtain products like vaccines, antibiotics etc. which are used in diagnostics as well as treatments (Giacomotto and Segalat, 2010; Hendriksen, 2009, 2007). The number of animals used in research has gone up with the advancement in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. For example, in UK, 3.71 million animals were used for research in the year 2011 (www.rspca.org.uk). The total number of animals used in the USA in the year 2009 was estimated to be 1,131,076, while that in Germany reached up to 2.13 million in 2001 (Rusche, 2003). This huge population of experimental animals usually comes from the breeding centers located in various universities and national breeding centers. All of these are known as class-A dealers, while the brokers who acquire the animals from miscellaneous sources (like auctions and animal shelters) are identified as class-B dealers. At few instances use of the wild animals such as monkeys and birds is also followed (Baumans, 2005). Continue reading >>

Insulin For Diabetes

Insulin For Diabetes

The Nobel Prize-winning discovery of insulin in 1920-21 at the University of Toronto is one of the most spectacular examples of the contribution of animal research to medical progress. Many millions of people with diabetes are alive and well as a result - as are many diabetic dogs. Surgeon Frederick Banting and graduate student Charles Best found that injections of pancreatic cell extracts relieved diabetic symptoms in dogs. The extracts contained insulin, which was then purified using a technique developed in rabbits. It had already been established that diabetes disrupted the body's ability to metabolise or utilise food, especially carbohydrates, and that experimental animals died if their pancreases were removed. The pancreas was known to hold the key to carbohydrate metabolism which led to speculation that it must produce another metabolism-promoting substance. Banting, Best and their colleagues John Macleod and James Collip established that this substance was insulin. Diabetes is a relatively common condition which occurs because some people do not make, or cannot respond to, the natural hormone insulin, which regulates the body's use of glucose. It can lead to serious conditions such as stroke, circulation problems, and damage to the kidneys and eyes. Diabetes UK estimates that nearly three million British people know they have the condition, while another half a million are unaware of it. Developing new treatments Insulin is normally produced by islet or beta cells in the pancreas. As with any long-term condition, the ultimate goal for researchers is a cure. In type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation is one way to achieve this. Successfully carried out in rats, dogs, monkeys and humans, this treatment requires the patient to take immunosuppressants to prevent reje Continue reading >>

Humulin : Synthetic Insulin

Humulin : Synthetic Insulin

Humulin is synthetic human insulin prepared by using genetic engineering. Humulin is manufactured from DNA sources in laboratory, using recombinant DNA technology. Synthetic insulin is also called genetically engineered insulin. The synthetic insulin (humulin) is as effective as hormone insulin secreted by human pancreas. What is Humulin? Humulin is synthetic human insulin prepared by using genetic engineering. Humulin is manufactured from DNA sources in laboratory, using recombinant DNA technology. Synthetic insulin is also called genetically engineered insulin. The synthetic insulin (humulin) is as effective as hormone insulin secreted by human pancreas. Synthesis of Humulin In 1978, scientists synthesized human insulin from E.coli bacteria using recombinant DNA technology, by preparing two DNA sequences for A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmid of E.coli. This led to production of human insulin chain. Eli Lilly, an American company marketed the first human insulin called humulin in 1983. Eli Lilly and Ranbaxy launched a new insulin project namely Humalog (an analog of 5, 6 human insulin), which is more expensive than human insulin products, but have good absorption in body, as compared to other insulin products. Genetically engineered Insulin : Humulin, preferred over old animal based products Structure of Insulin Insulin is a proteinaceous hormone secreted by beta-cells of islets of langerhans of pancreas. Insulin controls, blood sugar level and when there is less secretion of insulin, it results in diabetes (high blood- sugar level). In 1954, Frederick Sanger determined primary structure of Insulin. Insulin is a protein formed by two polypeptide chains: A-chain and B-chain, interlinked by two sulphide bonds (see fig). A-chain is formed of 2 Continue reading >>

Animal Insulins

Animal Insulins

For many years the world relied on insulin derived from the minced pancreata of slaughtered pigs and cows. At first, allergic injection site reactions, varying from itchy lumps to anaphylactic shock, were quite common. Once it became clear that these side-effects were mainly due to contaminants, purification steps such as crystallisation were introduced which yielded a product that contained very few impurities—a few hundred parts per million. Insulin production changed little over the next years. However, some problems persisted, the major one being lipoatrophy. This was a tendency for patients to develop disfiguring hollows at their injection sites; the fat just melted away until skin rested directly upon muscle. Monocomponent insulin Most manufacturers used beef pancreas, because of the ample supply, but cow insulin differs from human insulin in three of the 51 amino acids in the peptide chain (see figure), and the immune system can spot the difference. Allergic responses apart, many users developed antibodies to insulin, and it was natural to wonder if these interfered with its therapeutic benefits. Pig insulin differs from human insulin by only one amino acid, and people also wondered whether this was less immunogenic than beef insulin. And which was more important: the remaining impurities in the preparation, or the insulin itself? The Swedish physician Erik Jorpes made the chance discovery that insulin allergy could be treated with insulin that had been through the purification process not once, but thrice, suggesting that the problem lay with the impurities. Jorgen Schlichtkrull, a skilled Danish insulin chemist who pioneered the zinc insulins took note of this and set out to produce a cleaner insulin. Impurities can be detected by passing the extracted insuli Continue reading >>

What Are The Disadvantages Of Insulin Obtained From The Pancreas Of Slaughtered Cows And Pigs?

What Are The Disadvantages Of Insulin Obtained From The Pancreas Of Slaughtered Cows And Pigs?

1 Answer The disadvantages of insulin obtained from the pancreas of slaughtered cows and pigs are: Before the advent of rDNA technology, insulin was obtained from the pancreas of pigs and cows. However, there was a slight structural different of 1-3 amino acids between the animal insulin and human insulin. When his animal insulin was administered by a diabetic patient he developed antibodies against the animal insulin thereby causing allergic reactions. Another disadvantage was large number of animals were to be sacrificed for extracting the insulin from their pancreas. For example: To obtain 5 kgs. Of pancreatic juice about 75 pigs have to be killed to get insulin for treating only a single diabetic patient just for one year. answered by Lifeeasy Authors Continue reading >>

Animal Insulin

Animal Insulin

Tweet Animal insulin was the first type of insulin to be administered to humans to control diabetes. Animal insulin is derived from cows and pigs. Until the 1980s, animal insulin was the only treatment for insulin dependent diabetes. These days the use of animal insulin has largely been replaced by human insulin and human analogue insulin, however, animal insulin is still available on prescription. How is animal insulin produced? As the name suggests animal insulin is taken from the pancreases of animals, usually pigs (porcine or pork insulin) and cows (bovine or beef insulin). The insulin is purified which reduces the chance of the insulin user developing a reaction to the insulin. Can animal insulin be prescribed? Animal insulin, under the name Hypurin, is being produced by Wockhardt UK and is available on prescription. What types of animal insulin are available? Animal insulins are available in 3 different types of action and durations, short acting, intermediate and long acting: Short acting: Hypurin Porcine Neutral, Hypurin Bovine Neutral Intermediate acting: Hypurin Porcine Isophane, Hypurin Bovine Isophane Long acting: Hypurin Bovine lente, Hypurin Bovine PZI (protamine zinc insulin) Premixed: Hypurin Porcine 30/70 What are premixed animal insulins? Premixed animal insulins combine a ratio of short acting and intermediate insulin. For example, Hypurin Porcine consists of 30% short acting and 70% intermediate acting insulin. How quickly do animal insulins act? Short acting animal insulin starts to act from about 30 minutes after injecting, with their peak action occurring between 3 and 4 hours after injecting. The duration is up to 8 hours. Intermediate acting animal insulin takes about 4 to 6 hours to start acting, has its peak activity between 8 and 14 hours and Continue reading >>

Insulin Side Effects

Insulin Side Effects

Applies to insulin: injectable liquid, injectable solution, subcutaneous suspension Endocrine Hypoglycemia is the most common and serious side effect of insulin, occurring in approximately 16% of type 1 and 10% of type II diabetic patients (the incidence varies greatly depending on the populations studied, types of insulin therapy, etc). Although there are counterregulatory endocrinologic responses to hypoglycemia, some responses are decreased, inefficient, or absent in some patients. Severe hypoglycemia usually presents first as confusion, sweating, or tachycardia, and can result in coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, neurological deficits, and death. Blood or urine glucose monitoring is recommended in patients who are at risk of hypoglycemia or who do not recognize the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The risk for developing hypoglycemia is higher in patients receiving intensive or continuous infusion insulin therapy. The association between insulin and dyslipidemia is currently being evaluated.[Ref] Permanent neuropsychological impairment has been associated with recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia. In one retrospective study of 600 randomly selected patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, the only reliable predictors of severe hypoglycemia were a history of hypoglycemia, a history of hypoglycemia-related injury or convulsion, and the duration of insulin therapy. Those with a history of hypoglycemia had been treated with insulin for 17.4 years, which was significantly longer than the 14.3 years in the insulin-treated patients without a history of hypoglycemia. Human insulin does not appear to be associated with hypoglycemic episodes more often than animal insulin. Caution is recommended when switching from animal (either bovine or pork) to purified Continue reading >>

Impacts Of Genetically Modified Animals On The Ecosystem And Human Activities

Impacts Of Genetically Modified Animals On The Ecosystem And Human Activities

Human beings have always been impressed by living organisms and particularly by animals. The walls of prehistoric caves are decorated by a number of paintings representing animals and humans. Humans domesticated some animal species to obtain food, acquire strength for various activities and as companions. Breeding likely contributed to revealing to humans the mechanisms of reproduction, including their own. Long ago, humans probably made a distinction between themselves and animals, while recognizing their resemblance to animals. More recently, humans have considered combining the biological properties of some animals with their own. They imagined the creation of chimeras from human and bull or goat. They described and represented these chimeric organisms but could not produce them. An important step was the observation that animals transmit their biological properties to their offspring. Genetic selection became an essential way to breed animals (and plants) which responded better to human expectations. Our food, as well as our domesticated animals and plants, have thus been heavily genetically modified by selection. A number of plants and animals have become unable to survive without the intervention of humans and some have lost the capacity of crossing with their relatives in the wild. Silkworms have become fully dependent on human assistance to survive. Genetic selection is still extensively used to “improve” domesticated animals and plants. By the end of the eighteenth century, it became more and more plausible for living organisms to be created not as they were. J. B. Lamarck proposed that (i) living organisms are in permanent evolution; (ii) various species derive from each other; and (iii) modifications in living organisms are induced by the environment. C. Continue reading >>

Genetically Modified Insulin Vs. Animal Insulin

Genetically Modified Insulin Vs. Animal Insulin

Genentech informs a lot about the creation of insulin and briefly mentions the company’s experiences with both human insulin and animal insulin. Up until the 1980s, animal insulin was extracted from the pancreas’ of cows and pigs. As seen in the book, animal insulin eventually lost its usefulness. One major fear of doctors and those who required animal insulin was the possibility of getting bovine spongiform encephalopathy or "mad cow disease." I was curious to know other reasons why human or genetically modified insulin is better than animal insulin. Live Strong informs that human insulin and animal insulin are not the same. One of the main advantages genetically modified insulin has over animal insulin is that it requires fewer resources to make and can be made quicker. GMO insulin can multiply rapidly, ultimately resulting in large quantities of the product, whereas animal insulin requires development of the animal pancreas, which can take years. Prior to the use of human and genetically modified insulin, researchers were skeptical as to whether or not animal insulin was as consistent. The insulin made by genetic engineering proved to be identical to human insulin produced by the pancreas, giving it yet another advantage over animal insulin. As for function, scientists discovered that animal insulin was ineffective in some patients. After a certain amount of treatment time, some diabetics developed antibodies against animal insulin. In addition, researchers found that animal insulin was transmitting diseases to humans. This is not a worry for GMO insulin users, as the production of the product involves no cross-contamination. On the other hand, there are a few disadvantages to the use of GMO insulin. For example, some patients have experienced severe allergic rea Continue reading >>

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Insulin Produced By Biotechnology

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Insulin Produced By Biotechnology

ADVANTAGES 1. Biotechnologically produced insulin is indistinguishable from human insulin produced in the pancreas and therefore, is less likely to cause allergic reactions in diabetics. 2. Large quantities of insulin can be produced at the same time. 3. The ethical issues for diabetics who could not use pig's insulin because of religious beliefs or vegetarianism are overcome. 4. This form of insulin is absorbed more rapidly than animal derived insulin thus showing its effectiveness in a shorter duration. 5. The insulin produced is relatively pure as purification techniques are performed after it is made. DISADVANTAGES 1. Some diabetics complain of an increase in episodes of hypoglycemic complications 5. 2. The production cost tends to be high. No description entered November 2, 2010 at 12:11:57 pm by Nikoyan (Current revision) No description entered November 1, 2010 at 11:21:12 pm by Nikoyan No description entered November 1, 2010 at 3:31:13 pm by Nikoyan No description entered November 1, 2010 at 2:22:05 pm by Nikoyan No description entered November 1, 2010 at 12:35:45 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 7:55:26 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 7:53:59 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 7:53:35 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 7:50:00 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 7:47:24 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 6:50:35 pm by Nikoyan No description entered October 31, 2010 at 5:11:11 pm by cali No description entered October 31, 2010 at 5:02:50 pm by cali No description entered October 31, 2010 at 4:55:22 pm by cali No description entered October 31, 2010 at 4:53:16 pm by cali No description entered October 31, 2010 at 4:06:44 pm by cal Continue reading >>

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Recombinant Dna?

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Recombinant Dna?

I. Crop improvement: Transgenic plants are resistant to diseases, drought, insects and pests; higher tolerance to metal toxicity. Leguminous plants have root nodules which contain rhizobium- a nitrogen fixing bacteria which converts atmospheric nitrogen to into nitrates in root nodules. The nitrogen fixation genes in the bacteria can be transferred to cereal crops like wheat, rice etc making these crops capable of nitrogen fixation. Improving photosynthetic efficiency, and hence the crop yield by converting C3 plants to C4 by genetic recombination. II. In the field of medicine: Production of human insulin which is safer as does not causes severe allergic reactions caused by the insulin produced from pig’s pancreas. Production of vaccines by transferring antigen coding genes to disease causing bacteria. Production of enzymes like urikinase, which is used to dissolve blood clots, has been produced by genetically engineered microorganisms. Potential use in gene therapy where the defected gene could be replaced by normal one preventing or treating hereditary conditions like haemophilia etc. III. Transgenic animals like cow, sheep, goat can be produced for better milk or meat yield. IV. Industrial purpose productions of chemical compounds for commercial use, improvement of fermentation or other industrial processes. Disadvantages Destruction of native species in the environment the genetically modified species are introduced in. Resilient plants can theoretically give rise to resilient weeds which can be difficult to control. Cross contamination and migration of proprietary DNA between organisms. Recombinant organisms contaminating the natural environment. The recombinant organisms are population of clones, vulnerable in exact same ways. A single disease or pest can wipe o Continue reading >>

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