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Daily Insulin Secretion By Pancreas

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Circadian Clock Controls Insulin And Blood Sugar In Pancreas

Clock genes in pancreas produce proteins in rhythm with the planet’s daily rotation from light to dark Clocks operating in cells are fundamental to health When clocks are disrupted, metabolic disorders can develop CHICAGO --- A new Northwestern Medicine study has pinpointed thousands of genetic pathways an internal body clock takes to dictate how and when our pancreas must produce insulin and control blood sugar, findings that could eventually lead to new therapies for children and adults with diabetes. The body’s circadian clocks coordinate behaviors like eating and sleeping, as well as physiological activity like metabolism, with the Earth’s 24-hour light-dark cycle. There’s a master clock in the brain, as well as peripheral clocks located in individual organs. When genetics, environment or behavior disrupt the synchrony of these clocks, metabolic disorders can develop. In a previous publication in Nature, Northwestern Medicine investigators showed that a circadian clock in the pancreas is essential for regulating insulin secretion and balancing blood sugar levels in mice. The scientists demonstrated that knocking out clock genes led to obesity and type 2 diabetes, but th Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Spirit of Eden

    I currently use 12u Basal and 12-15u bolus throughout the day. I weigh 10st 4 (65 kilo) and 5'7 (1.7m) tall (male).
    As a Type 1.5 I do produce insulin myself. I was just wondering what this might rise to if I was producing no insulin at all :?: Put another way, how much insulin does a normal person like me produce naturally

  2. diabetes51

    Unfortunately I do not think your question can be answered as blood sugar control is a highly complex process in the body. The amount of insulin being produced in the body of a "healthy" person is continually altering, depending on the persons age, sex, exercise, food intake, stress etc etc etc. This is the problem when it comes to producing an artificial pancreas, it is still not possible to replicate how the body takes all these factors into account and changes the amount of insulin needed - often from minute to minute.
    If you took 100 teenagers - say age 15, and could detect how their bodies changed insulin production throughout a day, this would vary considerably from person to person. Girls may be different to boys due to hormonal differences, even if they all did the same activity the amounts of insulin would depend on whether they found that activity stressful, boring etc. Every individual responds differently, which is the problem in prescribing insulin. Unfortunately they cannot even say that x units of insulin should be given to a person that is aged y, we all differ based on our physical and psychological make up and our insulin needs may change throughout life.
    So I do not believe it is possible for us to tell you how much insulin you would produce if "healthy", or how much you will require once you stop producing. The best person to discuss this with is probably your diabetes consultant or diabetes nurse specialist.

  3. phoenix

    !
    It's quite interesting to find out about non diabetic insulin release but it isn't comparable.
    Various trials were done on in normal weight healthy (mostly men) back in the 70s and 80s. Slightly different results.
    1) average figure of 31 U daily in normal subjects eating three meals containing 1800 kcal, with a range from 24-37 U.
    2) an average figure of 26 U daily in normal subjects eating 2249 kcal a day .
    3) an average figure of 64 ± 7.6 U in men and 47 ± 6 U in women ingesting 3129 kcal and 2089
    kcal, respectively.
    4) an average figure of 22 U released into circulation of men eating 2250 cals a day (3 x750)
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
    All these figures are for post hepatic insulin released into circulation. The pancreas actually produces about twice as much and half is exacted in the liver before it's released into circulation via the portal vein.
    There must be some later studies, haven't searched for them (I had this one bookmarked)
    A Brittanica article written by a Harvard Endocrinologist ( don't know when but he died in 2008) says that between 30 to 50 units in a day are released into circulation in healthy individuals.
    http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9042512
    As Injected insulin is injected into fat it doesn't get into circulation via the same route so can't really be compared.
    The tables for post in John Walsh's books for post honeymoon T1s on an insulin pump (so may need less than on injections) have a range from 20u a day for a small (45g) fit person to 62 units for a 200lb sedentary person (or an adolescent) More insulin is required in pregnancy/stress/DKA.
    I don't think it's as easy to estimate as this. It seems all T1s (not just LADAs) loose remaining natural insulin gradually . People can still have some of their own after 50+ years with T1 but the amount will vary. People may also develop some insulin resistance.
    For myself I take a bit less than Walshes estimated amount for weight/activity level . ( I probably have LADA and have used insulin for 7.5years.
    The Unit in these old papers is the equivalent of a an international unit today(ie the same) it was originally defined as
    one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount required to reduce the concentration of blood glucose in a fasting rabbit to 45 mg/dl (2.5 mmol/L :lol: :lol:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_th ... sage_units

  4. -> Continue reading
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Secretion Of Insulin And Glucagon

As I have already mentioned, the pancreas contains clusters of cells known as the Islets of Langerhans. They contain three cell types: alpha cells that produce glucagon, beta cells that produce insulin, and delta cells where somatostatin is synthesized. Together, these cells and their hormone products are responsible for the minute-to-minute regulation of metabolism. Metabolism in this case includes storage and release of carbohydrates and lipids, rates of energy production, protein synthesis and even the regulation of hunger. Seemingly minor aberrations in function of these cells have large and often devastating effects on an individual's health. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, some amino acids and fatty acids. Let us take these up individually. Monitoring Blood Glucose. The basic functions and physiology of the beta cell are relatively well understood. A model of the beta cell showing the basic components for insulin secretion is presented below. A glucose "sensor" mechanism, a metabolic coupling to potassium channels to control plasma membrane potential and a voltage dependent Ca++ channel are required to link blood glucose levels to insulin secretion. Insulin contai Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Spirit of Eden

    I currently use 12u Basal and 12-15u bolus throughout the day. I weigh 10st 4 (65 kilo) and 5'7 (1.7m) tall (male).
    As a Type 1.5 I do produce insulin myself. I was just wondering what this might rise to if I was producing no insulin at all :?: Put another way, how much insulin does a normal person like me produce naturally

  2. diabetes51

    Unfortunately I do not think your question can be answered as blood sugar control is a highly complex process in the body. The amount of insulin being produced in the body of a "healthy" person is continually altering, depending on the persons age, sex, exercise, food intake, stress etc etc etc. This is the problem when it comes to producing an artificial pancreas, it is still not possible to replicate how the body takes all these factors into account and changes the amount of insulin needed - often from minute to minute.
    If you took 100 teenagers - say age 15, and could detect how their bodies changed insulin production throughout a day, this would vary considerably from person to person. Girls may be different to boys due to hormonal differences, even if they all did the same activity the amounts of insulin would depend on whether they found that activity stressful, boring etc. Every individual responds differently, which is the problem in prescribing insulin. Unfortunately they cannot even say that x units of insulin should be given to a person that is aged y, we all differ based on our physical and psychological make up and our insulin needs may change throughout life.
    So I do not believe it is possible for us to tell you how much insulin you would produce if "healthy", or how much you will require once you stop producing. The best person to discuss this with is probably your diabetes consultant or diabetes nurse specialist.

  3. phoenix

    !
    It's quite interesting to find out about non diabetic insulin release but it isn't comparable.
    Various trials were done on in normal weight healthy (mostly men) back in the 70s and 80s. Slightly different results.
    1) average figure of 31 U daily in normal subjects eating three meals containing 1800 kcal, with a range from 24-37 U.
    2) an average figure of 26 U daily in normal subjects eating 2249 kcal a day .
    3) an average figure of 64 ± 7.6 U in men and 47 ± 6 U in women ingesting 3129 kcal and 2089
    kcal, respectively.
    4) an average figure of 22 U released into circulation of men eating 2250 cals a day (3 x750)
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
    All these figures are for post hepatic insulin released into circulation. The pancreas actually produces about twice as much and half is exacted in the liver before it's released into circulation via the portal vein.
    There must be some later studies, haven't searched for them (I had this one bookmarked)
    A Brittanica article written by a Harvard Endocrinologist ( don't know when but he died in 2008) says that between 30 to 50 units in a day are released into circulation in healthy individuals.
    http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9042512
    As Injected insulin is injected into fat it doesn't get into circulation via the same route so can't really be compared.
    The tables for post in John Walsh's books for post honeymoon T1s on an insulin pump (so may need less than on injections) have a range from 20u a day for a small (45g) fit person to 62 units for a 200lb sedentary person (or an adolescent) More insulin is required in pregnancy/stress/DKA.
    I don't think it's as easy to estimate as this. It seems all T1s (not just LADAs) loose remaining natural insulin gradually . People can still have some of their own after 50+ years with T1 but the amount will vary. People may also develop some insulin resistance.
    For myself I take a bit less than Walshes estimated amount for weight/activity level . ( I probably have LADA and have used insulin for 7.5years.
    The Unit in these old papers is the equivalent of a an international unit today(ie the same) it was originally defined as
    one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount required to reduce the concentration of blood glucose in a fasting rabbit to 45 mg/dl (2.5 mmol/L :lol: :lol:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_th ... sage_units

  4. -> Continue reading
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Cyproheptadine And Beta Cell Function In The Rat: Insulin Secretion From Pancreas Segments In Vitro

Summary Pancreatic islet cell vacuolization, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance develop in rats after oral administration of cyproheptadine (CPH). In order to determine whether these effects were associated with abnormal insulin secretion, pancreas segments from CPH-treated and control rats were compared for their ability to secrete insulin in response to several stimuli. Oral administration of CPH (45 mg/kg/day) to rats for 1 or 8 days inhibited glucose-mediated insulin secretion from pancreas segments obtained 3 and 24 hr after the last dose of the drug. Insulin secretion had returned to normal by 48 hr after drug administration. Intraperitoneal administration of the drug was less effective than oral administration in inhibiting in vitro insulin secretion. Other stimuli for insulin secretion (tolbutamide, glucagon, l-leucine, and dibutyryl 3′, 5′cyclic AMP), like glucose, were incapable of releasing normal amounts of insulin from pancreas segments of CPH-treated rats. CPH and a metabolite, desmethyl-CPH, inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion when added in vitro to pancreas segments from control rats. This suggests that the inhibition of insulin secretion in pancr Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Spirit of Eden

    I currently use 12u Basal and 12-15u bolus throughout the day. I weigh 10st 4 (65 kilo) and 5'7 (1.7m) tall (male).
    As a Type 1.5 I do produce insulin myself. I was just wondering what this might rise to if I was producing no insulin at all :?: Put another way, how much insulin does a normal person like me produce naturally

  2. diabetes51

    Unfortunately I do not think your question can be answered as blood sugar control is a highly complex process in the body. The amount of insulin being produced in the body of a "healthy" person is continually altering, depending on the persons age, sex, exercise, food intake, stress etc etc etc. This is the problem when it comes to producing an artificial pancreas, it is still not possible to replicate how the body takes all these factors into account and changes the amount of insulin needed - often from minute to minute.
    If you took 100 teenagers - say age 15, and could detect how their bodies changed insulin production throughout a day, this would vary considerably from person to person. Girls may be different to boys due to hormonal differences, even if they all did the same activity the amounts of insulin would depend on whether they found that activity stressful, boring etc. Every individual responds differently, which is the problem in prescribing insulin. Unfortunately they cannot even say that x units of insulin should be given to a person that is aged y, we all differ based on our physical and psychological make up and our insulin needs may change throughout life.
    So I do not believe it is possible for us to tell you how much insulin you would produce if "healthy", or how much you will require once you stop producing. The best person to discuss this with is probably your diabetes consultant or diabetes nurse specialist.

  3. phoenix

    !
    It's quite interesting to find out about non diabetic insulin release but it isn't comparable.
    Various trials were done on in normal weight healthy (mostly men) back in the 70s and 80s. Slightly different results.
    1) average figure of 31 U daily in normal subjects eating three meals containing 1800 kcal, with a range from 24-37 U.
    2) an average figure of 26 U daily in normal subjects eating 2249 kcal a day .
    3) an average figure of 64 ± 7.6 U in men and 47 ± 6 U in women ingesting 3129 kcal and 2089
    kcal, respectively.
    4) an average figure of 22 U released into circulation of men eating 2250 cals a day (3 x750)
    http://care.diabetesjournals.org/conten ... l.pdf+html
    All these figures are for post hepatic insulin released into circulation. The pancreas actually produces about twice as much and half is exacted in the liver before it's released into circulation via the portal vein.
    There must be some later studies, haven't searched for them (I had this one bookmarked)
    A Brittanica article written by a Harvard Endocrinologist ( don't know when but he died in 2008) says that between 30 to 50 units in a day are released into circulation in healthy individuals.
    http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9042512
    As Injected insulin is injected into fat it doesn't get into circulation via the same route so can't really be compared.
    The tables for post in John Walsh's books for post honeymoon T1s on an insulin pump (so may need less than on injections) have a range from 20u a day for a small (45g) fit person to 62 units for a 200lb sedentary person (or an adolescent) More insulin is required in pregnancy/stress/DKA.
    I don't think it's as easy to estimate as this. It seems all T1s (not just LADAs) loose remaining natural insulin gradually . People can still have some of their own after 50+ years with T1 but the amount will vary. People may also develop some insulin resistance.
    For myself I take a bit less than Walshes estimated amount for weight/activity level . ( I probably have LADA and have used insulin for 7.5years.
    The Unit in these old papers is the equivalent of a an international unit today(ie the same) it was originally defined as
    one unit (U) of insulin was set equal to the amount required to reduce the concentration of blood glucose in a fasting rabbit to 45 mg/dl (2.5 mmol/L :lol: :lol:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_th ... sage_units

  4. -> Continue reading
read more close

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