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Difference Between Insulin And Metformin

Compare Metformin Vs. Lantus

Compare Metformin Vs. Lantus

Lowers blood sugar. Glucophage (metformin) is the first choice medicine to control your blood sugar and lower the risk of death from diabetes, although a few people may not tolerate the stomach side effects. Improves sugar control and lowers A1c levels as much as 2%. One of the few diabetes medicines that lowers the risk of death from diabetes-related complications. Rarely causes low blood sugar. Insulin is one of the most effective blood sugar-lowering medication and can lower your A1c (average blood sugar over time) by up to 2-3%. Lantus (insulin glargine) is a long-lasting insulin that provides consistent, all-day sugar control with just once or twice daily dosing. Dose can be easily adjusted to make a customized regimen that's tailored to your body's needs. Lantus (insulin glargine) can be used with liver or kidney problems. 938 reviews so far Have you used Glucophage (metformin)? Leave a review 584 reviews so far Have you used Lantus (insulin glargine)? Leave a review Continue reading >>

Metformin (glucophage®) Versus Insulin

Metformin (glucophage®) Versus Insulin

Metformin Insulin Brand name/Year of initial approval Glucophage®, 1995 Humalog®, NovoLog®, NovoRapid®, Lantus® Formulations Oral tablets, Extended-release tablets Subcutaneous injection Drug class Antidiabetic agent Biguanide Human insulin analog FDA-approved Indications • Adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus • Type 1 diabetes mellitus • Type 2 diabetes mellitus Off-label uses • Gestational diabetes • Prediabetes • Type I diabetes Mechanism of action • Decreases hepatic glucose production • Improves insulin sensitivity (increases peripheral glucose uptake and utilization) • Reduce absorption of glucose in the gut • Regulates glucose metabolism: stimulates peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and fat, and inhibits hepatic glucose production. Oral bioavailability 50-60% 55-77% Metabolism, Elimination Metformin is not metabolized and is excreted unchanged by the kidneys Identical to regular human insulin Contraindications • Hypersensitivity to metformin • Metabolic acidosis • Renal dysfunction (serum creatinine levels ≥ 1.4 mg/dL or abnormal creatinine clearance) • Hypersensitivity to insulin Warnings & precautions • Possible risk of lactic acidosis • Kidney injury, hepatic dysfunction, conditions associated with hypoxia are risk factors for lactic acidosis • Hypoglycemia - the most common adverse reaction, may be life-threatening • Severe, life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions can occur • Risk of hypokalemia Side effects • Gastrointestinal side effects: diarrhea, nausea, flatulence, abdominal discomfort • Decreased absorption of Vitamin B 12 and folic acid • Hypoglycemia • Weight gain • Lipodystrophy at the site of repeated injections • Edema Continue reading >>

Association Between Insulin Monotherapy Versus Insulin Plus Metformin And The Risk Of All-cause Mortality And Other Serious Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Association Between Insulin Monotherapy Versus Insulin Plus Metformin And The Risk Of All-cause Mortality And Other Serious Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Association between Insulin Monotherapy versus Insulin plus Metformin and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Other Serious Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study Sarah E. Holden , Sara Jenkins-Jones , Craig J. Currie Affiliations: The Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom, Global Epidemiology, Pharmatelligence, Cardiff, United Kingdom Affiliation: Global Epidemiology, Pharmatelligence, Cardiff, United Kingdom Affiliations: The Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom, Global Epidemiology, Pharmatelligence, Cardiff, United Kingdom To determine if concomitant metformin reduced the risk of death, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and cancer in people with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. For this retrospective cohort study, people with type 2 diabetes who progressed to insulin with or without metformin from 2000 onwards were identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (7% sample of the UK population). The risks of all-cause mortality, MACE and incident cancer were evaluated using multivariable Cox models comparing insulin monotherapy with insulin plus metformin. We accounted for insulin dose. 12,020 subjects treated with insulin were identified, including 6,484 treated with monotherapy. There were 1,486 deaths, 579 MACE (excluding those with a history of large vessel disease), and 680 cancer events (excluding those in patients with a history of cancer). Corresponding event rates were 41.5 (95% CI 39.443.6) deaths, 20.8 (19.222.5) MACE, and 21.6 (20.023.3) cancer events per 1,000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for people prescribed insulin plus metformin versus insulin monotherapy were 0.60 (95% Continue reading >>

Insulin Usually Better Than Oral Drugs For Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin Usually Better Than Oral Drugs For Type 2 Diabetes

According to a study published in , the combination of insulin and metformin may not benefit individuals with type 2 diabetes. Although the combination results in less weight gain, improved blood glucose control and less need for insulin, the researchers state that further research is required in order to provide solid evidence regarding the benefits and harms, as well as the risks of premature death. The study was conducted by researchers from the Copenhagen Trial Unit, Steno Hospital and the Copenhagen University Hospital. At present, guidelines recommend metformin, an oral blood glucose reducing medication, for type 2 diabetics starting insulin treatment. The researchers examined 2,217 individuals aged 18+ with type 2 diabetes. Among the trials examined, the team found insufficient reports of important patient outcomes, such as total mortality and death from heart disease. According to 20 trials, levels of HbA1c (a measure of average blood glucose levels over time) were reduced when insulin and metformin was taken together. Furthermore, the researchers found that the combination of drugs considerably reduced weight gain and body mass index (BMI) by an average of 1.6 kg. The researchers state that additional studies are required in order to research the long term benefits and harms of the combination, as it increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemic attack. In this week's BMJ podcast, Trish Groves, the deputy editor of BMJ, talks to lead author Bianca Hemmingsen about how this study was able to draw on more data than prior studies, and how the researchers examined major complications and mortality instead of surrogate outcomes, such as blood sugar levels and weight. In addition, Dr. Hemmingsen highlights the insufficient evidence for determining if the combination or Continue reading >>

Metformin And Insulin Combo Cuts Mortality In Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin And Insulin Combo Cuts Mortality In Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin and Insulin Combo Cuts Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes A new retrospective study indicates that, in type 2 diabetes, treatment with insulin is safer when it is used together with metformin. In the research, recently published in PLoS One, a team from Cardiff University, Wales, showed that patients on insulin and metformin were at a significant 40% reduced risk for death and a significant 25% reduced risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) compared with those treated with only insulin. However, the combination was not significant in reducing cancer. "If at all possible, patients with type 2 diabetes initiated on insulin should also be given metformin," senior author Craig Currie, PhD, professor of applied pharmacoepidemiology, Cardiff University, Wales, told Medscape Medical News. Asked to comment, Jason Baker, MD, assistant professor in clinical medicine and attending endocrinologist at Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, told Medscape Medical News: "These results from a retrospective analysis are not surprising and support what we already know. It is reassuring and a reminder that insulin alone may not be appropriate for some of our patients." Dr Baker has been in endocrinology practice for 15 years, has type 1 diabetes himself, and treats patients with type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes. The Cardiff researchers used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, which collects longitudinal data from 660 participating primary-care practices in the United Kingdom. Intensive management of patients with type 2 diabetes often involves using insulin alone or in combination with other glycemic medications. Data were collected from January 2000 to January 2013 for patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, those with prescriptions written for at least two classes of gl Continue reading >>

Metformin Vs Insulin

Metformin Vs Insulin

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Sounds like a ridiculous question but Metformin works on the Liver and Insulin provides additional stuffs to break down sugar. My big question is that why would the Doctor put you on a second pill that pushes the Pancreas to work harder thus burning it out vis using insulin to give your pancreas a break. I think if Metformin stops working I will look at other avenues before overworking the pancreas such as insulin as obviously Insulin could allow the pancreas time to re-charge and having them both work together might be best. The battery (Pancreas) happly works when needed but its seems when the battery (Pancreas) starts becoming depleted the battery is drained quicker with medications that force it to work harder until it is spent. I am not against the idea of Insulin even though my T2 is relatively mild as it means I am lessening the strain on my pancreas to make up for it which should stop beta cell death. Not me. I have plenty of my own insulin. Injecting more wouldn't stop the pancreas producing its own and would be counter productive, especially where insulin resistance is an issue. It isn't the lack of insulin that is the problem with most T2s. it is the insulin resistance. The cells are blocking the insulin, so you end up with excess insulin floating about, and as this is a fat carrying hormone, you put weight on thus causing more insulin resistance. Vicious circle. The less insulin in your body, the better. T2D is often caused by a resistance to Insulin. Injecting Insulin will be unlikely to help with this resistance, and will likely make it worse. Of course if your T2D is not mainly due to Insulin resistance then the above is incorrect. My u Continue reading >>

Insulin 70/30 Mix Plus Metformin Versus Triple Oral Therapy In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes After Failure Of Two Oral Drugs

Insulin 70/30 Mix Plus Metformin Versus Triple Oral Therapy In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes After Failure Of Two Oral Drugs

Efficacy, safety, and cost analysis Abstract OBJECTIVE—Subjects (n = 188) with type 2 diabetes and inadequate response to two oral medications (A1C >8.0%) were randomly assigned to treatment with either a third oral medication or an insulin 70/30 mix b.i.d. plus metformin for a comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The protocol called for aggressive dose titration to achieve target values of fasting blood glucose (80–120 mg/dl), postprandial glucose (<160 mg/dl), and A1C (<7%). These efficacy parameters were evaluated at weeks 2, 6, 12, and 24 of therapy. If dose adjustments failed to achieve targeted glycemic control, subjects were switched to an alternate therapy. RESULTS—At the end of study (week 24 of therapy), A1C and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values showed comparable decreases in the two treatment groups. Only 31% (oral therapy) and 32% (insulin plus metformin) of subjects achieved target values of A1C (<7%). A total of 10 of the 98 subjects randomized to triple oral therapy (10.2%) who failed to improve sufficiently were switched to insulin therapy. An additional four subjects dropped out of the oral treatment group due to adverse events felt to be potentially drug related. Only two of the subjects randomized to insulin plus metformin had to be switched to basal-bolus regimens (regular insulin and NPH insulin). Cost analysis determined that insulin plus metformin (mean cost $3.20/day) provided efficacy equal to that of a triple oral drug regimen ($10.40/day). CONCLUSIONS—Insulin 70/30 mix plus metformin was as effective as triple oral therapy in lowering A1C and FPG values. The triple oral regimen was not as cost effective, and a high percentage of subjects (total of 16.3%) did not complete this regimen due to lack of Continue reading >>

Metformin: Improving Insulin Sensitivity

Metformin: Improving Insulin Sensitivity

Metformin is the only medication in the biguanides category of blood glucose-lowering drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Metformin has been available in the United States since the mid-1990s, when it received FDA approval. You may also know it by its brand name when it was under patent, Glucophage. Metformin is now widely available as a relatively inexpensive generic medication. Metformin’s main action is to decrease the overproduction of glucose by the liver, a common problem in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The action of metformin helps lower blood sugar levels particularly during the night to keep fasting glucose levels under control, but it also helps control blood glucose throughout the day. Metformin also increases the uptake of glucose by your muscles. Overall, metformin decreases insulin resistance and improves insulin sensitivity, thereby helping the insulin your body still makes work more effectively. People with prediabetes and in the early years of type 2 diabetes often continue to make some insulin, just not enough to control blood sugar levels alone. Metformin is not formally approved for use in prediabetes, and any use to treat prediabetes is considered off-label by providers. Since its approval, metformin has become the most commonly recommended blood glucose-lowering medication to treat type 2 diabetes. In recent years it has significantly replaced sulfonylureas, such as glipizide and glyburide. Today both the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) generally recommend that people with type 2 diabetes start taking metformin when they are diagnosed to help treat insulin resistance and maximize insulin s Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Metformin Versus Insulin In The Management Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Comparative Study

Evaluation Of Metformin Versus Insulin In The Management Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Comparative Study

Evaluation of metformin versus insulin in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective comparative study Pregnancy is a potentially glucose intolerant condition. Insulin sensitivity decreases as the pregnancy advances. Of these women, some will develop Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) due to inadequate insulin secretion, particularly in obese women with pre-existing insulin GDM is diagnosed in approximately 3-7% of pregnancies.2,3 The incidence of GDM increases in older and more obese pregnant women. GDM increases the risk of certain pregnancy complications like pregnancy induced hypertension and adverse perinatal outcome, it carries the risk of later development of type 2 diabetes Prospective randomized controlled trials have recently demonstrated that effective treatment of hyperglycemia in women with GDM can reduce adverse perinatal outcomes.5 The main purpose of treatment is to prevent hyperinsulinemia and fetal macrosomia by reducing maternal glucose levels.6 This is initially attempted by dietary and exercise counseling, but women often require additional treatment, which has traditionally been insulin. pharmacological treatment varies from 20-60% in various studies.7 However, the disadvantages of insulin in 1Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, NRS Medical College, Entally, Kolkata-700014, West Bengal, India 2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, North Bengal Medical College, Sushrutanagar, Darjeeling-734012, West Munshi S et al. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jun;3(2):357-361 International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 3 Issue 2 Page 358 pregnant women, includes the risk of hypoglycemia, appreciable weight gain and repeated insulin injections. Theoretically, metformin is an alterna Continue reading >>

Comparison Of Metformin And Insulin In The Treatment Of Gestational Diabetes: A Retrospective, Case-control Study

Comparison Of Metformin And Insulin In The Treatment Of Gestational Diabetes: A Retrospective, Case-control Study

Go to: Introduction Pregnancy is a potentially glucose intolerant condition, and in all pregnancies, insulin sensitivity decreases as the pregnancy advances. This predisposes to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), particularly in obese women with pre-existing insulin resistance. GDM develops if there is inadequate insulin secretion to compensate for the increased insulin resistance [1]. GDM is diagnosed in approximately 3-7% of pregnancies [2, 3, 4]. The incidence of GDM increases in older and more obese pregnant women. GDM increases the risk of certain pregnancy complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension and adverse perinatal outcome, and carries the risk of later development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). [1, 2, 4, 5]. Prospective randomized studies have recently demonstrated that effective treatment of hyperglycemia in women with GDM can reduce adverse perinatal outcomes [6]. The main purpose of treatment is to prevent fetal hyperinsulinemia and fetal macrosomia by reducing maternal glucose levels [7]. This is initially attempted by dietary and exercise counseling, but women often require additional treatment, which has traditionally been insulin [2]. The percentage of GDM patients needing pharmacological treatment varies from 20% to 60% in various studies [8]. However, the disadvantages of insulin for pregnant women, like other patients needing insulin, include the need to give injections, risk of hypoglycemia and risk of excessive weight gain [8, 9]. Theoretically, metformin is an alternative to insulin in the treatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. It decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis and improves peripheral glucose uptake [10]. It does not induce hypoglycemia and it is not associated with increased weight gain. Evidence suppor Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Insulin And Metformin

What Is The Difference Between Insulin And Metformin

What Is The Difference Between Insulin And Metformin M. Most of the concerns about the safety of chromium come As a surgical measure it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected Diabetic Medications New Diabetes Causes Pancreatitis Diabetic Medications New ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. What Is The Difference Between Insulin And Metformin symptoms of Diabetes Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar Foods for Diabetics (1) Best Foods for Diabetics (2) Diabetic Smoothie 2003-2014 by Diabetes-Guide.org Risk Adjustment and Predictive Modeling for Medicaid High risk and high cost members Grouping ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes The standard treatment for healing diabetic pastry butter or lard foot ulcers is typically a combination of surgically removing dead skin bandaging the wound and staying off the injured foot. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Meg Kelly Examples of common causes of ARDS include: Pancreatitis: abdominal pain Medical physician terms of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy Buy Lower Your Blood Sugar: The 30 Minute Guide for People with Diabetes Prediabetes How to Reduce Blood Sugar: The ERCP is considered to be the most definitive form of diagnosis Is there a spice that cures diabetes? There just might be! insulin resistance and more. If you are a type-2 diabetic glucose builds up in your blood instead of using for energy. It was created through recombinant DNA technology so that the They will also be exposed to the management of various diabetes complications through hydrocodone guaifenesin cough syrup postings in the diabetic eye heart and foot clinics and intensive care. Pancreatic progenitor cell (Redirected from Pancreatic Progenitor Cell) is required for What Is The Difference Between Insu Continue reading >>

Should I Use Diabetes Pills Or Insulin?

Should I Use Diabetes Pills Or Insulin?

Diabetes affects the way your body breaks down food. Treatment depends on which type of diabetes you have. In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas stops producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose, or sugar, in your blood. Type 2 diabetes starts with insulin resistance. Your pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or doesn’t use it efficiently. Every cell in your body uses glucose for energy. If insulin isn’t doing its job, glucose builds up in your blood. This causes a condition called hyperglycemia. Low blood glucose is called hypoglycemia. Both can lead to serious complications. A variety of pills are available to treat diabetes, but they can’t help everyone. They only work if your pancreas still produces some insulin. They can’t treat type 1 diabetes. They aren’t effective in people with type 2 diabetes when the pancreas has stopped making insulin. Some people with type 2 diabetes can benefit from using both pills and insulin. Some pills to treat diabetes include: Biguanides Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet, Riomet, Glumetza) is a biguanide. It lowers the amount of glucose in your liver and boosts insulin sensitivity. It may also improve cholesterol levels and might help you lose a little weight. People normally take it twice per day with meals. You can take the extended-release version once per day. Potential side effects include: upset stomach nausea bloating gas diarrhea a temporary loss of appetite It may also cause lactic acidosis in people with kidney failure, but this is rare. Sulfonylureas Sulfonylureas are fast-acting medications that help the pancreas release insulin after meals. They include: People usually take these medications once per day with a meal. Potential side effects include: irritability low blood glucose upset st Continue reading >>

A Comparison Of Treatment With Metformin And Gliclazide In Patients With Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.

A Comparison Of Treatment With Metformin And Gliclazide In Patients With Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes.

A comparison of treatment with metformin and gliclazide in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. McAlpine LG, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1988. Diabetic Department, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, U.K. Twenty-seven obese non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients, treated with dietary carbohydrate restriction and metformin, were recruited from the diabetic outpatient clinic and entered into an open crossover study with gliclazide. Twenty-one patients completed the study. During three months observation on metformin, the mean weight of the group fell by 1.0 kg with 14 patients losing a mean of 1.8 kg with 14 patients losing a mean of 1.8 kg, 3 remaining unchanged and 4 gaining a mean weight of 1.1 kg. Over the subsequent three months on gliclazide, the mean weight of the group rose by 1.4 kg with 16 patients gaining a mean of 2.2 kg, two remaining unchanged and 3 losing a mean of 2.0 kg. In addition, 10 patients were heavier after gliclazide than at the time of recruitment (mean 2.6 kg), 3 were unchanged and 8 had lost weight since commencing the trial (mean 2.1 kg), mostly due to greater loss on metformin than gain on gliclazide. Glycaemic control did not improve significantly during the observed period on metformin but lower concentrations of fasting glucose and total glycosylated haemoglobin were achieved with gliclazide. Mean plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher and mean serum lactate was significantly lower during treatment with gliclazide. In conclusion, gliclazide does not support weight loss in obese non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients to the same extent as metformin but the difference between the two drugs is small. Gliclazide is a suitable oral hypoglycaemic agent for use in the obese diabetic who cannot be controlled by diet al Continue reading >>

Insulin Vs. Metformin Treatment

Insulin Vs. Metformin Treatment

Diabetes affected 7.8 percent of the American population in 2007. Diabetes has several causes. Type 1 diabetes, previously called juvenile diabetes, caused by failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, affects 5 percent to 10 percent of people with diabetes, while Type 2 diabetes, previously called adult-onset diabetes, accounts for most of the rest, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Different drugs are used to treat diabetes, depending on the cause and severity of the disease. Insulin, an injectable medication, and metformin, an oral medication, have different actions. Video of the Day The purpose of both insulin and metformin is to lower blood glucose levels. Insulin injections replace the insulin your body can no longer make when the cells in the pancreas cease to function. Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic, which lowers blood glucose levels by decreasing the liver’s output of glucose. Metformin also increases insulin sensitivity, and improves not only blood glucose levels but also lipid levels and often results in weight loss. Of all diabetics, 14 percent take insulin only, 57 percent take oral medications only and 14 percent take a combination of both, the NIDDK reports. Oral hypoglycemics are used only in Type 2 diabetes, because Type 1 diabetics make little or no insulin, so reducing the glucose levels produced by the liver won’t reduce blood glucose levels. Without insulin, glucose can’t enter cells and remains in the bloodstream. While all Type 1 diabetics take insulin, some Type 2 diabetics also need insulin in addition or instead of oral hypoglycemics such as metformin. Insulin, which must be injected, comes in several forms and doses, and can have rapid or slow onset. Diarrhea, the most common side eff Continue reading >>

Inhaled Insulin Vs. Metformin For Type 2 Diabetes

Inhaled Insulin Vs. Metformin For Type 2 Diabetes

Inhaled Insulin vs. Metformin for Type 2 Diabetes Inhaled insulin is a new option for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control on oral monotherapy. A rapid-acting inhaled insulin (Exubera) was approved recently for treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is expected to be available soon. Several studies have shown that it compares favorably with oral agents in patients with type 2 diabetes, albeit with increased risk for hypoglycemia ( Journal Watch Sep 16 2005 and Journal Watch Oct 25 2005). This industry-sponsored trial involved 427 patients whose type 2 diabetes was controlled poorly (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] level, 8%12%) by sulfonylurea drugs. Patients were randomized to add-on therapy with either inhaled insulin (3 times daily before meals, with dose titration) or metformin (target dose, 1 g twice daily). During 24 weeks of treatment, HbA1c levels decreased by 2.1% in the inhaled-insulin group and by 1.9% in the metformin group a small but statistically significant difference. Patients with baseline HbA1c levels higher than 9.5% accounted for most of the difference between groups. Hypoglycemic events were more common among insulin recipients than among metformin recipients (0.31 vs. 0.17 events per patient per month), and insulin recipients gained an average of 3 kg (vs. no significant weight change in the metformin group). Comment: Inhaled insulin is a new option for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control on oral monotherapy. As with other insulins, inhaled insulin is associated with hypoglycemia and weight gain. Small changes in pulmonary function also have been noted among users of inhaled insulin; whether these changes are important during long-term therapy is unclear. Continue reading >>

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