diabetestalk.net

Daily Insulin Production In Body

5 Incredibly Powerful Eating Tips That Boost Insulin Sensitivity Naturally

5 Incredibly Powerful Eating Tips That Boost Insulin Sensitivity Naturally

Food provides information to the body. Protein influences everything from muscle growth, appetite control right through to hormone production. Fiber feeds the bacteria in our guts which play a role in the health of our immune system. Carbs influence blood glucose and exercise performance. Vitamin C protects against the damaging effects of high blood glucose and oxidative damage. Salt influences water retention. etc… We could go on forever. The nutritional components of food serve many different roles within the human body. This article aims to highlight 5 key nutritional aspects of food have been shown to improve the action (or sensitivity) of insulin, resulting in improved blood glucose management in people with diabetes. Before we go into details – it is important to understand a few key terms surrounding insulin and diabetes. Key Terms Insulin is a key hormone involved in the use and storage of fuels within the body. Insulin sensitivity refers to how effective the hormone insulin does its job in the body. This varies between individuals and is reduced in people with diabetes. Insulin resistance is when muscle, liver and fat cells do not use insulin properly. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine and is excreted out of the body, never fulfilling its role as the body’s main source of fuel. Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by different degrees of insulin resistance, where not enough insulin is produced, or the current insulin produced does not work effectively. Disorders in insulin production and signalling can have widespread and devastating effects on the body’s organs and tissues if left uncontrolled. Therefore, it is important that people with type 1 diabetes (who produce next to no insulin) have an unin Continue reading >>

Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease that affects many children and adolescents. The disease causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels are too high, the smallest blood vessels in the body eventually become damaged. This can lead to serious health problems further down the line, including heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and foot amputations. Professor Knut Dahl-Jørgensen and doctoral student Lars Krogvold are leading a research project, (DiViD), in which they want to ascertain among other things whether a virus in the pancreas might cause type 1 diabetes. They have previously discovered viruses in hormone-producing cells, the so-called islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas. Now their research has generated some new and surprising results. Recover the ability to produce insulin Lars Krogvold explains: “We found that the insulin-producing cells still have the ability to produce insulin when they are stimulated in the lab. But what’s new is our additional discovery that the cells increased their ability to produce insulin after a few days outside the body. Indeed, some became roughly as good at making insulin as cells from people without diabetes," he says. Some of the hormone-producing cells in the pancreas, the beta cells, produce insulin when they are stimulated by sugar. "Previous work has shown that you do not immediately lose your ability to produce insulin when you are first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes,” he says. Can improve patients’ daily lives “Our findings might mean that insulin production can be partially restored if we can find a way of stopping the disease process. The potential for insulin production is greater than previously thought," says Krogvold. "Th Continue reading >>

Insulin Basics

Insulin Basics

Diabetics need insulin therapy because they can't make their own. Insulin therapy tries to mimic natural insulin secretion — what happens automatically in non-diabetics. The ultimate goal of insulin therapy is to mimic normal insulin levels. Unfortunately, current insulin replacement therapy can only approximate normal insulin levels. Insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes ranges from one injection a day to multiple injections and using an insulin pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion – CSII). The more frequent the insulin injections, the better the approximation of natural or normal insulin levels. Discuss with your medical provider the insulin regimen that is best for you. On this page you will learn about: Normal or Non-diabetic blood sugar levels and insulin release from the pancreas Natural insulin (i.e. insulin released from your pancreas) keeps your blood sugar in a very narrow range. Overnight and between meals, the normal, non-diabetic blood sugar ranges between 60-100mg/dl and 140 mg/dl or less after meals and snacks. See the picture below of blood sugar levels throughout the day in someone who does not have diabetes. To keep the blood sugar controlled overnight, fasting and between meals, your body releases a low, background level of insulin. When you eat, there is a large burst of insulin. This surge of insulin is needed to dispose of all the carbohydrate or sugar that is getting absorbed from your meal. All of this happens automatically! More About Natural Insulin Release Insulin is continuously released from the pancreas into the blood stream. Although the insulin is quickly destroyed (5-6 minutes) the effect on cells may last 1-1/2 hours. When your body needs more insulin, the blood levels quickly rise, and, the converse – when you need less, Continue reading >>

How Much Insulin Do You Need?

How Much Insulin Do You Need?

Getty ImagesIf you have type 2 diabetes and your doctor thinks it might be a good time to start insulin therapy, there are two important factors to consider: How much insulin do you need to take? When do you need to take it? And both are very personal. "You can't paint everyone with type 2 diabetes with the same brush," says Mark Feinglos, MD, division chief of endocrinology, metabolism, and nutrition at the Duke University School of Medicine, in Durham, N.C. "You need to tailor the regimen to an individual's needs." A person with type 2 diabetes might start off on half a unit of insulin per kilogram of body weight per day, especially if there is not much known about the nature of his or her diabetes. Still, it is not unusual to need more like 1 unit, says Dr. Feinglos. (One unit per kilogram would be 68 units per day for someone who weighs 150 pounds, which is about 68 kilograms.) Testing Each DayI test morning, evening, and before meals Watch videoMore about blood sugar monitoring A lot depends on your specific health situation. People with type 2 diabetes suffer from insulin resistance, a situation in which the body loses its ability to use the hormone properly. Early in the course of the disease, the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas respond to insulin resistance by churning out even more of the hormone. Over time, though, insulin production declines. Taking insulin can help you overcome the body's insulin resistance, though many factors can affect your dosage. If your body is still sensitive to insulin but the pancreas is no longer making much insulin, for example, Dr. Feinglos says that you would require less insulin than someone who is really resistant to insulin. "But the most important issue is not necessarily how much you need to take," he adds. "Rather, Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Discovered in 1922 by Frederick Banting and Charles Best, insulin is the hormone in our body that allows glucose (sugar) to get into the cells of our body that need glucose for energy. Produced in the pancreas, insulin is the number one ingredient we need in our life to manage healthy blood sugar levels and a healthy A1C. Every living mammal needs insulin to survive. Humans, cats, dogs, pigs, cows, etc. People with pre-diabetes, type 1.5 (LADA) or type 2 diabetes do not make enough insulin, or their bodies are not able to use the insulin its make properly to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance is commonly an aspect of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes do not make any insulin because the part of the pancreas that is responsible for producing insulin has been attacked by their immune-system. When you eat a meal of carbohydrates, those carbohydrates are digested and broken down into glucose (sugar) in your blood. Insulin is produced by your pancreas, or given with a syringe, pen, pod, or pump, and that insulin allows that glucose to: enter a cell in the body and be used instantly for energy be converted into glycogen and stored in the muscles or liver be stored as body fat because the body doesn’t need it instantly for energy, and the glycogen storages are full Without enough insulin present in the body, you will experience “high blood sugars,” also known as “hyperglycemia.” For a person who has not yet been diagnosed with diabetes, a high blood sugar is the number one sign, and can be measured easily at the doctor’s office with a small blood test. Too much insulin in the body can lead to “low blood sugars,” also known as “hypoglycemia.” Low blood sugars should be treated quickly with a form of carbohydrat Continue reading >>

Stem Cell Breakthrough Could Put An End To Daily Insulin Injections For Diabetics

Stem Cell Breakthrough Could Put An End To Daily Insulin Injections For Diabetics

People with type 1 diabetes have to inject insulin daily, and it often results in pain, redness, swelling, and itching at the injection site. But this could soon be a thing of the past, thanks to a new breakthrough that takes us one step closer to a functional cure for type 1 diabetes. Researchers at MIT and Harvard have used insulin-producing cells to restore insulin function in mice for an extended period. Back in 2014, the same group used stem cells to create insulin-producing beta cells in large quantities. Now, they’ve taken those mass-produced cells and transplanted them into mice, effectively switching off the disease for six months, without provoking an immune response. The details can now be found in the science journal Nature. People with type 1 diabetes have a pancreas that’s unable to produce insulin, a critical hormone that helps the body control glucose levels in the blood. Without insulin, this sugar builds up in the bloodstream instead of being channeled for energy. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes isn’t known, but scientists think it has something to do with the body’s immune system and the way it attacks cells that make insulin. (Type 1 diabetes is not caused by eating too much sugar.) To create an effective therapy that doesn’t rely on a steady stream of insulin injections, researchers at MIT, Harvard, Boston Children’s Hospital, and several other institutions, designed a material that encapsulated human pancreatic cells prior to transplant. Embryonic stem cells were used to generate the human insulin-producing cells, which were virtually identical to normal cells. After transplantation in mice, the cells began to produce insulin in response to blood glucose levels. This effectively cured the mice of their type 1 diabetes for a period of Continue reading >>

A Brand New Type Of Insulin-producing Cell Has Been Discovered Hiding In The Pancreas

A Brand New Type Of Insulin-producing Cell Has Been Discovered Hiding In The Pancreas

Researchers have found a brand new type of insulin-producing cell hiding in plain sight within the pancreas, and they offer new hope for better understanding - and one day even treating - type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when a person's own immune system kills off most of their insulin-producing beta cells. And seeing as insulin is the hormone that regulates our blood sugar, type 1 diabetics are left reliant on injecting themselves with insulin regularly. While the condition can usually be managed effectively, in order to properly treat it, researchers would need to find a way to regenerate a patient's beta cells and prevent them from being attacked in future - something we're getting better at, but ultimately has eluded scientists so far. The discovery of these previously unnoticed cells in the pancreas - which the team are calling 'virgin beta cells' - could offer a new route for regrowing healthy, mature beta cells - and also provides insight into the basic mechanisms behind the disease. "We've seen phenomenal advances in the management of diabetes, but we cannot cure it," said lead researcher Mark Huising from the University of California, Davis. "If you want to cure the disease, you have to understand how it works in the normal situation." To get a better insight into exactly what happens in type 1 diabetes, the researchers studied both mice and human tissue. Huising and his team were looking at regions inside the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans, which in healthy humans and mice are the regions that contain the beta cells that detect blood sugar levels around the body and produce insulin in response. Researchers also know that the islets contain cells called alpha cells, which produce glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar. These alpha cells, Continue reading >>

Insulin Production Rate In Normal Man As An Estimate For Calibration Of Continuous Intravenous Insulin Infusion In Insulin-dependent Diabetic Patients.

Insulin Production Rate In Normal Man As An Estimate For Calibration Of Continuous Intravenous Insulin Infusion In Insulin-dependent Diabetic Patients.

Abstract This study examines the feasibility of deriving the 24-h insulin requirement of insulin-dependent diabetic patients who were devoid of any endogenous insulin release (IDD) from the insulin-production rate (IPR) of healthy man (basal, 17 mU/min; stimulated 1.35 U/12.5 g glucose). To this end, continuous intravenous insulin infusion (CIVII) was initiated at a precalculated rate of 41.2 +/- 4.6 (SD) U/24 h in IDD (N - 12). Blood glucose profiles were compared with those obtained during intermittent subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin therapy (IIT) and those of healthy controls (N = 7). Regular insulin (Hoechst CS) was infused with an adapted Mill Hill Infuser at a basal infusion rate of 1.6 U/h (6:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.), and of 0.8 U/h from 8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. Preprandial insulin (3.2-6.4 U) was added for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Daily individual food intake totaled 7688 +/- 784 kJ (1836 +/- 187 kcal)/24 h including 184 +/- 37 g of glucose. Proper control of blood glucose (BG) (mean BG 105 +/- 10 mg/dl; mean amplitude of glycemic excursions 54 +/- 18 mg/dl; and 1 h postprandial BG levels not exceeding 160 mg/dl) and of plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate was maintained by 41.4 +/- 4.4 U insulin/24 h. Although BG values only approximated the upper normal range as seen in healthy controls, they were well within the range reported by others during CIVII. Therefore, we conclude that in adult IDD completely devoid of endogenous insulin (1) the IPR of normal man can be used during CIVII as an estimate for the patient's minimal insulin requirement per 24 h, and (2) this approach allows for a blood glucose profile close to the upper range of a normal control group. Thus, deriving a patient's daily insulin dose from the insulin production rate of healt Continue reading >>

Increasing Insulin Sensitivity

Increasing Insulin Sensitivity

Insulin is a hormone that is normally released by the beta cells of the pancreas. When a person’s pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to sustain good health, insulin can be injected into the body with a needle, inhaled with an inhaler, or infused with a pump. One of the main functions of insulin is to lower blood glucose levels by enabling glucose to enter the cells of the body, where it is used for energy or stored for future use. A person who is insulin-sensitive needs only a relatively small amount of insulin to keep blood glucose levels in the normal range and to keep the body’s cells supplied with the glucose they need. A person who is insulin-resistant, on the other hand, needs a lot more insulin to get the same blood-glucose-lowering effects. Insulin resistance is associated with numerous health risks. For one thing, it causes hyperinsulinemia, or high circulating insulin levels, which may be directly damaging to blood vessels. Hyperinsulinemia is also associated with high blood pressure, heart disease and heart failure, obesity (particularly abdominal obesity), osteoporosis (thinning bones), and certain types of cancer, such as colon, breast, and prostate cancer. In contrast, having low circulating insulin levels is associated with greater longevity; most centenarians without diabetes have low circulating insulin levels. Insulin resistance is a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes, but it can occur in Type 1 diabetes as well. In fact, there is a growing number of people who are said to have “double diabetes” because, in addition to having Type 1 diabetes, they also have the insulin resistance characteristic of Type 2. The good news is that you can lower your level of insulin resistance — and raise your level of insulin sensitivity — by modifying your lifes Continue reading >>

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Facts About Diabetes And Insulin

Diabetes is a very common disease, which, if not treated, can be very dangerous. There are two types of diabetes. They were once called juvenile-onset diabetes and adult diabetes. However, today we know that all ages can get both types so they are simply called type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1, which occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases, is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced - or no insulin at all. Type 1 affects predominantly young people and usually makes its debut before the age of 30, and most frequently between the ages of 10 and 14. Type 2, which makes up the remaining 90 percent of diabetes cases, commonly affects patients during the second half of their lives. The cells of the body no longer react to insulin as they should. This is called insulin resistance. In the early 1920s, Frederick Banting, John Macleod, George Best and Bertram Collip isolated the hormone insulin and purified it so that it could be administered to humans. This was a major breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes type 1. Insulin Insulin is a hormone. Hormones are chemical substances that regulate the cells of the body and are produced by special glands. The hormone insulin is a main regulator of the glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. To be more specific, it's produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When we eat, glucose levels rise, and insulin is released into the bloodstream. The insulin acts like a key, opening up cells so they can take in the sugar and use it as an energy source. Sugar is one of the top energy sources for the body. The body gets it in many forms, but mainly as carbohydr Continue reading >>

Diets For People Who Make Too Much Insulin

Diets For People Who Make Too Much Insulin

Think of insulin as the key that unlocks the door to your cells. Your body uses insulin to allow glucose, or blood sugar, to gain entry to your cells, giving you energy. If your body has a tendency to make too much insulin, following a diet to prevent blood sugar dips can help to avoid harmful symptoms. Always talk to your doctor before changing your diet, however, because excess insulin production can be associated with an underlying medical condition. Video of the Day If you make too much insulin, your cells can use blood sugar too quickly, which can cause your blood sugar to drop to dangerous levels. This condition is known as hypoglycemia, and its symptoms include anxiety, sweating, rapid heartbeat and hunger. The rate at which the body releases insulin is different for every person. While some people may not release enough insulin, others may chronically release too much. If you frequently experience episodes of hypoglycemia, your doctor may recommend testing, such as an oral glucose tolerance test, which can determine how fast your body releases insulin and uses glucose. When your body makes too much insulin, your treatment plan should consist of solutions for hypoglycemic episodes in which your blood sugar dips too low, as well as long-term food choices aimed at keeping your blood sugar levels higher. Because hypoglycemia can be a serious condition, be prepared to eat a few pieces of sugar-containing candy, drink fruit juice or take a few glucose tablets when you have symptoms of decreasing insulin levels. These diet items can quickly increase your blood sugar levels, and you should keep them on hand to help you deal with blood sugar drops. Your diet plan should include eating small, frequent meals every three hours to keep your insulin levels from getting too hi Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

This article is about the insulin protein. For uses of insulin in treating diabetes, see insulin (medication). Not to be confused with Inulin. Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.[5] It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.[6] In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.[6] Glucose production and secretion by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood.[7] Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism, especially of reserve body fat. Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels. When the glucose level is high, the beta cells secrete insulin into the blood; when glucose levels are low, secretion of insulin is inhibited.[8] Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells,[8] secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high.[6][8] Glucagon, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.[6][8] The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the Continue reading >>

Fasting Physiology – Part Ii

Fasting Physiology – Part Ii

There are many misconceptions about fasting. It is useful to review the physiology of what happens to our body when we eat nothing. Physiology Glucose and fat are the body’s main sources of energy. If glucose is not available, then the body will adjust by using fat, without any detrimental health effects. This is simply a natural part of life. Periods of low food availability have always been a part of human history. Mechanisms have evolved to adapt to this fact of Paleolithic life. The transition from the fed state to the fasted state occurs in several stages. Feeding – During meals, insulin levels are raised. This allows uptake of glucose into tissues such as the muscle or brain to be used directly for energy. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver. The post-absorptive phase – 6-24 hours after beginning fasting. Insulin levels start to fall. Breakdown of glycogen releases glucose for energy. Glycogen stores last for roughly 24 hours. Gluconeogenesis – 24 hours to 2 days – The liver manufactures new glucose from amino acids in a process called “gluconeogenesis”. Literally, this is translated as “making new glucose”. In non-diabetic persons, glucose levels fall but stay within the normal range. Ketosis – 2-3 days after beginning fasting – The low levels of insulin reached during fasting stimulate lipolysis, the breakdown of fat for energy. The storage form of fat, known as triglycerides, is broken into the glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains. Glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis. Fatty acids may be used for directly for energy by many tissues in the body, but not the brain. Ketone bodies, capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, are produced from fatty acids for use by the brain. After four days of fasting, approximately 75 Continue reading >>

Handbook Of Diabetes, 4th Edition, Excerpt #4: Normal Physiology Of Insulin Secretion And Action

Handbook Of Diabetes, 4th Edition, Excerpt #4: Normal Physiology Of Insulin Secretion And Action

Insulin is synthesized in and secreted from the β-cells within the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The normal pancreas has about 1 million islets, which constitute about 2-3% of the gland’s mass. All of the islet cell types are derived embryologically from endodermal outgrowths of the fetal gut. The islets can be identified easily with various histological stains, such as hematoxylin and eosin (Figure 5.1), with which the cells react less intensely than does the surrounding exocrine tissue. The islets vary in size from a few dozen to several thousands of cells and are scattered irregularly throughout the exocrine pancreas…. The main cell types of the pancreatic islets are β-cells that produce insulin, α-cells that secrete glucagon, δ cells that produce somatostatin and PP cells that produce pancreatic polypeptide. The different cell types can be identified by immunostaining techniques, in situ hybridization for their hormone products (using nucleotide probes complementary to the target mRNA) and the electron microscope appearance of their secretory granules. The β-cells are the most numerous cell type and are located mainly in the core of the islet, while α and δ cells are located in the periphery (Figure 5.2). Islet cells interact with each other through direct contact and through their products (e.g. glucagon stimulates insulin secretion and somatostatin inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion) (Figure 5.3). The blood flow within the islets is organized centrifugally so that the different cell types are supplied in the sequence β → α → δ . Insulin also has an ‘autocrine’ (self-regulating) effect that alters the transcription of insulin and glucokinase genes in the β cell. The pancreatic islets are densely innervated with autonomic and pept Continue reading >>

Amylin: The Other Hormone You Don’t Produce In Diabetes

Amylin: The Other Hormone You Don’t Produce In Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, we’re constantly thinking and talking about insulin. However, in type 1 diabetes, just as we don’t produce any insulin, we also don’t produce any of a hormone called “amylin.” In type 2 diabetes, just as your body isn’t producing enough or properly making use of the insulin you do still produce, the same is true for your body’s production of the hormone amylin. What is Amylin? “At the base of the pancreas,” explains Gary Scheiner, CDE and author of Think Like a Pancreas, “is a cluster of cells called the ‘islets of Langerhans,’ and contained within those cells are the cells that constantly measure blood glucose levels and produce insulin as needed to keep blood sugar within a normal range. Along with insulin, beta cells secrete amylin, a hormone that, among other things, regulates the rate at which food digests.” In type 1 diabetes, of course, those beta cells are attacked and destroyed by the immune system, therefore they produce zero insulin or amylin. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t produce enough or doesn’t properly make use of the insulin and amylin produced by your beta cells. Amylin’s primary purpose in the human body is to prevent blood sugar levels from spiking too high after a meal. Amylin literally slows down the rate at which your stomach starts emptying digested food into the small intestine, where the glucose from the food you eat, as Scheiner explains, is then absorbed into the bloodstream. Amylin also decreases appetite after a meal, and, Scheiner explains, “blunts the secretion of glucagon by the pancreas” that is produced after a meal. (Yup, even in type 1 diabetics, our pancreas produces glucagon after we eat! How totally unhelpful!) Do We Need It? You might be wondering Continue reading >>

More in insulin