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Daily Insulin Secretion By Pancreas

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Pancreas | Pancreas Function | Pancreas Inflammation | Pancreas Location in Body is a quick video on What is pancreas - Pancreas function. The video elaborates on the Pancreas Definition and also elaborates on the functions of Pancreas like insulin secretion, other hormone secretion and Pancreatitis. What is pancreas - Pancreas function What is Pancreas? Pancreas is a compound gland, about 15 cm long that lies behind stomach. Its one end touches the spleen; the other end lies in the curve of duodenum. Pancreas is made up of clusters of specialized cells. Pancreas secretes a few hormones. The first one is ‘pancreatic juice’. The other one is ‘Insulin’, which is secreted by Islets of Langerhans. Pancreatic Juice secreted by Pancreas contains a number of enzymes concerned with digestion. This ‘Juice’ drains into small ducts that open into pancreatic ducts. This joins with the common bile duct and reaches the duodenum. Pancreatic juices contain a large amount of sodium bi carbonate for neutralizing the acidity of stomach contents. Pancreatic juices also contain Amylase, lipase maltase, trypsinogen and chymothypsinogen. The isolated group of cells called islets of Langerhans secretes Insulin and glucagons into the blood stream. The importance of pancreas lies in its output of Insulin. It is insulin that is the ‘key’ for the complex metabolism of food digestion, conversion to energy giving glucose and absorption by cells. When blood carrying Glucose reaches body cells, it alone cannot penetrate the body cells to supply glucose. Insulin is the ‘key’ that is required, if Insulin is not sufficient or not available, blood gets “jammed” with glucose and the giant of a disease, “Diabetes mellitus” is caused. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the Pancreas. The patient suffers serve pain in the back and upper abdomen. The cause for this disease is not yet established. It could be due to gall bladder stones or alcoholism. Chronic pancreatitis may cause malabsorption and diabetes mellitus. The treatment for pancreatitis consists of injecting the extract obtained from pancreas called pancreatin, intravenous feeding, drugs and surgery.

Pancreas And Insulin

Your pancreas is one of the organs of your digestive system. It lies in your abdomen, behind your stomach. It is a long thin structure with 2 main functions: producing digestive enzymes to break down food; and producing the hormones insulin and glucagon to control sugar levels in your body. Production of digestive enzymes The pancreas produces secretions necessary for you to digest food. The enzymes in these secretions allow your body to digest protein, fat and starch from your food. The enzymes are produced in the acinar cells which make up most of the pancreas. From the acinar cells the enzymes flow down various channels into the pancreatic duct and then out into the duodenum. The secretions are alkaline to balance the acidic juices and partially digested food coming into the duodenum from the stomach. Production of hormones to control blood sugar levels A small proportion (1-2 per cent) of the pancreas is made up of other types of cells called islets of Langerhans. These cells sit in tiny groups, like small islands, scattered throughout the tissue of the pancreas. The islets of Langerhans contain alpha cells which secrete glucagon and beta cells which secrete insulin. Insulin an Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Spirit of Eden

    I currently use 12u Basal and 12-15u bolus throughout the day. I weigh 10st 4 (65 kilo) and 5'7 (1.7m) tall (male).
    As a Type 1.5 I do produce insulin myself. I was just wondering what this might rise to if I was producing no insulin at all :?: Put another way, how much insulin does a normal person like me produce naturally

  2. diabetes51

    Unfortunately I do not think your question can be answered as blood sugar control is a highly complex process in the body. The amount of insulin being produced in the body of a "healthy" person is continually altering, depending on the persons age, sex, exercise, food intake, stress etc etc etc. This is the problem when it comes to producing an artificial pancreas, it is still not possible to replicate how the body takes all these factors into account and changes the amount of insulin needed - often from minute to minute.
    If you took 100 teenagers - say age 15, and could detect how their bodies changed insulin production throughout a day, this would vary considerably from person to person. Girls may be different to boys due to hormonal differences, even if they all did the same activity the amounts of insulin would depend on whether they found that activity stressful, boring etc. Every individual responds differently, which is the problem in prescribing insulin. Unfortunately they cannot even say that x units of insulin should be given to a person that is aged y, we all differ based on our physical and psychological make up and our insulin needs may change throughout life.
    So I do not believe it is possible for us to tell you how much insulin you would produce if "healthy", or how much you will require once you stop producing. The best person to discuss this with is probably your diabetes consultant or diabetes nurse specialist.

  3. phoenix

    !
    It's quite interesting to find out about non diabetic insulin release but it isn't comparable.
    Various trials were done on in normal weight healthy (mostly men) back in the 70s and 80s. Slightly different results.
    1) average figure of 31 U daily in normal subjects eating three meals containing 1800 kcal, with a range from 24-37 U.
    2) an average figure of 26 U daily in normal subjects eating 2249 kcal a day .
    3) an average figure of 64 ± 7.6 U in men and 47 ± 6 U in women ingesting 3129 kcal and 2089
    kcal, respectively.
    4) an average figure of 22 U released into circulation of men eating 2250 cals a day (3 x750)
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
    All these figures are for post hepatic insulin released into circulation. The pancreas actually produces about twice as much and half is exacted in the liver before it's released into circulation via the portal vein.
    There must be some later studies, haven't searched for them (I had this one bookmarked)
    A Brittanica article written by a Harvard Endocrinologist ( don't know when but he died in 2008) says that between 30 to 50 units in a day are released into circulation in healthy individuals.
    http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9042512
    As Injected insulin is injected into fat it doesn't get into circulation via the same route so can't really be compared.
    The tables for post in John Walsh's books for post honeymoon T1s on an insulin pump (so may need less than on injections) have a range from 20u a day for a small (45g) fit person to 62 units for a 200lb sedentary person (or an adolescent) More insulin is required in pregnancy/stress/DKA.
    I don't think it's as easy to estimate as this. It seems all T1s (not just LADAs) loose remaining natural insulin gradually . People can still have some of their own after 50+ years with T1 but the amount will vary. People may also develop some insulin resistance.
    For myself I take a bit less than Walshes estimated amount for weight/activity level . ( I probably have LADA and have used insulin for 7.5years.
    The Unit in these old papers is the equivalent of a an international unit today(ie the same) it was originally defined as
    one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount required to reduce the concentration of blood glucose in a fasting rabbit to 45 mg/dl (2.5 mmol/L :lol: :lol:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_th ... sage_units

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What is ACTION PLAN? What does ACTION PLAN mean? ACTION PLAN meaning - ACTION PLAN definition - ACTION PLAN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. n action plan is a detailed plan outlining actions needed to reach one or more goals. Alternatively, businessdictionary.com defines an action plan as a "sequence of steps that must be taken, or activities that must be performed well, for a strategy to succeed". Producing an action plan can be beneficial not only for individual basis but also for businesses. For example, it allows project managers or any member of a group to monitor their progress and take each task step-by-step, therefore allowing them to handle the project efficiently. The advantage of doing this is, it allows you to execute a structured plan for the end goal you intend to achieve. Furthermore, it provides the team with appropriate foundations, therefore prioritising the amount of time you spend on each task. This will then prevent any sidetracking that may occur. Lastly, it creates a bond within a team, as each member is aware of their individual role, as well as providing necessary information to ensure success of the project. When using action plans limitations will need to be considered. Firstly, each member of the team will need to be allocated individual roles and tasks which will require completion by a set date. This can be demanding for some, due to coping with the stress and distractions that may occur. Another issue is not being guided thoroughly and effectively, leading to the lack of effort and passion a member has for the project. In addition to this, if the communication throughout the team is non-existent, key information will not reach members of the group, causing lack of confidence. Lastly failing to obtain the goal you set to reach can lead to frustration and in turn the planning would have been a waste of time. There can be more addition to this article. An action plan is a tool in social planning. It is an organizational strategy to identify necessary steps towards a goal. It considers details, may help limit setting for an organization, and is efficient in that it is saving resources over trial and error. A written action plan also serves as a token for an organization's accountability. When creating action plans there are guided steps that need to be followed to ensure success, however the structure can be altered in the process. Firstly, you will need to outline what you want to achieve from the project, by doing this you set yourself targets. After this the specific roles will need to be allocated ensuring sufficient amount of training, resources and issues have been considered to ensure solving any problems that may occur. The next stage allows members of the group to analyse the progress by outlining milestones, solving any issues and making any necessary changes. Lastly once the project has come to an end the final stage can be examined to ensure future success.

Handbook Of Diabetes, 4th Edition, Excerpt #4: Normal Physiology Of Insulin Secretion And Action

Insulin is synthesized in and secreted from the β-cells within the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The normal pancreas has about 1 million islets, which constitute about 2-3% of the gland’s mass. All of the islet cell types are derived embryologically from endodermal outgrowths of the fetal gut. The islets can be identified easily with various histological stains, such as hematoxylin and eosin (Figure 5.1), with which the cells react less intensely than does the surrounding exocrine tissue. The islets vary in size from a few dozen to several thousands of cells and are scattered irregularly throughout the exocrine pancreas…. The main cell types of the pancreatic islets are β-cells that produce insulin, α-cells that secrete glucagon, δ cells that produce somatostatin and PP cells that produce pancreatic polypeptide. The different cell types can be identified by immunostaining techniques, in situ hybridization for their hormone products (using nucleotide probes complementary to the target mRNA) and the electron microscope appearance of their secretory granules. The β-cells are the most numerous cell type and are located mainly in the core of the islet, while α and δ c Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Spirit of Eden

    I currently use 12u Basal and 12-15u bolus throughout the day. I weigh 10st 4 (65 kilo) and 5'7 (1.7m) tall (male).
    As a Type 1.5 I do produce insulin myself. I was just wondering what this might rise to if I was producing no insulin at all :?: Put another way, how much insulin does a normal person like me produce naturally

  2. diabetes51

    Unfortunately I do not think your question can be answered as blood sugar control is a highly complex process in the body. The amount of insulin being produced in the body of a "healthy" person is continually altering, depending on the persons age, sex, exercise, food intake, stress etc etc etc. This is the problem when it comes to producing an artificial pancreas, it is still not possible to replicate how the body takes all these factors into account and changes the amount of insulin needed - often from minute to minute.
    If you took 100 teenagers - say age 15, and could detect how their bodies changed insulin production throughout a day, this would vary considerably from person to person. Girls may be different to boys due to hormonal differences, even if they all did the same activity the amounts of insulin would depend on whether they found that activity stressful, boring etc. Every individual responds differently, which is the problem in prescribing insulin. Unfortunately they cannot even say that x units of insulin should be given to a person that is aged y, we all differ based on our physical and psychological make up and our insulin needs may change throughout life.
    So I do not believe it is possible for us to tell you how much insulin you would produce if "healthy", or how much you will require once you stop producing. The best person to discuss this with is probably your diabetes consultant or diabetes nurse specialist.

  3. phoenix

    !
    It's quite interesting to find out about non diabetic insulin release but it isn't comparable.
    Various trials were done on in normal weight healthy (mostly men) back in the 70s and 80s. Slightly different results.
    1) average figure of 31 U daily in normal subjects eating three meals containing 1800 kcal, with a range from 24-37 U.
    2) an average figure of 26 U daily in normal subjects eating 2249 kcal a day .
    3) an average figure of 64 ± 7.6 U in men and 47 ± 6 U in women ingesting 3129 kcal and 2089
    kcal, respectively.
    4) an average figure of 22 U released into circulation of men eating 2250 cals a day (3 x750)
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
    All these figures are for post hepatic insulin released into circulation. The pancreas actually produces about twice as much and half is exacted in the liver before it's released into circulation via the portal vein.
    There must be some later studies, haven't searched for them (I had this one bookmarked)
    A Brittanica article written by a Harvard Endocrinologist ( don't know when but he died in 2008) says that between 30 to 50 units in a day are released into circulation in healthy individuals.
    http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9042512
    As Injected insulin is injected into fat it doesn't get into circulation via the same route so can't really be compared.
    The tables for post in John Walsh's books for post honeymoon T1s on an insulin pump (so may need less than on injections) have a range from 20u a day for a small (45g) fit person to 62 units for a 200lb sedentary person (or an adolescent) More insulin is required in pregnancy/stress/DKA.
    I don't think it's as easy to estimate as this. It seems all T1s (not just LADAs) loose remaining natural insulin gradually . People can still have some of their own after 50+ years with T1 but the amount will vary. People may also develop some insulin resistance.
    For myself I take a bit less than Walshes estimated amount for weight/activity level . ( I probably have LADA and have used insulin for 7.5years.
    The Unit in these old papers is the equivalent of a an international unit today(ie the same) it was originally defined as
    one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount required to reduce the concentration of blood glucose in a fasting rabbit to 45 mg/dl (2.5 mmol/L :lol: :lol:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_th ... sage_units

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
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Myths and facts about the Human Organ Donation and Transplant. Organ India provides all information about human organ such as heart, kidney, lungs, liver, eyes, cornea, pancreas, bone marrow and tissue. See more www.organindia.org.

A Unifying Organ Model Of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion

Abstract The secretion of insulin by the pancreas has been the object of much attention over the past several decades. Insulin is known to be secreted by pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia: its blood concentrations however exhibit both high-frequency (period approx. 10 minutes) and low-frequency oscillations (period approx. 1.5 hours). Furthermore, characteristic insulin secretory response to challenge maneuvers have been described, such as frequency entrainment upon sinusoidal glycemic stimulation; substantial insulin peaks following minimal glucose administration; progressively strengthened insulin secretion response after repeated administration of the same amount of glucose; insulin and glucose characteristic curves after Intra-Venous administration of glucose boli in healthy and pre-diabetic subjects as well as in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Previous modeling of β-cell physiology has been mainly directed to the intracellular chain of events giving rise to single-cell or cell-cluster hormone release oscillations, but the large size, long period and complex morphology of the diverse responses to whole-body glucose stimuli has not yet been coherently explained. Start Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Spirit of Eden

    I currently use 12u Basal and 12-15u bolus throughout the day. I weigh 10st 4 (65 kilo) and 5'7 (1.7m) tall (male).
    As a Type 1.5 I do produce insulin myself. I was just wondering what this might rise to if I was producing no insulin at all :?: Put another way, how much insulin does a normal person like me produce naturally

  2. diabetes51

    Unfortunately I do not think your question can be answered as blood sugar control is a highly complex process in the body. The amount of insulin being produced in the body of a "healthy" person is continually altering, depending on the persons age, sex, exercise, food intake, stress etc etc etc. This is the problem when it comes to producing an artificial pancreas, it is still not possible to replicate how the body takes all these factors into account and changes the amount of insulin needed - often from minute to minute.
    If you took 100 teenagers - say age 15, and could detect how their bodies changed insulin production throughout a day, this would vary considerably from person to person. Girls may be different to boys due to hormonal differences, even if they all did the same activity the amounts of insulin would depend on whether they found that activity stressful, boring etc. Every individual responds differently, which is the problem in prescribing insulin. Unfortunately they cannot even say that x units of insulin should be given to a person that is aged y, we all differ based on our physical and psychological make up and our insulin needs may change throughout life.
    So I do not believe it is possible for us to tell you how much insulin you would produce if "healthy", or how much you will require once you stop producing. The best person to discuss this with is probably your diabetes consultant or diabetes nurse specialist.

  3. phoenix

    !
    It's quite interesting to find out about non diabetic insulin release but it isn't comparable.
    Various trials were done on in normal weight healthy (mostly men) back in the 70s and 80s. Slightly different results.
    1) average figure of 31 U daily in normal subjects eating three meals containing 1800 kcal, with a range from 24-37 U.
    2) an average figure of 26 U daily in normal subjects eating 2249 kcal a day .
    3) an average figure of 64 ± 7.6 U in men and 47 ± 6 U in women ingesting 3129 kcal and 2089
    kcal, respectively.
    4) an average figure of 22 U released into circulation of men eating 2250 cals a day (3 x750)
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
    All these figures are for post hepatic insulin released into circulation. The pancreas actually produces about twice as much and half is exacted in the liver before it's released into circulation via the portal vein.
    There must be some later studies, haven't searched for them (I had this one bookmarked)
    A Brittanica article written by a Harvard Endocrinologist ( don't know when but he died in 2008) says that between 30 to 50 units in a day are released into circulation in healthy individuals.
    http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9042512
    As Injected insulin is injected into fat it doesn't get into circulation via the same route so can't really be compared.
    The tables for post in John Walsh's books for post honeymoon T1s on an insulin pump (so may need less than on injections) have a range from 20u a day for a small (45g) fit person to 62 units for a 200lb sedentary person (or an adolescent) More insulin is required in pregnancy/stress/DKA.
    I don't think it's as easy to estimate as this. It seems all T1s (not just LADAs) loose remaining natural insulin gradually . People can still have some of their own after 50+ years with T1 but the amount will vary. People may also develop some insulin resistance.
    For myself I take a bit less than Walshes estimated amount for weight/activity level . ( I probably have LADA and have used insulin for 7.5years.
    The Unit in these old papers is the equivalent of a an international unit today(ie the same) it was originally defined as
    one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount required to reduce the concentration of blood glucose in a fasting rabbit to 45 mg/dl (2.5 mmol/L :lol: :lol:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_th ... sage_units

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

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