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Daily Insulin Secretion By Pancreas

Measurements Of Insulin Secretory Capacity And Glucose Tolerance To Predict Pancreatic Β-cell Mass In Vivo In The Nicotinamide/streptozotocin Göttingen Minipig, A Model Of Moderate Insulin Deficiency And Diabetes

Measurements Of Insulin Secretory Capacity And Glucose Tolerance To Predict Pancreatic Β-cell Mass In Vivo In The Nicotinamide/streptozotocin Göttingen Minipig, A Model Of Moderate Insulin Deficiency And Diabetes

Knowledge about β-cell mass and/or function could be of importance for the early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. However, measurement of β-cell function as an estimate of β-cell mass is currently the only method possible in humans. The present study was performed to investigate different functional tests as predictors of β-cell mass in the Göttingen minipig. β-cell mass was reduced in the Göttingen minipig with a combination of nicotinamide (100 [n = 6], 67 [n = 25], 20 [n = 2], or 0 mg/kg [n = 4]) and streptozotocin (125 mg/kg). Six normal pigs were included. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (n = 43) and insulin secretion test (n = 30) were performed and pancreata obtained for stereological determination of β-cell mass. During OGTT, fasting glucose (r2 = 0.1744, P < 0.01), area under the curve for glucose (r2 = 0.2706, P < 0.001), maximum insulin secretion (r2 = 0.2160, P < 0.01), and maximum C-peptide secretion (r2 = 0.1992, P < 0.01) correlated with β-cell mass. During the insulin secretion test, acute insulin response to 0.3 g/kg (r2 = 0.6155, P < 0.0001) and 0.6 g/kg glucose (r2 = 0.7321, P < 0.0001) and arginine (67 mg/kg) (r2 = 0.7732, P < 0.0001) and maximum insulin secretion (r2 = 0.8192, P < 0.0001) correlated with β-cell mass. This study supports the use of functional tests to evaluate β-cell mass in vivo and has established a validated basis for developing a mathematical method for estimation of β-cell mass in vivo in the Göttingen minipig. Reduction of β-cell mass is a key feature of type 1 diabetes (1–4) and late autoimmune diabetes of the adult (5). However, in type 2 diabetic patients, most (1–3,6–8), but not all (4,9,10), studies have demonstrated only a modest reduction (20–50%) of β-cell mass, whereas a more recent stu Continue reading >>

Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases

Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases

MORE The pancreas is an abdominal organ that is located behind the stomach and is surrounded by other organs, including the spleen, liver and small intestine. The pancreas is about 6 inches (15.24 centimeters) long, oblong and flat. The pancreas plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar. Three diseases associated with the pancreas are pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Function of the pancreas The pancreas serves two primary functions, according to Jordan Knowlton, an advanced registered nurse practitioner at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. It makes “enzymes to digest proteins, fats, and carbs in the intestines” and produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, he said. Dr. Richard Bowen of Colorado State University’s Department of Biomedical Sciences wrote in Hypertexts for Pathophysiology: Endocrine System, “A well-known effect of insulin is to decrease the concentration of glucose in blood.” This lowers blood sugar levels and allows the body’s cells to use glucose for energy. Insulin also allows glucose to enter muscle and other tissue, works with the liver to store glucose and synthesize fatty acids, and “stimulates the uptake of amino acids,” according to Bowen. Insulin is released after eating protein and especially after eating carbohydrates, which increase glucose levels in the blood. If the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, type 1 diabetes will develop. Unlike insulin, glucagon raises blood sugar levels. According to the Johns Hopkins University Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the combination of insulin and glucagon maintains the proper level of sugar in the blood. The pancreas’ second, exocrine function is to produce and release digestive fluids. After food enters Continue reading >>

A Brand New Type Of Insulin-producing Cell Has Been Discovered Hiding In The Pancreas

A Brand New Type Of Insulin-producing Cell Has Been Discovered Hiding In The Pancreas

Researchers have found a brand new type of insulin-producing cell hiding in plain sight within the pancreas, and they offer new hope for better understanding - and one day even treating - type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when a person's own immune system kills off most of their insulin-producing beta cells. And seeing as insulin is the hormone that regulates our blood sugar, type 1 diabetics are left reliant on injecting themselves with insulin regularly. While the condition can usually be managed effectively, in order to properly treat it, researchers would need to find a way to regenerate a patient's beta cells and prevent them from being attacked in future - something we're getting better at, but ultimately has eluded scientists so far. The discovery of these previously unnoticed cells in the pancreas - which the team are calling 'virgin beta cells' - could offer a new route for regrowing healthy, mature beta cells - and also provides insight into the basic mechanisms behind the disease. "We've seen phenomenal advances in the management of diabetes, but we cannot cure it," said lead researcher Mark Huising from the University of California, Davis. "If you want to cure the disease, you have to understand how it works in the normal situation." To get a better insight into exactly what happens in type 1 diabetes, the researchers studied both mice and human tissue. Huising and his team were looking at regions inside the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans, which in healthy humans and mice are the regions that contain the beta cells that detect blood sugar levels around the body and produce insulin in response. Researchers also know that the islets contain cells called alpha cells, which produce glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar. These alpha cells, Continue reading >>

An Overview Of The Pancreas

An Overview Of The Pancreas

Pancreas Essentials The pancreas maintains the body’s blood glucose (sugar) balance. Primary hormones of the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, and both regulate blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common disorder associated with the pancreas. The pancreas is unique in that it’s both an endocrine and exocrine gland. In other words, the pancreas has the dual function of secreting hormones into blood (endocrine) and secreting enzymes through ducts (exocrine). The pancreas belongs to the endocrine and digestive systems—with most of its cells (more than 90%) working on the digestive side. However, the pancreas performs the vital duty of producing hormones—most notably insulin—to maintain the balance of blood glucose (sugar) and salt in the body. Without this balance, your body is susceptible to serious complications, such as diabetes. Anatomy of the Pancreas The pancreas is a 6 inch-long flattened gland that lies deep within the abdomen, between the stomach and the spine. It is connected to the duodenum, which is part of the small intestine. Only about 5% of the pancreas is comprised of endocrine cells. These cells are clustered in groups within the pancreas and look like little islands of cells when examined under a microscope. These groups of pancreatic endocrine cells are known as pancreatic islets or more specifically, islets of Langerhans (named after the scientist who discovered them). Hormones of the Pancreas The production of pancreatic hormones, including insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, and glucagon, play an important role in maintaining sugar and salt balance in our bodies. Gastrin: This hormone aids digestion by stimulating certain cells in the stomach to produce acid. Glucagon: Glucagon helps insulin maintain normal blood glucose by working in the Continue reading >>

Research Reveals A Surprising Link Between Melatonin And Type 2 Diabetes

Research Reveals A Surprising Link Between Melatonin And Type 2 Diabetes

We typically associate the hormone melatonin with sleep. However, melatonin is actually involved in the timing and synchronization of a number of different physiological functions throughout the body. One of these functions is the regulation of blood sugar. Recent research has found that a relatively large proportion of the human population is genetically predisposed to be more sensitive to the impact of this hormone on blood sugar control. This can lead to higher blood glucose levels and ultimately greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Here’s how it works, and what you can do about it. The sleep hormone and the pancreas Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland in the brain in response to darkness. Levels are typically very low during the day and reach their peak at night. Like other hormones, melatonin works by binding to compatible receptors – kind of like a lock and key. These receptors are found abundantly in the eyes and the brain, and when melatonin binds to them, they signal that it’s dark outside. For humans, this darkness signal indicates that it is the period when we rest, so this timing signal contributes to and is a part of a cascade of other responses that help initiate and maintain sleep . Strangely enough, we now know that these receptors are also found in the pancreas – specifically in pancreatic beta cells. By releasing insulin, beta cells regulate glucose levels in the blood. We have also discovered that when melatonin activates these receptors, insulin secretion is decreased. Circadian physiology and glucose metabolism Prior research in animals has suggested that there is a relationship between melatonin and glucose metabolism. Mice with mutations that eliminate their melatonin receptors exhibit higher insulin secretion from their islet Continue reading >>

Amylin: The Other Hormone You Don’t Produce In Diabetes

Amylin: The Other Hormone You Don’t Produce In Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, we’re constantly thinking and talking about insulin. However, in type 1 diabetes, just as we don’t produce any insulin, we also don’t produce any of a hormone called “amylin.” In type 2 diabetes, just as your body isn’t producing enough or properly making use of the insulin you do still produce, the same is true for your body’s production of the hormone amylin. What is Amylin? “At the base of the pancreas,” explains Gary Scheiner, CDE and author of Think Like a Pancreas, “is a cluster of cells called the ‘islets of Langerhans,’ and contained within those cells are the cells that constantly measure blood glucose levels and produce insulin as needed to keep blood sugar within a normal range. Along with insulin, beta cells secrete amylin, a hormone that, among other things, regulates the rate at which food digests.” In type 1 diabetes, of course, those beta cells are attacked and destroyed by the immune system, therefore they produce zero insulin or amylin. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t produce enough or doesn’t properly make use of the insulin and amylin produced by your beta cells. Amylin’s primary purpose in the human body is to prevent blood sugar levels from spiking too high after a meal. Amylin literally slows down the rate at which your stomach starts emptying digested food into the small intestine, where the glucose from the food you eat, as Scheiner explains, is then absorbed into the bloodstream. Amylin also decreases appetite after a meal, and, Scheiner explains, “blunts the secretion of glucagon by the pancreas” that is produced after a meal. (Yup, even in type 1 diabetics, our pancreas produces glucagon after we eat! How totally unhelpful!) Do We Need It? You might be wondering Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Cells Made To Produce Insulin Using Fda-approved Drug

Pancreatic Cells Made To Produce Insulin Using Fda-approved Drug

In a remarkable feat, scientists have managed to convert pancreatic tissue into insulin-producing cells, all without the need for genetic modification. And that’s not even the best part: The researchers achieved this outcome, a first for science, using a drug that’s already FDA-approved for use. This raises the possibility that one day, patients with type 1 diabetes might be able to ditch the daily jabs and start producing their own insulin again. The study has been published in Diabetes. In patients with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly sees insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, called beta-cells, as a foreign threat and destroys them. Patients must therefore regularly take insulin injections in order to control blood sugar, but even with proper management there is a risk of glucose levels entering the dangerous extremes. While much research has focused on improving insulin-delivery or monitoring systems, others are exploring the possibility of replacing this lost pancreatic tissue as a form of treatment. Transplants of insulin-producing cells have actually shown success, but with a shortage of donor tissue worldwide this isn’t a viable option for the masses. Another option scientists are looking into involves giving cells of the pancreas an identity swap. Most of the cells in this organ are actually not specialized for insulin production, and scientists have shown it’s possible to change their gene expression patterns so that they assume the identity of beta-cells. The problem with this approach is that studies involved genetic manipulation of cells, sometimes using viruses, which carries with it risks to the patient. But there could be an alternative. Researchers behind the present study previously discovered that the pancreas harbors a pool o Continue reading >>

How Does The Pancreas Work?

How Does The Pancreas Work?

The pancreas is 12 to 18 centimeters (about 4.7 to 7.1 inches) long and weighs about 70 to 100 grams. The pancreas is made up of a head, a body and a pointy tail. It is located in the upper abdomen behind the stomach. The organ has two major functions. It produces Hormones and enzymes are produced in two different groups of cells: Exocrine pancreas cells Over 99% of the exocrine pancreas cells produce digestive juices – about 1.5 to 2 liters per day. They are called exocrine ("secreting externally") because they secrete digestive juice "externally" into the small intestine. This clear, colorless juice is mainly made up of water and also contains salt, sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes. There are enzymes for breaking down fats (lipases), proteins (proteases), and carbohydrates (amylases). Proteases are inactive while inside the pancreas. They are activated once they have been secreted into the small intestine. The sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the acidic gastric (stomach) juice in the mass of semi-digested food to help the digestive enzymes work better. The digestive juices flows from the pancreas through an excretory duct into the small intestine. In most people, this duct joins up with the the excretory duct of the gallbladder before reaching the small intestine. A sphincter muscle at the end of the duct controls the flow of digestive juice into the small intestine. In case of pancreatitis, enzymes may be activated inside the pancreas before reaching the small intestine, causing the gland to start "digesting itself." Endocrine pancreas cells Groups of endocrine cells are spread over the surface of the pancreas. They are called islets of Langerhans, because they are scattered like small islands and were discovered by pathologist Paul Langerhans. These islet ce Continue reading >>

How To Increase Insulin Production In Body Naturally ?

How To Increase Insulin Production In Body Naturally ?

If you are a type 1 / type-2 diabetic whose morning starts with where shall I inject insulin today and you are one amongst many type 1 /type-2 diabetics who struggles to manage insulin levels and are frustrated of the costs and the pain of injecting insulin everyday then you must know there are methods to produce insulin in your body naturally by making great food choices, exercise regularly and taking right vitamin supplements, Lets explore !! Even if you can reduce one shot of insulin it feels great ,,, Insulin is a hormone that is mainly responsible for glucose regulation. It is produced by the beta cells of pancreas, an organ that is located in the abdomen. Insulin allows the glucose uptake by body cells so that it can be utilized as fuel by the body tissues.Our body needs an optimum level of insulin to maintain the normal glucose balance. Either reduction or an increase in insulin will have deleterious effects on body. In cases where insulin starts falling, the body fails to consume sugar as body fuel. Hence, it is crucial to have a recommended insulin level for healthy body functions. A decrease in insulin results in type 1 diabetes. Eating Right Food can Boost Insulin Production Diet is the main factor that has a major effect on pancreas and insulin levels. Whatever we eat, directly affects the insulin secretion, production and health of pancreas. Pancreas is an important organ that performs both functions of insulin production and foods’ digestion. If someone keeps on taking ‘anti-pancreas’ foods, it will badly hurt the functioning of pancreas. In addition to insulin friendly foods, it is also wise to decrease the use of insulin decreasing diets. Following text explains the simple, natural and effective ways to boost insulin production by activating pancre Continue reading >>

Insulin Secretion And Sensitivity

Insulin Secretion And Sensitivity

Introduction In the 1930s Sir Harold Himsworth devised a primitive test of glucose disposal in response to insulin injection, and made the key observation that lean young people with or without diabetes respond similarly, whereas older overweight people with diabetes require much more insulin to achieve the same effect. From this he inferred that there were two types of diabetes: an insulin-sensitive form due to simple insulin deficiency, and an insulin-insensitive form in which the tissues were resistant to the actions of insulin.[1] In recent decades, observations in high-risk relatives have shown that clinical onset of type 1 diabetes is preceded by progressive glucose intolerance, loss of the FPIR, and loss of pulsatile insulin secretion. Progression to diabetes is more rapid in those who are less sensitive to insulin. Insulin secretion There are sub-populations of beta cells within healthy islets, and these have varying levels of responsiveness to glucose. Those with a low threshold for response are more active at normal glucose levels; others cut in at higher glucose levels.[2] Fully functional beta cells are metabolically very active, shedding and replacing 30–50% of their surface membrane daily in the course of insulin secretion. A lean healthy individual might secrete about 35 units of insulin per day, yet will have about 10 times this amount stored within his pancreas. By contrast, an obese insulin-resistant person might need to produce >100 units daily to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes results from progressive beta cell loss by apoptosis, thus increasing the work-load of the residue. A further consequence is loss of beta to beta cell communication and an altered cell-to-cell (paracrine) interaction between beta cells and glucagon-prod Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin, hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin is secreted when the level of blood glucose rises—as after a meal. When the level of blood glucose falls, secretion of insulin stops, and the liver releases glucose into the blood. Insulin was first reported in pancreatic extracts in 1921, having been identified by Canadian scientists Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best and by Romanian physiologist Nicolas C. Paulescu, who was working independently and called the substance “pancrein.” After Banting and Best isolated insulin, they began work to obtain a purified extract, which they accomplished with the help of Scottish physiologist J.J.R. Macleod and Canadian chemist James B. Collip. Banting and Macleod shared the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work. Insulin is a protein composed of two chains, an A chain (with 21 amino acids) and a B chain (with 30 amino acids), which are linked together by sulfur atoms. Insulin is derived from a 74-amino-acid prohormone molecule called proinsulin. Proinsulin is relatively inactive, and under normal conditions only a small amount of it is secreted. In the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells the proinsulin molecule is cleaved in two places, yielding the A and B chains of insulin and an intervening, biologically inactive C peptide. The A and B chains become linked together by two sulfur-sulfur (disulfide) bonds. Proinsulin, insulin, and C peptide are stored in granules in the beta cells, from which they are released into the capillaries of the islets in response to appropriate stimuli. These capillaries empty into the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestines, and pancrea Continue reading >>

You And Your Hormones

You And Your Hormones

Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is a large gland that lies alongside the stomach and the small bowel. It is about six inches (approximately 15 cm) long and is divided into the head, body and tail. What does the pancreas do? The pancreas carries out two important roles: It makes digestive juices, which consist of powerful enzymes. These are released into the small bowel after meals to break down and digest food. It makes hormones that control blood glucose levels. The pancreas produces hormones in its 'endocrine' cells. These cells are gathered in clusters known as islets of langerhans and monitor what is happening in the blood. They then can release hormones directly into the blood when necessary. In particular, they sense when sugar (glucose) levels in the blood rise, and as soon as this happens the cells produce hormones, particularly insulin. Insulin then helps the body to lower blood glucose levels and 'store' the sugar away in fat, muscle, liver and other body tissues where it can be used for energy when required. The pancreas is very close to the stomach. As soon as food is eaten, the pancreas releases digestive enzymes into the bowel to break food down. As the food is digested, and nutrient levels in the blood rise, the pancreas produces insulin to help the body store the glucose (energy) away. Between meals, the pancreas does not produce insulin and this allows the body to gradually release stores of energy back into the blood as they are needed. Glucose levels remain very stable in the blood at all times to ensure that the body has a steady supply of energy. This energy is needed for metabolism, exercise and, in particular, to fuel the parts of the brain that 'run' on glucose. This makes sure that the body doesn't starve between meals. What hormones does th Continue reading >>

Circadian Clock Controls Insulin And Blood Sugar In Pancreas

Circadian Clock Controls Insulin And Blood Sugar In Pancreas

Clock genes in pancreas produce proteins in rhythm with the planet’s daily rotation from light to dark Clocks operating in cells are fundamental to health When clocks are disrupted, metabolic disorders can develop CHICAGO --- A new Northwestern Medicine study has pinpointed thousands of genetic pathways an internal body clock takes to dictate how and when our pancreas must produce insulin and control blood sugar, findings that could eventually lead to new therapies for children and adults with diabetes. The body’s circadian clocks coordinate behaviors like eating and sleeping, as well as physiological activity like metabolism, with the Earth’s 24-hour light-dark cycle. There’s a master clock in the brain, as well as peripheral clocks located in individual organs. When genetics, environment or behavior disrupt the synchrony of these clocks, metabolic disorders can develop. In a previous publication in Nature, Northwestern Medicine investigators showed that a circadian clock in the pancreas is essential for regulating insulin secretion and balancing blood sugar levels in mice. The scientists demonstrated that knocking out clock genes led to obesity and type 2 diabetes, but they still had much to learn if they wanted to manipulate clock action to treat the conditions. “We knew that the pancreas didn’t work if we removed these clock genes, but we didn’t know how the genes were affecting the normal function of the pancreas,” said principal investigator Dr. Joe Bass, chief of endocrinology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a Northwestern Medicine physician. Clock genes are responsible for producing transcription factors, special proteins that help tell a cell how to function. In the new study, published Nov. 6 in Science, Bass’s labo Continue reading >>

Is The End Of Insulin Jabs In Sight? New Treatment Made From Diabetics' Skin Could 'reboot' The Pancreas

Is The End Of Insulin Jabs In Sight? New Treatment Made From Diabetics' Skin Could 'reboot' The Pancreas

Hundreds of thousands of diabetics could be freed from insulin injections thanks to a treatment made from their own skin. Scientists have found a way of turning skin cells into healthy pancreatic cells, which could replace those damaged in type 1 diabetes. The breakthrough could spell the end to the grind of insulin injections. A more natural treatment should also cut the odds of developing the disabling and deadly complications of the disease, which range from heart attacks, strokes and blindness to nerve and circulatory damage and amputations. In diabetes, the body struggles to produce or use insulin, a hormone needed to convert the sugar in food into energy - so new treatments are urgently needed. The U.S. research capitalises on a technique that allows scientists to use a cocktail of vitamins, genes and other compounds to turn one type of cell into another. The researchers, from the Gladstone Institutes and the University of California, San Francisco, found the right recipe to turn human skin cells into healthy, fully-functional versions of the pancreatic beta cells that are damaged in diabetes. Grafted into a mouse, these cells worked well enough to stop the animals from developing the condition, the journal Nature Communications reports. Although insulin-producing cells have been made before, the new technique is quicker and more practical. In future, a sliver of skin could be taken from a patient’s arm and used to make trillions of healthy pancreatic beta cells. A perfect match to the patient, these customised cells could be put back into their body to replace those damaged by their diabetes. Researcher Dr Matthias Hebrok said: ‘Our results demonstrate for the first time that human adult skin cells can be used to efficiently and rapidly generate functional pa Continue reading >>

Insulin Basics

Insulin Basics

Diabetics need insulin therapy because they can't make their own. Insulin therapy tries to mimic natural insulin secretion — what happens automatically in non-diabetics. The ultimate goal of insulin therapy is to mimic normal insulin levels. Unfortunately, current insulin replacement therapy can only approximate normal insulin levels. Insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes ranges from one injection a day to multiple injections and using an insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion – CSII). The more frequent the insulin injections, the better the approximation of natural or normal insulin levels. Discuss with your medical provider the insulin regimen that is best for you. On this page you will learn about: Normal or Non-diabetic blood sugar levels and insulin release from the pancreas Natural insulin (i.e. insulin released from your pancreas) keeps your blood sugar in a very narrow range. Overnight and between meals, the normal, non-diabetic blood sugar ranges between 60-100mg/dl and 140 mg/dl or less after meals and snacks. See the picture below of blood sugar levels throughout the day in someone who does not have diabetes. To keep the blood sugar controlled overnight, fasting and between meals, your body releases a low, background level of insulin. When you eat, there is a large burst of insulin. This surge of insulin is needed to dispose of all the carbohydrate or sugar that is getting absorbed from your meal. All of this happens automatically! More About Natural Insulin Release Insulin is continuously released from the pancreas into the blood stream. Although the insulin is quickly destroyed (5-6 minutes) the effect on cells may last 1-1/2 hours. When your body needs more insulin, the blood levels quickly rise, and, the converse – when you need less, Continue reading >>

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