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Describe At Least Two Potential Scenarios Where Anna’s Diabetes Contributed To Her Death

The Empa-reg Outcome Study: Critical Appraisal And Potential Clinical Implications

The Empa-reg Outcome Study: Critical Appraisal And Potential Clinical Implications

The EMPA-REG outcome study: critical appraisal and potential clinical implications Metabolic Medicine, Policlinico di Monza & Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via Amati 111, 20900 Monza, Italy Metabolic Medicine, Policlinico di Monza & Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via Amati 111, 20900 Monza, Italy Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy Gianluca Perseghin, Phone: +39 0392810430, Email: [email protected] . Received 2016 Feb 18; Accepted 2016 May 25. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes health care professionals have to face a study with results of incomparable success in secondary and tertiary cardiovascular disease prevention. In the past, no studies in patients with type 2 diabetes resulted to be successful in inducing an improvement of cardiovascular prognosis, no matter whether they were focused on a target, on life-style or on pharmacological intervention. On a clinical perspective, should the diabetologists way to think about the anti-diabetic therapy of patients on secondary cardiovascular prevention change based on the results of Empa-Reg outcome? Due to the complexity of the clinical picture of patients with Continue reading >>

Cftr Is Involved In The Regulation Of Glucagon Secretion In Human And Rodent Alpha Cells

Cftr Is Involved In The Regulation Of Glucagon Secretion In Human And Rodent Alpha Cells

CFTR is involved in the regulation of glucagon secretion in human and rodent alpha cells 1Unit of Islet Cell Exocytosis, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University, CRC, SUS Malm, Malm, Sweden 3Unit of Neuroendocrine Cell Biology, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University, CRC, SUS Malm, Malm, Sweden 3Unit of Neuroendocrine Cell Biology, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University, CRC, SUS Malm, Malm, Sweden Find articles by Malin Flodstrm-Tullberg 1Unit of Islet Cell Exocytosis, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University, CRC, SUS Malm, Malm, Sweden 1Unit of Islet Cell Exocytosis, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University, CRC, SUS Malm, Malm, Sweden 2Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova, Italy 3Unit of Neuroendocrine Cell Biology, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malm, Lund University, CRC, SUS Malm, Malm, Sweden 4Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Anna Edlund, Email: [email protected] . Received 2015 Nov 24; Accepted 2017 Feb 7. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the articles Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this licen Continue reading >>

Long-term Effects Of The Mediterranean Lifestyle Program: A Randomized Clinical Trial For Postmenopausal Women With Type 2 Diabetes

Long-term Effects Of The Mediterranean Lifestyle Program: A Randomized Clinical Trial For Postmenopausal Women With Type 2 Diabetes

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes Toobert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2007 Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eating, physical activity, stress management, smoking cessation, and social support. Outcomes included lifestyle behaviors (i.e., dietary intake, physical activity, stress management, smoking cessation), psychosocial variables (e.g., social support, problem solving, self-efficacy, depression, quality of life), and cost analyses at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. MLP participants showed significant 12- and 24-month improvements in all targeted lifestyle behaviors with one exception (there were too few smokers to analyze tobacco use effects), and in psychosocial measures of use of supportive resources, problem solving, self-efficacy, and quality of life. The MLP was more effective than usual care over 24 months in producing improvements on behavioral and psychosocial outcomes. Directions for future research include replication with other populations. Usual CareFood Frequency QuestionnaireLifestyle BehaviorUsual Care ConditionDiabetes Distress Scale Age-adjusted mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) has been declining in men with and without diabetes, and in wom Continue reading >>

The Michael Jackson Autopsy: Insights Provided By A Forensic Anesthesiologist

The Michael Jackson Autopsy: Insights Provided By A Forensic Anesthesiologist

Received date: July 10, 2011; Accepted date: October 24, 2011; Published date: October 26, 2011 Citation: Levy RJ (2011) The Michael Jackson Autopsy:Insights Provided by a Forensic Anesthesiologist. J Forensic Res 2:138. doi:10.4172/2157-7145.1000138 Copyright: 2011 Levy RJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Based on toxicology findings performed on samples taken at the time of autopsy, the cause of Michael Jacksons death was determined to be acute propofol intoxication with a contributory benzodiazepine effect. The manner of death was determined by the coroner to be homicide. At the center of this case are several anesthetic medications. Insight into the toxicology, review the autopsy results, and summary of the findings are provided from a forensic anesthesiologists point of view. Michael Jackson was pronounced dead on June 25, 2009 at 2:26 pm in the afternoon at UCLA Medical Center. He died despite two and a half hours of attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). At 12:22 pm, roughly thirty minutes after the 911 call from Mr. Jacksons residence, paramedics found the pop star unresponsive and asystolic.They placed an endotracheal tube in his airway, began chest compressions, and administered epinephrine.Spontaneous circulation was never restored. Mr. Jackson remained unconscious with fixed and dilated pupils. At the direction of Mr. Jacksons physician, Dr. Conrad Murray, the decedent was taken by ambulance to UCLA Medical Center while CPR efforts continued. When they arrived at the hospital, Mr. Jackson remained asystolic. Emergency room physicians placed three ce Continue reading >>

Intervention Strategies To Reduce The Burden Of Non-communicable Diseases In Mexico: Cost Effectiveness Analysis

Intervention Strategies To Reduce The Burden Of Non-communicable Diseases In Mexico: Cost Effectiveness Analysis

Intervention strategies to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mexico: cost effectiveness analysis Intervention strategies to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mexico: cost effectiveness analysis BMJ 2012; 344 doi: (Published 02 March 2012) Cite this as: BMJ 2012;344:e355 Joshua A Salomon, associate professor of international health 1 , Cristina Gutirrez-Delgado, deputy director general of economics and health 3 , Yuki Murakami, health economist/policy analyst 8 , Lakshmi Sridharan, resident in internal medicine 9 , Mara Elena Medina-Mora, director general 4 , Eduardo Gonzlez-Pier, director of finance 10 1Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA 3Unidad de Anlisis Econmico, Secretara de Salud, Mxico DF, Mexico 4Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatra Ramn de la Fuente Muiz, Mxico DF 5Boston Center for Refugee Health and Human Rights, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA 6Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 8Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France 9University of California, San Francisco, CA 10Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mxico DF Correspondence to: J A Salomon jsalomon{at}hsph.harvard.edu Objective To inform decision making regarding intervention strategies against non-communicable diseases in Mexico, in the context of health reform. Design Cost effectiveness analysis based on epidemiological modelling. Interventions 101 intervention strategies relating to nine major clusters of non-communicable disease: depression, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use, cataracts, breast cancer, cervical cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Data sources Mexican data sources were used for most key in Continue reading >>

Pltw: Biomedical Science – Unit 2: Diabetes

Pltw: Biomedical Science – Unit 2: Diabetes

Glucose Tolerance Testing can be used to diagnose diabetes by giving a person a large amount of sugar when they have not eaten, and then examine how their body responds to the sugar by watching the glucose levels in the blood. If the glucose levels maintain a high level of glucose, then they most likely have diabetes. Insulin injections are not the course of treatment for all diabetics because people with type 2 diabetes cannot do anything with insulin already produced, thus they would not be able to put the extra insulin injections to use. However for people with type 1 diabetes, then they need the insulin because their body does not produce it. *(Type 2 Diabetes can be reversed.)* Write my sample Activity 2.1.1 – Explain how lifestyle choices can impact a person’s risk for developing diabetes. Lifestyle choices can impact a person’s risk for developing diabetes because if someone is overweight, has very little activity, and has bad eating habits (such as eating food with high fat content or sodium), then they will become more likely for developing diabetes. On the other hand, people can reduce their chances of developing diabetes by eating a healthy diet, have a “normal” weight, and exercising regularly. When a doctor say that a person is “pre-diabetic”, it means that the patient does not have diabetes, but they may be showing symptoms of becoming a diabetic. In the activity we did, the patient A’s glucose levels stayed high for a short period of time before dipping lowing, therefore, patient A could be labeled as pre-diabetic. This means that if patient A were to change their eating habits and increase their activity level, then they would be able to avoid becoming a diabetics. One benefit of using models to represent scientific processes is enlarging Continue reading >>

2.3 Life With Diabetes

2.3 Life With Diabetes

How does life with Type 1 diabetes compare to life with Type 2 diabetes? 3) both don't produce the right kind/ any insulin When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, what changes would one have to make in lifestyle? When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, what changes would one have to make in diet? Have to have a somewhat strict diet and can't consume as much glucose. Describe the importance of checking blood sugar for a diabetic. To make sure your blood sugar doesn't raise too high. Explain the role that exercise plays in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. You need the proper amount of insulin to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Describe what happened to the model cell that was submerged in a low glucose solution for 20 minutes. The model cell would get bigger because water comes in and moves glucose out. Explain why hospitals use saline solutions to hydrate patients instead of distilled water. How does preventing a diabetic emergency affect the day to day life of a diabetic? What special considerations do they have to make as they go on about their day? Explain how having an insulin pump may decrease the chance of a diabetic having a diabetic emergency? If the insulin decreased, the pump will prevent having a diabetic emergency. Explain how diabetes can affect two other human body systems. 1) Heart: high blood glucose levels lead to complications like heart disease, stroke which leads to death. 2) Nerves: if blood glucose levels stay high for a while, the blood vessels feed the nerves can become damaged. Explain why people with poorly controlled diabetes are at risk for amputation. Because their disease could become so terrible that there's nothing to save it. Example for short term and long term complications of diabetes. short term: hypoglycemia diabetic Continue reading >>

Nutrients | February 2018 - Browse Articles

Nutrients | February 2018 - Browse Articles

, Renata Forjasz 4 and Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert 1 1 Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 30 Dojazd Str., 60-631 Pozna, Poland 2 Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 48 Wojska Polskiego Str., 60-627 Pozna, Poland 3 Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 31 Wojska Polskiego Str., 60-624 Pozna, Poland 4 Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 5a Rokietnicka Str., 60-806 Pozna, Poland Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 259; doi: 10.3390/nu10020259 Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018 Abstract PDF Full-text (2940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text Abstract: Background: Peptic ulcer disease, including its complications and functional dyspepsia, are prevalent gastrointestinal diseases, etiopathogenesis of which is associated with mucosal inflammation. Research into new therapeutics capable of preventing or curing gastrointestinal mucosal damage has been steadily developing over past decades. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a spray-dried preparation of potato juice is applicable for treating and preventing gastrointestinal mucosal damage. Methods: We assessed potential protective effects of spray-dried potato juice (SDPJ) against gut inflammation in the co-culture Caco-2/RAW264.7 system, as well as a gastroprotective activity in a rat model of gastric ulceration. Results: The obtained results indicated that SDPJ down-regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA expression and protein production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- in the co-culture model. Moreover, SDPJ provided dose-dependent protection against LPS-induced disruption of intesti Continue reading >>

Health In Scotland 2001

Health In Scotland 2001

As highlighted in last year's report Health in Scotland 2000, cancer has now overtaken coronary heart disease as the commonest cause of death in Scotland. In 1997 over 25,000 cases of cancer were diagnosed in Scotland and in 2000 almost 15,000 people died of the disease. Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in both sexes, followed by colorectal cancer in men and breast cancer in women. For many cancers, incidence and mortality are higher and survival is lower in people from more deprived areas. Looking at the incidence and mortality from all cancers combined gives an indication of the extent of the inequalities. Cancer incidence is 14% higher in those from the most deprived areas of Scotland and mortality from cancer 40% higher. The year 2000 target for cancer was to reduce mortality from cancer in people under 65 by 15% between 1986 and 2000. This has been met. A new target to reduce mortality in people aged under 75 by 20% between 1995 and 2010 has now been set. There has, however, been little evidence of any impact on inequalities in mortality from cancer. Figure 2.3 shows the trends in death rates from cancer since 1991. People from all deprivation groups have seen a decline in rates, but the gap between those in the most deprived and least deprived areas remains. In fact, the ratio of death rates between the most and least deprived has increased slightly over Fig. 2.3 Trends in death rates from cancer by deprivation quintile The risk of developing cancer can be reduced through healthier lifestyles. Prevention is a priority and the key messages are: 2001 saw the publication of two major reports that will drive the development of cancer services over the next several years. Cancer Scenarios: an aid to planning cancer services in Scotland in the next de Continue reading >>

Unit Two: Diabetes Serious Effects A Disease Within One System Can Have On Homeostasis In The Body As A Whole.

Unit Two: Diabetes Serious Effects A Disease Within One System Can Have On Homeostasis In The Body As A Whole.

Presentation on theme: "Unit Two: Diabetes Serious effects a disease within one system can have on homeostasis in the body as a whole."— Presentation transcript: 2 Back to Anna… 6 2.1 Essential Questions What is diabetes? 7 2.1 Key Terms Glucagon Glucose Tolerance Test Homeostasis Hormone 9 Height 10 Activity 2.1.1 Diagnosing Diabetes 11 Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) 12 Insulin test (IT) 13 Activity 2.1.1 Includes the following Notes Conclusion Questions 20 Blood Test Results for Diabetes 22 2.1.2 The Insulin Glucose Connection 27 2.1.2 The Insulin Glucose Connection Imagine that you are a healthcare professional who has the task of explaining the connection between insulin and glucose to a group of adults who are either at risk for diabetes or have just been diagnosed 28 2.1.2 Design requirements for the model 30 2.1.3 Feedback Loops 31 2.1.3 Feedback Loops Move above and below Target set point 32 Negative Feedback: Body Temperature 37⁰C 33 Negative Feedback Loop: Blood Glucose Level 34 Glucose- Free in blood, what cells use for energy 37 What if there is an error in the loop? 38 Activity 2.1.3 Feedback Loops 39 Career Journal due Friday or Monday Notebook check Friday 40 Bring in Food Samples Friday!!! 41 Review 2.1 Essential Questions & Key Terms 42 Unit 2.2 Preview: We Will… 43 2.2 Essential Questions & Key Terms 44 2.2 The Science of Food Macromolecules The main nutrients in our food 45 Proteins Amino Acid building blocks Tryptophan Functions Leucine 46 Carbohydrates (sugars/starches) 47 Lipids (fats/oils) No single building block Made of C, H and O 48 2.2.1 Food Testing Toxicology report Anna was a diabetic 49 2.2.1 Food Testing Each student bring one food in: 50 2.2.1 53 2.2.1 Notes Be sure I check your control table after Part 1. 54 2.2.1 Part II You are Continue reading >>

Self-perceptions Of Aging: Do Subjective Age And Satisfaction With Aging Change During Old Age?

Self-perceptions Of Aging: Do Subjective Age And Satisfaction With Aging Change During Old Age?

Self-Perceptions of Aging: Do Subjective Age and Satisfaction With Aging Change During Old Age? Address correspondence to Anna Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume 63, Issue 6, 1 November 2008, Pages P377P385, Anna Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Dana Kotter-Grhn, Jacqui Smith; Self-Perceptions of Aging: Do Subjective Age and Satisfaction With Aging Change During Old Age?, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Volume 63, Issue 6, 1 November 2008, Pages P377P385, The present study examined time-related change in felt age, physical age, and satisfaction with aging in old age and covariates of this change. Using 6-year-longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study (age range = 70104 years), we found that individuals' felt age remained on average about 13 years below their actual age over time, whereas they reported a decreasing discrepancy between physical and actual age and a decrease in aging satisfaction over time. After we controlled for level differences, a differential pattern of individual differences in change appeared for the three dimensions: Age contributed to a greater decline in aging satisfaction but an increase in the discrepancy of felt age. A higher number of illnesses at baseline attenuated change in felt age discrepancy. Future research on change of self-perceptions of aging will provide insight into mechanisms of resilience of the aging self in later life. Self-perception of aging , Subjective age , Age identity , Satisfaction with aging , Berlin Aging Study , Differential aging , Resilience of the older self Previous research suggests that, on average and despite the hi Continue reading >>

Profile | Exeter Medical School | University Of Exeter

Profile | Exeter Medical School | University Of Exeter

Abstract . Author URL . Full text . Jones SE, Tyrrell J, Wood AR, Beaumont RN, Ruth KS, Tuke MA, Yaghootkar H, Hu Y, Teder-Laving M, Hayward C, et al (In Press).Genome-wide association analyses in 128,266 individuals identifies new morningness and sleep duration loci. PLoS Genetics Full text . Frayling TM, Tyrrell J (In Press).Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank. British Medical Journal Full text . Ruth KS, Bennett CE, Schoemaker MJ, Weedon MN, Swerdlow AJ, Murray A (In Press).Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause. Hum Reprod, 31(10), 2396-2403. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause. STUDY QUESTION: is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: the length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICI Continue reading >>

Kaneda Shuppert: Biomedical

Kaneda Shuppert: Biomedical

These are some conclusion questions for my bio-med class which we have been discussing and learning more about different types of disease to solve a murder mystery. 1. Explain how diabetes can affect two other human body systems. It can affect other systems such as your nerves, by damaging them from having high blood pressure for a long time, and your limbs by having thick blood resulting in many dysfunctions within the body. 2. Explain why people with poorly controlled diabetes are at risk for amputation. They would be more at risk to have an amputation because of their high blood pressure and sugar, where it would make your blood pool up in your feet resulting in damage worthy of amputating. 3. There are both short term and long term complications of diabetes. Describe an example below for each category. A short term problem would be having high blood pressure after you ate etc... While a long term problem would be having an amputation. 4. Explain how Annas diet differed on August 11 and on August 12. Which was more appropriate for a diabetic? I dont know where to find the answer for this.... But, the one more appropiate for a diabetic would be to the healthier one without a lot of junk or sugar. 5. Describe at least two potential scenarios where Annas diabetes contributed to her death. One scenario is where passed out after a meal and ended to hitting her head on the table because she forgot her insulin shot. Another scenario would be if Anna forgot to bring a snack when she was out in the morning and she was coming back home to get food so she didnt pass out, but ended up passing out and banged her head on the table Continue reading >>

Statins And Risk Of New-onset Diabetes Mellitus: Is There A Rationale For Individualized Statin Therapy?

Statins And Risk Of New-onset Diabetes Mellitus: Is There A Rationale For Individualized Statin Therapy?

, Volume 14, Issue2 , pp 7987 | Cite as Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus: is there a Rationale for Individualized Statin Therapy? Statins (hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors) are first-line agents for the management of hyperlipidemia in patients at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and are the most commonly prescribed CV drugs worldwide. Although safe and generally well tolerated, there is growing evidence to suggest that statins are associated with an elevated occurrence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent experimental and clinical data have prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to add information to statin labels regarding the increased risk of development of type 2 DM. The main purpose of this review is to critically discuss the clinical evidence regarding the association of statin use with new-onset DM, the CV benefit/risk ratio with statins, and the rationale for individualized statin therapy. StatinSimvastatinAtorvastatinPravastatinStatin Therapy These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Statins (hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme-A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors) are the most commonly prescribed cardiovascular (CV) drugs worldwide [ 1 ]. Although safe and generally well tolerated, emerging data have suggested that statins are associated with an increased rate of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM). These recent concerns have prompted the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to add information to statin labels about the increased risk of raised blood sugar levels and development of type 2 DM [ 2 ]. The present article aims to critically discuss (i) the mechanisms and clinical evidence linking statins Continue reading >>

Cuba Has Made At Least 3 Major Medical Innovations That We Need

Cuba Has Made At Least 3 Major Medical Innovations That We Need

Cuba Has Made At Least 3 Major Medical Innovations That We Need The trade embargo is holding up research in some crucial areas. By most measures, the United States' business-friendly environment has proven to be fertile for medical innovation . Compared to other countries, America has filed the most patents in the life sciences , is conducting most of the world's clinical trials and has published the most biomedical research . That's what makes the medical prominence of Cuba all the more surprising to those who view a free market as an essential driver of scientific discovery. Cuba is very poor, and yet the country has some of the healthiest , most long-lived residents in the world -- as well as a medical invention or two that could run circles around U.S. therapies, thanks to government investment in scientific research and a preventive public health approach that views medical care as a birthright. The island nation, hemmed in by a 54-year trade embargo with the U.S., cant exchange goods with one of the worlds largest economies and the largest medical market. Still, the country is an unlikely global leader in public health and scientific investment. "If people knew about these cutting-edge treatments coming out of Cuba, people would want to have them," said Pierre LaRame, executive director of the Oakland-based Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba, which advocates for Cuban medical inventions in the U.S. and publishes an international, peer-reviewed journal focusing on Cuban health and medicine. "All of these arcane rules and restrictions related to the embargo that are designed to block commerce with Cuba are keeping Americans from having access to these treatment opportunities,"LaRame said. The White House is continuing to lift trade restrictions between the U.S Continue reading >>

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